Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723. Born at his father's palace at Saint-Cloud, he was known from birth under the title of Duke of Chartres, his father was Louis XIV's younger brother Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate. In 1692, Philippe married his first cousin, Françoise Marie de Bourbon – the youngest legitimised daughter of Philippe's uncle Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. Named regent of France for Louis XV until Louis attained his majority on 15 February 1723, the period of his de facto rule was known as the Regency, he died at Versailles in 1723. He is referred to as le Régent. In March 1661, his father married his first cousin Princess Henrietta Anne of England, known as Madame at court; the marriage was stormy. Nonetheless, the marriage produced three children: Marie Louise d'Orléans, future queen of Spain, who left France in 1679 when Philippe was just five.

Madame Henriette died at Saint-Cloud in 1670. In the following year, the Duke of Orléans wed Princess Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, only daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel; the new Duchess of Orléans, who had converted from Protestantism to Catholicism just before entering France, was popular at court upon her arrival in 1671 and became the mother of Alexandre Louis d'Orléans in 1673, another short-lived Duke of Valois. The next year, the duchess gave birth to another son, Philippe Charles d'Orléans. Philippe Charles d'Orléans was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud, some ten kilometers west of Paris; as the grandson of King Louis XIII of France, Philippe was a petit-fils de France. This entitled him to the style of Royal Highness from birth, as well as the right to be seated in an armchair in the king's presence. At his birth, he was titled Duke of Chartres and was formally addressed as Monseigneur le duc de Chartres; as the second living son of his parents, his birth was not greeted with the enthusiasm the Duke of Valois had received in 1673.

Philippe was born fourth in line to the throne, coming after Louis, Dauphin of France, his own father, his older brother. When Philippe was born, his uncle Louis XIV was at the height of his power. In 1676, the Duke of Valois died at the Palais-Royal in Paris, making Philippe the new heir to the House of Orléans, his distraught mother was pregnant at the time with Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, future Duchess and regent of Lorraine. Élisabeth Charlotte and Philippe would always remain close. The Duke of Chartres grew up at his father's "private" court held at Saint-Cloud, in Paris at the Palais-Royal, the Parisian residence of the Orléans family until the arrest of Philippe Égalité in April 1793 during the French Revolution; the Palais-Royal was frequented by, among others, Marie Anne Mancini, Duchess of Bouillon, part of Philippe's father's libertine circle. A program of how best to educate a prince was drawn up for him by Guillaume Dubois, his preceptor. Dubois had entered Philippe's household in 1683 as his "under-preceptor".

Philippe's education was carried out by the respected instructor Nicholas-François Parisot de Saint-Laurent until 1687. Each course of study taught the duc de Chartres "elements" of a subject; some of the best historians, genealogists and artists in the kingdom participated in this educational experiment, which started around 1689. For example, Philippe learned mathematics from Joseph Sauveur. Chartres was reared alongside Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon famous for his memoirs and defense of the rights of the peerage of France. Next, collaborating to link physics and music and Loulié demonstrated vibrating strings and the Galilean pendulum, how the mathematical principles on which these devices depend are related to music. In 1693 the prince studied composition with Marc-Antoine Charpentier. With Charpentier's help, he composed an opera, Philomèle, performed at his residence in 1694. In the late 1690s Chartres studied the viol with Antoine Forqueray the elder. Meanwhile, he was riding, as preparations for a military career.

In May 1685 the duc de Chartres just ten years old, made his first public appearance at Versailles. Chartres was put on a stage with his uncle and father. On 2 June 1686 Chartres was invested with the Order of the Holy Spirit at Versailles.

American Veterans Disabled for Life silver dollar

The American Veterans Disabled for Life silver dollar is a commemorative coin issued by the United States Mint in 2010. The obverse of the coin was designed by Don Everhart and featuring the legs and boots of three veterans; the coin's reverse was designed by Joseph Menna and depicts a Forget-me-not flower wrapped in a ribbon cradling and supporting clusters of oak branches, with the forget-me-not flower representing those who fought and became disabled, while the oak branches represent strength. The American Veterans Disabled for Life silver dollar was struck in both proof and uncirculated, with both versions being struck at the West Point Mint. A maximum of 350,000 coins were authorized. A surcharge of $10, added to each coin sold was paid to the Disabled Veterans' LIFE Memorial Foundation; the said surcharge supported the construction of the American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial in Washington, D. C. which had authorized by Congress a decade earlier

Jean-Pierre Grenier

Jean-Pierre Grenier was a French actor, theatre director and screenwriter. In 1946, Jean-Pierre Grenier, in association with Olivier Hussenot, established "La Compagnie Grenier-Hussenot", disbanded in 1957. In 1974, he became director of the théâtre de Boulogne-Billancourt until 1984, he was the companion of Janine d'Almeida and producer. 1946: La Colère des dieux by Karel Lamač 1946: Un rigolo by Georges Chaperot - short film - 1949: Maya by Raymond Bernard - Jean 1949: Le Point du jour by Louis Daquin 1949: The Perfume of the Lady in Black by Louis Daquin 1950: Justice Is Done by André Cayatte - Jean-Luc Flavier 1951: Maître après Dieu by Louis Daquin 1952: We Are All Murderers by André Cayatte - doctor Destouches 1952: Matrimonial Agency by Jean-Paul Le Chanois - Jacques 1953: La Vie passionnée de Clemenceau by Gilbert Prouteau - documentary - narrator 1953: White Mane d'Albert Lamorisse - narrator 1953: Avant le déluge by André Cayatte - voix uniquement 1954: The Red and the Black by Claude Autant-Lara 1955: Dossier noir by André Cayatte - Gilbert le Guen 1957: Le Mystère de l'atelier quinze short film by André Heinrich and Alain Resnais, narrator 1981: King Vidor et les pionniers d'Hollywood 1965: La Bonne Occase by Michel Drach Orion le Tueur, melodramatic fantasy in 6 tableaux, 2 enlèvements and a magic ring, by Jean-Pierre Grenier and Maurice Fombeure, Palais de Chaillot, 18 March 1946 Cœurs en détresse by Jean-Pierre Grenier and Pierre Latour L'Enlèvement au bercail by Jean-Pierre Grenier and Pierre Latour Justine est r'faite by Jean-Pierre Grenier Orion le Tueur, script by Jean-Pierre Grenier and songs by Maurice Fombeure, Bordas, 1946 BNF=321936889 Grenier, Jean-Pierre.

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