Philip I Philadelphus

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Philip I Philadelphus
Coin with Philip's curly-haired likeness
Philip I's portrait on the obverse of a tetradrachm
King of Syria (Seleucid Empire)
Reign 94–83 or 75 BC
Predecessor Seleucus VI, Demetrius III, Antiochus X
Successor Antiochus XIII, Cleopatra Selene
Born Unknown
Died After 83 BC
Issue Philip II
Dynasty Seleucid
Father Antiochus VIII
Mother Tryphaena

Philip I Epiphanes Philadelphus (Greek: Φίλιππος Ἐπιφανής Φιλάδελφος; unknown – 83 or 75 BC) was one of the last Seleucid monarchs of Syria, reigning from 94 to either 83 or 75 BC. He was the son of Antiochus VIII and his wife, Tryphaena. After the murder of his brother Seleucus VI in 94 BC, Philip became king with his twin brother, Antiochus XI, and planned to avenge Seleucus. In 93 BC the twins took the Syrian capital Antioch from their cousin, Antiochus X. Antiochus XI became the senior king, and Philip retreated to a base in northern Syria. Antiochus X returned and killed Antiochus XI that year and Philip allied with his younger brother, Demetrius III, who was based in Damascus. Antiochus X was probably killed in 89 BC. Although Demetrius took the capital and turned on Philip, besieging him in Beroea (Aleppo), the latter prevailed and took Antioch; Damascus was taken by another brother of his, Antiochus XII.

Philip tried unsuccessfully to take Damascus for himself, after which he disappears from the historical record; there is no information about when (or how) he died. The Antiochenes, apparently refusing to accept Philip's minor son, Philip II, as his successor, invited Tigranes II of Armenia to take the city. While the invasion of Trigranes is traditionally dated to 83 BC, and most scholars agree on this year for Philip I's death, the conflict may have taken place in 74 BC. Contemporary clues indicate that Philip I might have died in 75 BC, giving the widow of Antiochus X, Cleopatra Selene, and her son Antiochus XIII, a year of claiming the throne until the arrival of Tigranes II. Philip initiated monetary reforms, and his coins remained in circulation until the Romans conquered Syria in 64 BC; Roman authorities in Syria continued to issue coins modeled on Philip's coins (including his portrait) until 13 BC. Some dates in the article are given according to the Seleucid era numbering, which is indicated when two years have a slash separating them.[note 1]

Background, name and early life[edit]

The Seleucid dynasty which ruled Syria following the death of Alexander the Great was plagued by dynastic feuds during the 2nd century BC,[2] exacerbated by Ptolemaic and Roman interference.[3] Dynastic marriage was used to maintain a degree of peace between Ptolemaic Egypt and Syria;[4] Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Thea became the consort of three successive Syrian kings in 150, 145 and 138 BC.[5] Syria gradually disintegrated due to constant civil wars,[6] as the Seleucid kings and their heirs fought for power, tearing the country apart. This lasted until about 123 BC, when Antiochus VIII provided a degree of stability which lasted for a decade until his brother Antiochus IX declared himself king.[7]

With his Ptolemaic wife, Tryphaena, Antiochus VIII fathered five sons:[8] Seleucus VI, the eldest;[9] Antiochus XI and Philip, who were apparently twins;[note 2][11] their younger brother, Demetrius III;[12] and the youngest, Antiochus XII.[13] The name Philip (Greek Phílippos) means "lover of horses".[14] Seleucid kings were mostly named Seleucus and Antiochus; "Philip" was used by the Antigonid dynasty as a royal name, and its use by the Seleucids (who were descended from the Antigonids through queen Stratonice) probably signified that they were heirs of the latter.[15] The war with Antiochus IX claimed Tryphaena's life;[16] Antiochus VIII remarried and took his late wife's sister, Cleopatra Selene, as his new consort before he was killed in 96 BC.[17] Antiochus IX then took Antioch and married his brother's widow, Cleopatra Selene.[17] The sons of Antiochus VIII did not submit to their uncle. Demetrius III seized and ruled Damascus,[9] while Seleucus VI killed Antiochus IX in 95 BC and took Antioch.[18] Seleucus VI was later defeated by Antiochus X, the son of Antiochus IX, who married his stepmother Cleopatra Selene.[19] Seleucus VI escaped to Mopsuestia, where he was killed by rebels in 94 BC.[20]

Reign[edit]

