Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2017 there were 5,742 Dominican friars, including 4,302 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order Bruno Cadoré. A number of other names have been used to refer to its members.
In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi.
Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure. At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality.
They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation. The brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.
At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representatives of the Holy Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
In contrast, the Cathars led ascetic lifestyles. For these reasons, Diego suggested that the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic l
Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
The Papal Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls known as St. Paul's Outside the Walls, is one of Rome's four ancient, major basilicas, along with the basilicas of St. John in the Lateran, St. Peter's, St. Mary Major; the basilica is within Italian territory and not the territory of the Vatican City State, but the Holy See owns the Basilica, Italy is obligated to recognize its full ownership and to concede to it "the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States". James Michael Harvey was named Archpriest of the basilica in 2012; the basilica was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I over the burial place of St. Paul, where it was said that, after the Apostle's execution, his followers erected a memorial, called a cella memoriae; this first basilica was consecrated by Pope Sylvester in 324. In 386, Emperor Theodosius I began erecting a much larger and more beautiful basilica with a nave and four aisles with a transept, it was consecrated around 402 by Pope Innocent I.
The work, including the mosaics, was not completed until Leo I's pontificate. In the 5th century it was larger than the Old St. Peter's Basilica; the Christian poet Prudentius, who saw it at the time of emperor Honorius, describes the splendours of the monument in a few expressive lines. Under Leo I, extensive repair work was carried out following the collapse of the roof on account of fire or lightening. In particular, the transept was presbytery installed; this was the first time that an altar was placed over the tomb of St. Paul, which remained untouched, but underground given Leo's newly elevated floor levels. Leo was responsible for fixing the triumphal arch and for restoring a fountain in the courtyard. Under Pope St. Gregory the Great the main altar and presbytery were extensively modified; the pavement in the transept was raised and a new altar was placed above the earlier altar erected by Leo I. The position was directly over St. Paul's sarcophagus. In that period there were two monasteries near the basilica: St. Aristus's for men and St. Stefano's for women.
Masses were celebrated by a special body of clerics instituted by Pope Simplicius. Over time the monasteries and the basilica's clergy declined; as it lay outside the Aurelian Walls, the basilica was damaged in the 9th century during a Saracen raid. Pope John VIII fortified the basilica, the monastery, the dwellings of the peasantry, forming the town of Johannispolis which existed until 1348, when an earthquake destroyed it. In 937, when Saint Odo of Cluny came to Rome, Alberic II of Spoleto, Patrician of Rome, entrusted the monastery and basilica to his congregation and Odo placed Balduino of Monte Cassino in charge. Pope Gregory VII was abbot of the monastery and in his time Pantaleone, a rich merchant of Amalfi who lived in Constantinople, presented the bronze doors of the basilica maior, which were executed by Constantinopolitan artists. Pope Martin V entrusted it to the monks of the Congregation of Monte Cassino, it was made an abbey nullius. The abbot's jurisdiction extended over the districts of Civitella San Paolo and Nazzano, all of which formed parishes.
The graceful cloister of the monastery was erected between 1220 and 1241. From 1215 until 1964 it was the seat of the Latin Patriarch of Alexandria. On 15 July 1823, a workman repairing the lead of the roof started a fire that led to the near total destruction of this basilica, alone among all the churches of Rome, had preserved much of its original character for 1435 years. Pope Leo XII issued, it was re-opened in 1840, reconsecrated in 1855 in the presence of Pope Pius IX and fifty cardinals. The basilica was reconstructed identically to what it had been before, utilizing all the elements which had survived the fire; the complete decoration and reconstruction, in charge of Luigi Poletti, took longer and many countries made their contributions. Muhammad Ali Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt sent pillars of alabaster, the Emperor of Russia the precious malachite and lapis lazuli of the tabernacle; the work on the principal façade, looking toward the Tiber, was completed by the Italian Government, which declared the church a national monument.
