Philipp Otto Runge was a Romantic German painter and draughtsman. Although he made a late start to his career and died young, he is considered among the best German Romantic painters. Runge was born as the ninth of eleven children in Wolgast, Western Pomerania under Swedish rule, in a family of shipbuilders with ties to the Prussian nobility of Sypniewski / von Runge family; as a sickly child he missed school and at an early age learned the art of scissor-cut silhouettes from his mother, practised by him throughout his life. In 1795 he began a commercial apprenticeship at his older brother Daniel's firm in Hamburg. In 1799 Daniel supported Runge financially to begin study of painting under Jens Juel at the Copenhagen Academy. In 1801 he moved to Dresden to continue his studies, where he met Caspar David Friedrich, Ludwig Tieck, his future wife Pauline Bassenge, he began extensive study of the writings of the 17th century mystic Jakob Boehme. In 1803, on a visit to Weimar, Runge unexpectedly met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and the two formed a friendship based on their common interests in color and art.
In 1804 he moved with his wife to Hamburg. Due to imminent war dangers they relocated in 1805 to his parental home in Wolgast where they remained until 1807. In 1805 Runge's correspondence with Goethe on the subject of his artistic work and color became more intensive. Returning to Hamburg in 1807, he and his brother Daniel formed a new company in which he remained active until the end of his life. In the same year he developed the concept of the color sphere. In 1808 he intensified his work including making disk color mixture experiments, he published written versions of two local folk fairy tales The fisherman and his wife and The almond tree included among the tales of the brothers Grimm. In 1809 Runge completed his work on the manuscript of Farben-Kugel, published in 1810 in Hamburg. In the same year, ill with tuberculosis, Runge painted another self-portrait as well as portraits of his family and brother Daniel; the last of his four children was born on the day after Runge's death. Runge was of a mystical Christian turn of mind, in his artistic work he tried to express notions of the harmony of the universe through symbolism of colour and numbers.
He considered blue and red to be symbolic of the Christian trinity and equated blue with God and the night, red with morning and Jesus, yellow with the Holy Spirit. He wrote poetry and to this end he planned a series of four paintings called The Times of the Day, designed to be seen in a special building and viewed to the accompaniment of music and poetry; this concept was common to romantic artists, who tried to achieve a "total art", or a fusion between all forms of art. In 1803 Runge had large-format engravings made of the drawings of the Times of the Day series that became commercially successful and a set of which he presented to Goethe, he painted two versions of Morning. "Morning" was the start of a new type of one of religion and emotion. Runge was one of the best German portraitists of his period, his style was rigid and intense, at times naïve. Runge's interest in color was the natural result of his work as a painter and of having an enquiring mind. Among his accepted tenets was that "as is known, there are only three colors, yellow and blue".
His goal was to establish the complete world of colors resulting from mixture of the three, among themselves and together with white and black. In the same lengthy letter, Runge discussed in some detail his views on color order and included a sketch of a mixture circle, with the three primary colors forming an equilateral triangle and, together with their pair-wise mixtures, a hexagon, he arrived at the concept of the color sphere sometime in 1807, as indicated in his letter to Goethe of November 21 of that year, by expanding the hue circle into a sphere, with white and black forming the two opposing poles. A color mixture solid of a double-triangular pyramid had been proposed by Tobias Mayer in 1758, a fact known to Runge, his expansion of that solid into a sphere appears to have had an idealistic basis rather than one of logical necessity. With his disk color mixture experiments of 1807, he hoped to provide scientific support for the sphere form. Encouraged by Goethe and other friends, he wrote in 1808 a manuscript describing the color sphere, published in Hamburg early in 1810.
In addition to a description of the color sphere, it contains an illustrated essay on rules of color harmony and one on color in nature written by Runge's friend Henrik Steffens. An included hand-colored plate shows two different views of the surface of the sphere as well as horizontal and vertical slices showing the organization of its interior. Runge's premature death limited the impact of this work. Goethe, who had read the manuscript before publication, mentioned it in his Farbenlehre of 1810 as "successfully concluding this kind of effort." It was soon overshadowed by Michel Eugène Chevreul's hemispherical system of 1839. A spherical color order system was patented in 1900 by Albert Henry Munsell, soon replaced with an irregular form of the solid. P. O. Runge, the artist Works by Philipp Otto Runge at Open Library "Works by Philipp Otto Runge". Zeno.org. Works in the Web Gallery of Art Downloadable text of P. F. Schmidt "Philipp Otto Runge.
At the End of the Rainbow is a 1965 American children's fantasy adventure film released by Fantasy Films. Written by Harold Vaughn Taylor, produced and directed by Austin Green, the film stars David Bailey as a boy who finds himself lost in an enchanted forest, encountering an assortment of fanciful characters and navigating a series of fantastical adventures as he attempts to find his way home. Released as a weekend "kiddie matinee" feature, the film was rediscovered and re-released on DVD in 2004 by Something Weird Video, has subsequently gained something of a cult following for its low budget production values, as well as for the unintentionally camp performances by the adult character actors; the film opens by a lake on Saint Patrick's Day as the story's young hero, an Irish boy named Matthew O'Brien, is playing hooky from school and fishing with his best friend, Timothy Ryan. As the time approaches to return home, the two boys go their separate ways and Matt soon finds a magic frog which he places in his pocket.