See caption
Jugate coin of Antiochus XI and Philip I

In 94 BC, shortly after Seleucus' death, Philip and Antiochus XI minted jugate coins with their portraits on the obverse;[11] Antiochus was portrayed in front of his brother, indicating that he was the senior king.[note 3][21] Deriving their legitimacy from Antiochus VIII, the brothers were depicted on the coins with exaggerated aquiline noses similar to their father.[22] The brothers intended to avenge Seleucus VI;[note 4][11] according to the 4th-century writer Eusebius, they sacked Mopsuestia and destroyed it.[note 5][10] At the beginning of 93 BC, they advanced on Antioch and drove Antiochus X from the city.[11] Philip did not live in the Syrian metropolis and remained at a base in northern Syria, leaving Antiochus XI as master of the capital.[note 6][25] By autumn 93 BC, Antiochus X regrouped and defeated Antiochus XI (who drowned in the Orontes).[11] The 1st-century historian Josephus mentioned only Antiochus XI in the battle, but Eusebius wrote that Philip was also present. Historian Alfred Bellinger believed that Philip's troops participated, but that he remained behind at his base (since only Antiochus XI was killed).[21] Following the defeat, Philip is thought to have retreated to his capital[26] (probably the base from which he and his brother operated when they first prepared to avenge Seleucus VI).[27] Bellinger suggested that the base was a coastal city north of Antioch,[26] but Arthur Houghton thought it was Beroea.[28]

Map of Syria around 87 BC
Philip I's realm c. 87 BC

Demetrius III may have marched north to support Antiochus XI in the battle of 93 BC,[29] and he supported Philip in the struggle against Antiochus X.[12][30] The latter disappears from the record after 92 BC,[note 7][30] but could have remained in power until 89/88 BC.[31] After the death of Antiochus X,[note 8] Demetrius rushed to the capital and occupied it;[33] this led Philip to break his alliance with his brother.[12] With most of Syria in the hands of Demetrius, Philip retreated to his base.[note 9][12] In 88 BC, Demetrius marched on Beroea for the final battle with Philip.[12] To raise the siege, Straton, the ruler of Beroea and Philip's ally called on Aziz, an Arab phylarch (tribal leader), and the Parthian governor Mithridates Sinaces for help. The allies defeated Demetrius, who was sent into captivity in Parthia. Any captive who was a citizen of Antioch was released without a ransom, a gesture which must have eased Philip's occupation of Antioch.[35]

Shortly after the battle, in late 88 BC or early 87 BC, Philip entered the Syrian capital,[note 10][12] and had Cilicia under his authority.[37] He was faced with the need to replenish the empty treasury to rebuild a country destroyed after years of civil war, and in case a new pretender to the throne arose.[38] Those factors, combined with the low estimates of annual coin dies used by Philip's immediate predecessors in Antioch—Antiochus X (his second reign) and Demetrius III—compared with the general die estimates of late Seleucid kings, led numismatist Oliver D. Hoover to propose that Philip simply re-coined his predecessors' coins and skewed their dies.[39] This resulted in currency bearing Philip I's image, reduced in weight from the standard 1,600 g (56 oz) to 1,565 g (55.2 oz). This yielded a profit of half an obol on each older coin which was re-struck.[40] Philip may have adopted the Seleucid era dating, which began when Antiochus VIII returned from exile in Aspendos in 111/110 BC.[41]

Philip's position on the throne was insecure: Cleopatra Selene hid in Syria with Antiochus XIII, her son by Antiochus X, waiting for an opportunity to regain the throne, while Antiochus XII replaced Demetrius III in Damascus, but there is no evidence that he sought to compete with his brother for Antioch.[39] According to Josephus, Philip took advantage of Antiochus XII's absence in a campaign against Nabataea to seize Damascus.[29] The governor of the city—Milesius, who opened the gates for the king—was not given a suitable reward by Philip, leading him to wait until Philip left the city; he then closed the gates, locking the king out until Antiochus XII returned.[42] In the Seleucid dynasty, currency struck during campaigns against a rival (or usurper) showed the king with a beard.[43] Antiochus XII was shown beardless for the first two years of his reign; in 85/84 BC he appeared with a beard, possibly related to Philip's attack on Damascus. Since Antiochus did not march north against Philip, the hypothesis about a connection between Antiochus' beard and Philip's attempt to take Damascus weakens;[44] no coins of Philip were struck in Damascus, indicating that his occupation of the city was brief.[29] After the attack on Damascus Philip disappeared from ancient literature,[45] but the silence might be an indication of a peaceful reign (perhaps facilitated by the alliance with Parthia). This would explain the massive amount of silver coinage produced by Philip found as far as Dura-Europos, which was under Parthian rule.[46]

Succession[edit]