On 23 April 1891 the explosion of the gunpowder magazine at Forte Portuense destroyed the stained glass windows. On 31 May 2005 Pope Benedict XVI ordered the basilica to come under the control of an archpriest and he named Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo as its first archpriest; the covered portico that precedes the façade is a Neo-classicist addition of the 19th-century reconstruction. On the right is the Holy Door, opened only during the Jubilees; the new basilica has maintained the original structure with four side aisles. It is 131.66 metres long, 65 metres -wide, 29.70 metres -high, the second largest in Rome. The nave's 80 columns and its wood and stucco-decorated ceiling are from the 19th century. All that remains of the ancient basilica are the interior portion of the apse with the triumphal arch; the mosaics of the apse were damaged in the 1823 fire. The 5th-century mosaics of the triumphal arch are original: an inscription in the lower section attest they were done a
Pope Gregory XV
Pope Gregory XV, born Alessandro Ludovisi, was Pope from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623. Alessandro Ludovisi was born in Bologna in 1554 to Pompeo Ludovisi, the Count of Samoggia and of Camilla Bianchini, he was born as the third child. He was educated at the Roman College run by the Society of Jesus in Rome and he went to the University of Bologna to get degrees in canon and Roman law which he received on June 4, 1575, his early career was as a papal jurist in Rome, there is no evidence that he had been ordained to the priesthood. He returned to Rome in 1575 and he served as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura from 1593 to 1596 and was appointed as the Vicegerent of Rome in 1597, a position he maintained until 1598, he served as the Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota from 1599 to 1612. On 12 March 1612, Pope Paul V appointed him as the Archbishop of Bologna, for which he was ordained to the priesthood and he was consecrated a bishop on 1 May of that year in the church of San Andrea al Quirinale in Rome.
In August 1616, the pope sent him as Apostolic Nuncio to the Duchy of Savoy, to mediate between Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Philip III of Spain in their dispute concerning the Gonzaga Marquisate of Montferrat. On 19 September 1616, Pope Paul V elevated him to the rank of cardinal and appointed him as a Cardinal Priest with the titular church of Santa Maria in Traspontina. Ludovisi remained in his episcopal see in Bologna until he went to Rome after the death of Pope Paul V to take part in the conclave at which he was chosen as pope and he selected the pontifical name of "Gregory XV", he was crowned on 14 February 1621 by the protodeacon, Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto and assumed possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 14 May 1621. At the moment of his election, chiefly through the influence of Cardinal Borghese, at his advanced age and with his weak state of health he saw at once that he would need an energetic man, in whom he could place implicit confidence, to assist him in the government of the Church.
His nephew Ludovico Ludovisi, a young man of 25 years, seemed to him to be the right person and, at the risk of being charged with nepotism, he created him cardinal on the third day of his pontificate. On the same day, his youngest brother Orazio was appointed Captain General of the Church at the head of the papal army; the future revealed. The Catholic Encyclopedia allows that "Ludovico, it is true, advanced the interests of his family in every possible way, but he used his brilliant talents and his great influence for the welfare of the Church, was sincerely devoted to the pope". Gregory secured for the Ludovisi two dukedoms, one for his brother Orazio, made a Nobile Romano and Duke of Fiano Romano, 1621, the other, the Duchy of Zagarolo, purchased from the Colonna family by his nephew Ludovico Ludovisi in 1622. A second nephew, Niccolò, was made reigning Prince of Piombino and Lord of the Isola d'Elba in 1634, having married the heiress, 30 March 1632. Gregory XV interfered little in European politics, beyond assisting Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, the Catholic League against the Protestants—to the tune of a million gold ducats—as well as Sigismund III Vasa, King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, against the Ottoman Empire.
His Declaration against Magicians and Witches was the last papal ordinance against witchcraft. Former punishments were lessened, the death penalty was limited to those who were "proved to have entered into a compact with the devil, to have committed homicide with his assistance", he manifested a reforming spirit. As an example, his papal bull of 15 November 1621, Aeterni Patris Filius, regulated papal elections, which henceforth were to be by secret ballot. On 6 January 1622, he established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the missionary arm of the Holy See, his pontificate was marked by the canonizations of Teresa of Avila, Francis Xavier, Ignatius Loyola, Philip Neri and Isidore the Farmer. He beatified Peter of Alcantara, he was influential in bringing the Bolognese artist Guercino to Rome, a landmark in the development of the High Baroque style. He sat for his portrait busts, one of, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and by Alessandro Algardi, whose restrained bust in a tondo is in the Church of Santa Maria in Vallicella.