Deciding to take a short-cut home through the woods, Matt finds himself lost and soon encounters a leprechaun whose beard is caught in a log. Matt, remembering the old Irish legends he's heard from his grandfather, agrees to help the little man on the condition that he give Matt his bag of gold, to which, according to legend, Matt knows the leprechaun cannot refuse. After freeing the little man, Matt soon learns that the seven gold coins in the bag are not ordinary coins, but magic "wishing coins", which only have power when used to do good for others. After warning Matt of the magic of the coins, the leprechaun promptly scampers off and vanishes into the woods, leaving the boy to find his own way out of the forest; as Matt becomes desperate to find his way home, he unintentionally spends his first coin wishing for some guidance, which, to his surprise, brings a long suffering wooden sign post to life. Now able to talk, the sign post advises Matt to seek the help of a Wizard and points Matt in the direction of the Wizard's cave.
As he approaches his destination, Matt finds himself in the Wizard's enchanted forest, where the trees come alive and inform him that the frog in his pocket is a knight, put under a spell by the Wicked Wizard. Matt decides to spend his second coin to help the frog, which transforms it into a medieval knight named Sir Humphrey. Grateful to Matt for freeing him, Sir Humphrey warns the boy to avoid the Wicked Wizard who had placed him under a spell while he was attempting to rescue a princess named Cecilia. Sir Humphrey decides to accompany the boy as he searches for a way out of the enchanted forest, but their plans are interrupted when the Wicked Wizard appears in a cloud of smoke and banishes them to a barren desert. In the desert and Sir Humphrey encounter the Genie of Aladdin's Lamp and learn that he has been stripped of his magical powers and has been banished to the desert by the ruler of all Genies. Feeling compassion for the lonely Genie, Matt spends his third coin to restore the Genie's powers, which prompts the Genie to respond in kind, using his regained powers to transport Matt and Sir Humphrey back to the enchanted forest.
Once back in the forest and Sir Humphrey encounter a Gypsy girl named Esmerelda who attempts to help Matt find a way home by inviting him to look into her crystal ball, the crystal only shows Matt a vision of his worried mother before fading to darkness. Matt and Sir Humphrey continue on their journey and encounter a lonely old puppeteer named Professor Antonio. Learning the Professor has been abandoned in the woods by a traveling carnival after growing too old to operate his puppets properly, Matt spends his fourth coin to bring the puppets to life so that they can perform on their own; as Matt and Sir Humphrey continue their search, they once again encounter the Wicked Wizard who uses his evil powers to turn Sir Humphrey back into a frog. At the same moment, Matt spends his fifth coin to wish for the Wicked Wizard to lose his magic powers and to become harmless, which transforms the Wizard into a gentle and confused old man. Realizing the Wizard's final spell has turned Sir Humphrey back into a frog, Matt spends his sixth coin to restore Sir Humphrey to his human form.
Now harmless, the Wizard wanders off and Matt and Sir Humphrey once again encounter Esmerelda, who invites the two to once again gaze into her crystal ball which reveals that Esmerelda is in fact the Princess Cecilia, under the spell of the Wicked Wizard. Matt uses his last coin to wish for the girl to be freed from the Wizards spell and she is transformed back into the Princess. Having used all seven of his magic coins unselfishly, a beautiful rainbow appears, which guides Matthew to find his way him home; the screenplay was written by Irish scenarist Harold Vaughn Taylor, who had written the screenplay for The Magic Christmas Tree the previous year. Veteran actor Austin Green served as both producer and director of the film, which would be the only directing or producing credit of his career. Selected to portray the film's young lead, Matthew O'Brien, was 12-year-old David Alan Bailey who, at the time, was best known for his various guest-starring roles on well-known television series of the time, including Dennis the Menace, The Andy Griffith Show and Bewitched among others.
The Koombooloomba Dam is a concrete gravity dam with a controlled spillway across the Tully River, located west of Tully and south, southeast of Ravenshoe in Far North Queensland, Australia. Built for the purpose of hydroelectric power generation, the dam creates the reservoir, Lake Koombooloomba; the dam was constructed by the Queensland Government Co-ordinator-General's Department in 1960. The 790-thousand-cubic-metre earth rock embankment dam wall is 399 metres in length and 40 metres high; the reservoir has a catchment area of 163 square kilometres with a controlled concrete spillway that releases up to 1,240 cubic metres per second. The reservoir has a surface area of 1,550 hectares with an average depth of 12.9 metres, can hold up to 200,700 megalitres of water. Built in 1957 and most upgraded in 2008, the underground Kareeya Hydro Power Station was the first hydroelectric power station constructed on the Tully River. An intake tower is located in the Tully Falls Weir – a regulating pond for the power station – which directs water down a tunnel to the turbines below Tully Falls.
Kareeya generates up to 472 gigawatt-hours annually. The Koombooloomba Hydro Power Station is a dam release point situated on Koombooloomba Dam; the power station was commissioned in 1999 and has one turbo generator with a capacity of 7.3 megawatts that generates up to 22.5 gigawatt-hours. Its location on Koombooloomba Dam in the UNESCO World Heritage–listed Wet Tropics area put into use infrastructure established when the dam was constructed in 1960. List of dams in Queensland