Traditionally, Philip I is considered by most scholars to have been succeeded by Tigranes II of Armenia, who was invited by the people of Antioch despite the existence of Philip I's probably-minor heir (also named Philip).[47] Without proof, 83 BC is commonly accepted as Philip I's year of death by most scholars, who follow the account of the 2nd-century historian Appian, who assigned a fourteen-year reign to Tigranes which ended in 69 BC.[45] Appian's account is flawed, and contradicts contemporary accounts, notably Cicero, who wrote in 75 BC that Cleopatra Selene sent Antiochus XIII to Rome to appeal for his right to the Egyptian throne; he did not have to appeal for his rights to Syria, which he inherited from his ancestors.[48] The statement of Cicero indicates that in 75 BC, Tigranes was still not in control of Syria; if he were, Antiochus XIII would have asked the Roman Senate for support (since Tigranes was the son-in-law of Rome's enemy, Mithridates VI of Pontus).[48]

The argument for a later Armenian invasion is corroborated by Josephus, who wrote that the Jews heard about the Armenian invasion and Tigranes' plans to attack Judea only during the reign of the Hasmonean queen Salome Alexandra (which began in 76 BC); it would be odd if Tigranes took control of Syria in 83 BC and the Jews learned about it only after 76 BC.[45] Another point of argument is the massive quantity of coinage left by Philip, which could not have been produced if his reign was short and ended in 83 BC.[49] In light of this, Hoover proposed 75 BC (or slightly earlier) as Philip's last year; this would be in line with Cicero's statement about Antiochus XIII, since Philip could not have been alive when Antiochus went to Rome without having to assert his right to Syria. Hoover suggested the year 74 BC as the date of Tigranes II's invasion, giving Cleopatra Selene and her son time to claim the whole country.[note 11][51] Philip I could have been buried in the Nikatoreion Mausoleum, Seleucia Pieria.[note 12][52]

Legacy[edit]