The pope created eleven cardinals in four consistories that saw him elevate his nephew Ludovico and his cousin Marcantonio Gozzadini as cardinals. On 12 March 1622, the pope canonized several saints: Francis Xavier, Ignatius of Loyola, Isidore the Laborer, Philip Neri and Teresa of Ávila. Gregory XV beatified three individuals during his pontificate: Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena, Albert the Great, Peter of Alcantara. Gregory XV was buried in the Church of Sant ` Ignazio, he was succeeded by Pope Urban VIII. The pope had been suffering from kidney stones for some time and was bedridden from 16 June to 1 July 1623, having been suffering from diarrhea and a stomach disorder that caused him great discomfort, his condition worsened on 4 July, as a fever weakened him, leading to the pope receiving the Viaticum on 5 July and the Extreme Unction on 6 July, before succumbing to his illness two days later. Cardinals created by Gregory XV Ludovisi "Alessandro Ludovisi". Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. "Alessandro Ludovisi, no.
F3". Genealogy of the Ludovisi. Attribution: T
The Papal States the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche and Romagna, portions of Emilia; these holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy. By 1861, much of the Papal States' territory had been conquered by the Kingdom of Italy. Only Lazio, including Rome, remained under the Pope's temporal control. In 1870, the Pope lost Lazio and Rome and had no physical territory at all, except the Basilica of St Peter and the papal residence and related buildings around the Vatican quarter of Rome, which the new Italian state did not occupy militarily.
In 1929 the head of the Italian government, at the time the Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, ended the crisis between unified Italy and the Holy See by negotiating the Lateran Treaty, signed by the two parties. This recognized the sovereignty of the Holy See over a newly created international territorial entity, the Vatican City State, limited to a token territory; the Papal States were known as the Papal State. The territories were referred to variously as the State of the Church, the Pontifical States, the Ecclesiastical States, or the Roman States. To some extent the name used varied with the preferences and habits of the European languages in which it was expressed. For its first 300 years the Catholic Church was persecuted and unrecognized, unable to hold or transfer property. Early congregations met in rooms set aside for that purpose in the homes of well-to-do individuals, a number of early churches, known as titular churches and located on the outskirts of Ancient Rome, were held as property by individuals, rather than by the Church itself.
Nonetheless, the properties held nominally or by individual members of the Roman churches would be considered as a common patrimony handed over successively to the legitimate "heir" of that property its senior deacons, who were, in turn, assistants to the local bishop. This common patrimony attached to the churches at Rome, thus under its ruling bishop, became quite considerable, including as it did not only houses etc. in Rome or nearby but landed estates, such as latifundias, whole or in part, across Italy and beyond. This system began to change during the reign of the emperor Constantine I, who made Christianity legal within the Roman Empire, restoring to it any properties, confiscated; the Lateran Palace was the first significant new donation to the Church, most a gift from Constantine himself. Other donations followed in mainland Italy but in the provinces of the Roman Empire, but the Church held all of these lands as a private landowner, not as a sovereign entity. When in the 5th century the Italian peninsula passed under the control of Odoacer and the Ostrogoths, the Church organization in Italy, with the pope at its head, submitted of necessity to their sovereign authority while asserting its spiritual primacy over the whole Church.
The seeds of the Papal States as a sovereign political entity were planted in the 6th century. Beginning in 535, the Byzantine Empire, under emperor Justinian I, launched a reconquest of Italy that took decades and devastated Italy's political and economic structures. Just as these wars wound down, the Lombards entered the peninsula from the north and conquered much of the countryside. By the 7th century, Byzantine authority was limited to a diagonal band running from Ravenna, where the Emperor's representative, or Exarch, was located, to Rome and south to Naples, plus coastal enclaves. With effective Byzantine power weighted at the northeast end of this territory, the pope, as the largest landowner and most prestigious figure in Italy, began by default to take on much of the ruling authority that Byzantines were unable to project to the area around the city of Rome. While the popes remained Byzantine subjects, in practice the Duchy of Rome, an area equivalent to modern-day Latium, became an independent state ruled by the pope.
The Church's independence, combined with popular support for the papacy in Italy, enabled various popes to defy the will of the Byzantine emperor. The pope and the exarch still worked together to control the rising power of the Lombards in Italy; as Byzantine power weakened, the papacy took an ever-larger role in defending Rome from the Lombards through diplomacy. In practice, the papal efforts served to focus Lombard aggrandizement on Ravenna. A climactic moment in the founding of the Papal States was the agreement over boundaries embodied in the Lombard king Liutprand's Donation of Sutri to Pope Gregory II; when the Exarchate of
Catbalogan the City of Catbalogan, or referred to as Catbalogan City, is the capital of the province of Samar, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 103,879 people, it is Samar's main commercial, educational and political center. The city is the gateway to the region's three Samar provinces. Catbalogan's patron saint is St. Bartholomew the Apostle whose feast day is August 24; the Philippine Army's 8th Infantry Division is based at Camp General Vicente Lukban, Barangay Maulong, Catbalogan City. The camp is named in honor of Gen. Vicente Lukbán, a Filipino officer in Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's staff during the Philippine Revolution and the politico-military chief of Samar and Leyte during the Philippine-American War. Catbalogan City was founded in October 1596 by Jesuit priests and became the capital of the entire island of Samar. Friar Francisco de Otazo, S. J. who arrived in the Philippines in 1596, founded the Catbalogan Mission and was thus the first missionary to bring the Catholic faith to the people of Catbalogan.
In 1627, Catbalogan was raised to the status of residencia and among its dependencies were Paranas where in 1629 Father Pedro Estrada evangelized the area and Calbiga where he took whiterocks or grey limestone to use as building blocks for its church. The church has some arc-like stone roof, pasted together to dry on each block, giving an arching force to the side. On October 17, 1768, Catbalogan was ceded to the Franciscans; the first Franciscan parish priest was Fray Jose Fayo, OFM. During the early days of Spanish colonization of the Philippines in the 16th century, Samar was under the jurisdiction of Cebu but was declared a separate province. In 1735, Samar and Leyte were united in Leyte, as the capital; the union, did not prove satisfactory. In 1768, Catbalogan City became the provincial capital when Samar separated from Leyte and became an independent province. On January 27, 1900, the Americans captured Catbalogan City during the Philippine-American War. On June 17, 1902, a provincial civil government was established on Samar Island by an act of the Philippine Commission with Julio Llorente of Cebu as the first governor of Samar.
On May 24, 1942, during World War II, Japanese forces landed in Barrio Pangdan and occupied the capital. On December 18, 1945, American and Filipino forces liberated Catbalogan City from the Japanese. In 1948, the barrios of Jiabong, Malino, San Fernando, Camoroboan, Magcabitas, Dogongan and Malobago were separated to form the municipality of Jiabong. On June 19, 1965, the Philippine Congress, along with the province's three congressmen, Eladio T. Balite, Fernando R. Veloso and Felipe J. Abrigo, approved Republic Act No. 4221 dividing Samar into three provinces, namely Western Samar, Eastern Samar and Northern Samar, respectively. Catbalogan City thus ceased to be the capital of the whole island-province after enjoying the prestige of being the premier town of Samar for 197 years since 1768. On June 21, 1969, under Republic Act No. 5650, Western Samar was renamed Samar with Catbalogan City remaining as the capital. The greatest calamities to occur in Catbalogan City were big fires; the April 1, 1957 conflagration, considered as the most destructive one, caused damage to properties in the amount of thirty million pesos.
The next was on May 19, 1969, where damage was estimated at twenty million pesos and the more than century-old Saint Bartholomew Roman Catholic Church was razed to the ground. Paradoxically, like the proverbial Phoenix, each time Catbalogan City suffered under the throes of these calamities, better buildings and infrastructures emerged from the ashes; as early as 1960, Catbalogan agitated to become a city. In 1969, Rep. Fernando P. Veloso sponsored House Bill No. 1867 creating Catbalogan into a city. The bill was being deliberated in the Philippine Senate, but the blaze of 1969 caused it to be shelved. Subsequent efforts were made by Catbalogan political leaders, including former Representative Catalino V. Figueroa, during his term, to make Catbalogan's cityhood dream a reality despite strong and rabid opposition by the League of Cities of the Philippines Catbalogan City's neighboring Calbayog under the administration of Mayor Mel Senen Sarmiento. On March 15, 2007, Catbalogan attained its cityhood.