See caption
Roman coin bearing the image of Philip I

On his coins, Philip used the epithets Philadelphus (sibling-loving) and Epiphanes (the glorious, or illustrious).[53] Philip's coins were still in circulation when the Romans annexed Syria in 64 BC.[54] The first Roman coins struck in Syria were copies of Philip's coins, and bore his image with the monogram of the Roman governor.[55] The first issue was in 57 BC under governor Aulus Gabinius,[56] and the last series of Philip's posthumous coins was minted in 13 BC.[55] The Romans may have considered Philip the last legitimate Seleucid king, a theory held by Kevin Butcher and other scholars.[57] Hoover opted for a simpler answer; Philip's coins were the most numerous and earlier Seleucid coin models were destroyed, making it economically sensible for the Romans to continue Philip's model.[58] Anomalous coins of Philip, differing from his standard lifetime models but similar to the later Roman Philip coins, indicate that they might have been minted by the autonomous city of Antioch between 64 and 58 BC before governor Aulus Gabinius issued his Philipean coins[59] (making it viable for the Romans to continue minting coins already being struck).[60]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Seleucid year began in the late autumn of a Gregorian year, overlapping two Gregorian years.[1]
  2. ^ Philip's parents were identified as Antiochus VIII and Tryphaena by Eusebius, who noted that Antiochus XI and Philip were twins (didymi).[10]
  3. ^ According to Josephus, only Antiochus XI became king and Philip succeeded him; numismatic evidence opposes this statement, since the earliest coins show Philip and Antiochus as joint rulers.[21]
  4. ^ The earliest coins show the monarchs bearded, a possible sign of mourning or vengeance.[23]
  5. ^ Eusebius' statement is doubtful; in 86 BC Rome bestowed inviolability upon the cult of Isis and Sarapis in Mopsuestia (evidenced by a dated inscription found in the city), weakening the credibility of Eusebius' account.[24]
  6. ^ Eusebius does not note Antiochus XI' reign in Antioch, and the occupation of the capital by the brothers in 93 BC is known only through coins Antiochus XI struck in it.[21]
  7. ^ Eusebius' account has Philip defeating Antiochus X and replacing him in the capital in 93/92 BC; Eusebius does not note the reign of Antiochus XI or mention Demetrius III.[10] The account contradicts archaeological evidence, represented in a market weight belonging to Antiochus X from 92 BC, and contains factual mistakes.[30]
  8. ^ Josephus wrote, "Both these brothers did Antiochus vehemently oppose, but presently died; for when he was come as an auxiliary to Laodice, queen of the Gileadites, when she was making war against the Parthians, and he was fighting courageously, he fell, while Demetrius and Philip governed Syria".[32]
  9. ^ Coins of Demetrius were struck in Tarsus, Seleucia Pieria, Antioch and Damascus.[34]
  10. ^ Edgar Rogers believed that Philip ruled Antioch immediately after Antiochus XI,[36] but suggestions that Philip controlled Antioch before the demise of Antiochus X and Demetrius III can be dismissed; they contradict the numismatic evidence, and no source claimed that Demetrius III had to drive Philip out of Antioch.[31]
  11. ^ Cleopatra Selene and her son never controlled Antioch, but possessed parts of Syria.[50]
  12. ^ King Antiochus I buried the cremated remains of his father, the dynasty's founder, Seleucus I, in a mausoleum named the Nikatoreion in Seleucia Pieria; no literary or archaeological evidence exist for the burial locations of other Seleucid kings, but it is possible that they were buried in the Nikatoreion.[52]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Biers 1992, p. 13.
  2. ^ Marciak 2017, p. 8.
  3. ^ Goodman 2005, p. 37.
  4. ^ Tinsley 2006, p. 179.
  5. ^ Whitehorne 1994, pp. 149, 151, 154.
  6. ^ Kelly 2016, p. 82.
  7. ^ Kosmin 2014, p. 23.
  8. ^ Chrubasik 2016, p. XXIV.
  9. ^ a b Houghton & Müseler 1990, p. 61.
  10. ^ a b c Eusebius 1875, p. 261.
  11. ^ a b c d e Houghton 1987, p. 79.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Houghton 1987, p. 81.
  13. ^ Lorber & Iossif 2009, p. 103.
  14. ^ Bazarnik 2010, p. 123.
  15. ^ Bevan 2014, p. 56.
  16. ^ Dumitru 2016, p. 256.
  17. ^ a b Dumitru 2016, p. 260.
  18. ^ Hoover 2007, p. 285.
  19. ^ Dumitru 2016, p. 263.
  20. ^ Houghton 1998, p. 66.
  21. ^ a b c d Bellinger 1949, p. 74.
  22. ^ Wright 2011, p. 46.
  23. ^ Hoover, Houghton & Veselý 2008, p. 207.
  24. ^ Rigsby 1996, p. 466.
  25. ^ Bellinger 1949, pp. 74, 93.
  26. ^ a b Bellinger 1949, p. 93.
  27. ^ Bellinger 1949, p. 92.
  28. ^ Houghton 1987, p. 82.
  29. ^ a b c Hoover, Houghton & Veselý 2008, p. 214.
  30. ^ a b c Hoover 2007, p. 290.
  31. ^ a b Hoover 2007, p. 294.
  32. ^ Josephus 1833, p. 421.
  33. ^ Hoover 2007, p. 295.
  34. ^ Dąbrowa 2010, p. 177.
  35. ^ Downey 2015, pp. 134, 135.
  36. ^ Rogers 1919, p. 32.
  37. ^ Houghton 1998, p. 67.
  38. ^ Hoover 2011, p. 259.
  39. ^ a b Hoover 2011, pp. 259, 260.
  40. ^ Hoover 2011, p. 260.
  41. ^ Rogers 1919, p. 31.
  42. ^ Josephus 1833, p. 422.
  43. ^ Lorber & Iossif 2009, p. 112.
  44. ^ Lorber & Iossif 2009, p. 104.
  45. ^ a b c Hoover 2007, p. 296.
  46. ^ Bellinger 1949, p. 79.
  47. ^ Bellinger 1949, pp. 79, 80.
  48. ^ a b Hoover 2007, p. 297.
  49. ^ Hoover 2004, p. 31.
  50. ^ Bellinger 1949, p. 81.
  51. ^ Hoover 2007, pp. 297, 298.
  52. ^ a b Canepa 2010, p. 9.
  53. ^ Gillies 1820, p. 167.
  54. ^ Butcher & Ponting 2014, p. 541.
  55. ^ a b Butcher & Ponting 2014, p. 542.
  56. ^ Crawford 1985, p. 203.
  57. ^ Butcher 2003, p. 215.
  58. ^ Hoover 2011, p. 263.
  59. ^ Hoover 2004, p. 34.
  60. ^ Hoover 2004, p. 35.

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External links[edit]

Philip I Philadelphus
Born: Unknown Died: 83 or 75 BC
Preceded by
Seleucus VI
Demetrius III
Antiochus X
King of Syria
94–83 or 75 BC
with Demetrius III (94-87 BC)
Antiochus X (94–92 or 89/88 BC)
Antiochus XI (94–93 BC)
Antiochus XII (87–83 BC)
Succeeded by
Antiochus XIII
Cleopatra Selene