Under the sponsorship of Senator Alfredo S. Lim and by virtue of Republic Act No. 9391, Catbalogan was converted into a component city known as the CITY of CATBALOGAN following a unanimous vote by the Philippine Senate. Senator Manuel Villar, Jr. Congressman Jose De Venecia, Jr. Oscar G. Yabes, Roberto P. Nazareno and Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo were among its signatories; the residents of Catbalogan overwhelmingly ratified this change through a Comelec plebiscite on June 16, 2007 with over 92% "Yes" votes for cityhood. However, Catbalogan temporarily lost its cityhood, along with 15 other cities, after the Supreme Court of the Philippines, in a close 6–5 vote, granted a petition filed by the League of Cities of the Philippines, declared the cityhood law which allowed the town to acquire its city status, unconstitutional. On December 10, 2008, Catbalogan and the other 15 cities affected filed a motion for reconsideration with the Supreme Court. More than a year on December 22, 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. He had a lasting influence on the development of church music, his work is considered as the culmination of Renaissance polyphony. Palestrina was born in the town of Palestrina, near Rome part of the Papal States. Documents suggest that he first visited Rome in 1537, when he is listed as a chorister at the Santa Maria Maggiore basilica, he studied with Firmin Lebel. He spent most of his career in the city. Palestrina came of age as a musician under the influence of the northern European style of polyphony, which owed its dominance in Italy to two influential Netherlandish composers, Guillaume Dufay and Josquin des Prez, who had spent significant portions of their careers there. Italy itself had yet to produce anyone of comparable skill in polyphony. From 1544 to 1551, Palestrina was the organist of the Cathedral of St. Agapito, the principal church of his native city.
In 1551 Pope Julius III appointed Palestrina maestro di cappella or musical director of the Cappella Giulia, the choir of the chapter of canons at St. Peter's Basilica. Palestrina dedicated to Julius III a book of Masses, it was the first book of Masses by a native composer, since in the Italian states of Palestrina's day, most composers of sacred music were from the Low Countries, Portugal, Italy, or Spain. In fact the book was modeled on one by Cristóbal de Morales: the woodcut in the front is an exact copy of the one from the book by the Spanish composer. During the next decade, Palestrina held positions similar to his Julian Chapel appointment at other chapels and churches in Rome, notably St. John Lateran, St Mary Major. In 1571 he remained at St Peter's for the rest of his life; the decade of the 1570s was difficult for him personally: he lost his brother, two of his sons, his wife in three separate outbreaks of the plague. He seems to have considered becoming a priest at this time, but instead he remarried, this time to a wealthy widow.
This gave him financial independence and he was able to compose prolifically until his death. He died in Rome of pleurisy in 1594; as was usual, Palestrina was buried on the same day he died, in a plain coffin with a lead plate on, inscribed Libera me Domine. A five-part psalm for three choirs was sung at the funeral. Palestrina's funeral was held at St. Peter's, he was buried beneath the floor of the basilica, his tomb was covered by new construction and attempts to locate the site have been unsuccessful. Palestrina left hundreds of compositions, including 105 masses, 68 offertories, at least 140 madrigals and more than 300 motets. In addition, there are at least 72 hymns, 35 magnificats, 11 litanies, four or five sets of lamentations; the Gloria melody from Palestrina's Magnificat Tertii Toni is used today in the resurrection hymn tune, Victory. His attitude toward madrigals was somewhat enigmatic: whereas in the preface to his collection of Canticum canticorum motets he renounced the setting of profane texts, only two years he was back in print with Book II of his secular madrigals.
He published just two collections of madrigals with profane texts, one in 1555 and another in 1586. The other two collections were spiritual madrigals, a genre beloved by the proponents of the Counter-Reformation. Palestrina's masses show, his Missa sine nomine seems to have been attractive to Johann Sebastian Bach, who studied and performed it while writing the Mass in B minor. Most of Palestrina's masses appeared in thirteen volumes printed between 1554 and 1601, the last seven published after his death. One of his most important works, the Missa Papae Marcelli, has been associated with erroneous information involving the Council of Trent. According to this tale, it was composed in order to persuade the Council of Trent that a draconian ban on the polyphonic treatment of text in sacred music was unnecessary. However, more recent scholarship shows that this mass was in fact composed before the cardinals convened to discuss the ban. Historical data indicates that the Council of Trent, as an official body, never banned any church music and failed to make any ruling or official statement on the subject.
These stories originated from the unofficial points-of-view of some Council attendees who discussed their ideas with those not privy to the Council's deliberations. Those opinions and rumors have, over centuries, been transmuted into fictional accounts, put into print, incorrectly taught as historical fact. While Palestrina's compositional motivations are not known, he may have been quite conscious of the need for intelligible text, his characteristic style remained consistent from the 1560s until the end of his life. Roche's hypothesis that Palestrina's dispassionate approach to expressive or emotive texts could have resulted from his having to produce many to order, or from a deliberate decis