France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art
The Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art is situated in the Plaça dels Àngels, in El Raval, Ciutat Vella, Catalonia, Spain. The museum opened to the public on November 28, 1995. Previous directors were Daniel Giralt-Miracle, Miguel Molins, Manuel J. Borja-Villel, Bartomeu Marí, while the current director, since 2015 is Ferran Barenblit. In 1959, art critic Alexandre Cirici Pellicer formed a group of contemporary artists showing work in a series of 23 exhibitions with the hopes of beginning a collection for a new contemporary art museum in Barcelona, it was not until 1986 that the Barcelona City Council recommended the American architect Richard Meier & Partners to design the museum. Art critics Francesc Miralles and Rosa Queralt were hired to write the museum’s mission statement. In 1987, the MACBA Foundation was created. In the following year the MACBA Foundation, in conjunction with the Generalitat de Catalunya and the Barcelona City Council, founded the MACBA Consortium in order further the process of the museum.
The Consortium commissioned Meier that year to build the museum. This was a controversial issue considering that the museum had no collection at the time of construction; the museum opened to the public in 1995, well after the 1992 Summer Olympics for which it was planned. In 2014, the museum acquired an additional venue for its programming, comprising a converted 15th-century chapel and two large halls, a total of about 21,500 square feet, as well as the central Plaça dels Angels square. While MACBA has long used the chapel for performances and site-specific installations, this time the city lent the entire historic cluster to the institution for an unspecified term. Meier embraced the difficult task of creating a building that would display a variety of contemporary artworks that were unknown to him at the time of design; the choice to build the museum in the Plaça dels Ángels is consistent with Meier’s vision to situate the building amongst some of Barcelona’s oldest streets and buildings, in addition to revamping the public space of the Raval.
After the completion of the $35 million construction, local media referred to the museum as “the pearl” amongst the old architecture and narrow streets just a few blocks from Gothic center of Barcelona. The building’s architectural style has strong references to Modernism; the large white building has much of its southern elevation glazed, providing the visitor with views across the plaza, allowing for an abundance of natural light to illuminate the interior galleries. The museum has three main galleries, which can be subdivided, as well as five smaller galleries, one of, in a tower; the permanent collection of around 5,000 works dates from the mid-20th century onward. There are three periods of modern art represented: the first one covers the forties to the sixties; the collections focus on post-1945 Catalan and Spanish art, although some International artists are represented. In 2011, Philippe Méaille loans 800 works of the radical conceptualists artists group Art & Language at MACBA. Fearing political instability after the Catalonia referendum in October 2017, he will withdraw his loan and repatriate his collection to Château de Montsoreau-Museum of contemporary art.
In December 2007, the museum opened its Study Center, the Library Reading Room and Special Collections Room grant the public free access to the museum’s books, publications collection, archives. The museum publishes exhibition catalogues from the museum, although has published some monographic books and critical essays, it has three digital publications: "Quaderns portàtils," "Quaderns d'Àudio," and "Sèrie Capella MACBA." The museum offers lectures, guided tours, video screenings and more to broaden the educational opportunities available to the public. The Museum address is 1, Barcelona; the closest metro stations are Universitat. Opposite the main museum, in the medieval Convent dels Àngels for which the square is named, a chapel has been converted into a separate exposition area known as the Capella del MACBA, with regular video art performances. Entrance to this part of the museum is free. Another contemporary art museum, Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona, is adjacent to MACBA, accessible both from the street and from the inner patio.
The area in front of the museum is known among skateboarders to be one of the most iconic "spots" for the sport in the world. A 3D model of the location is featured in the smartphone game "Skater", was a featured location in Transworld Skateboarding magazine for Go Skateboading Day in 2016. MACBA is managed by a consortium founded in 1988 whose members include the regional government of Catalonia, Barcelona City Council, the Spanish Ministry of Culture. In March 2015, Bartomeu Marí i Ribas resigned as director of the museum in light of a censorship row over a controversial installation by the Austrian artist Ines Doujak. In July 2015, Ferran Barenblit, was named the new director. List of museums in Barcelona Museo de Escultura al Aire Libre de Alcalá de Henares Rinzen, by Antoni Tàpies, conserved at the Museum Ràdio Web MACBA Meier, Richard. Richard Meier, Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art. New York: Monacelli, 1997. Massot, Josep. "MACBA: Barcelona abre su museo mas contemporaneo." La Vanguardia Magazine, November 12, 1995, 34-51.
Moldoveanu, Mihail. “Filtered light: the Contemporary Art Museum of Barcelona.” Museum International, 49: 10–14. Riding
Paris Descartes University
Paris Descartes University known as Paris V, is a French public research university located in Paris. It is one of the inheritors of the University of Paris, split into multiple separate institutions in 1970. Paris Descartes is a member of the Sorbonne Paris Cité University group, it was established as a multidisciplinary university "of humanities and health sciences" ("des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Santé". It focuses in the areas of medical sciences, biomedical sciences, computer science and psychology, its main campus is in the historic École de Chirurgie in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. The historic University of Paris first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was divided into thirteen universities, managed by a common rectorate, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, after the student protests of the French May. Descartes University has ten campuses in Paris, its headquarters are centered on the "Collège de chirurgie", built in place of the "Collège de Bourgogne", in the Quartier latin, on the rue des Écoles.
The teaching facilities and the research laboratories are housed in the Saints-Pères university center, as far as the medical school and the social sciences school are concerned. The refurbished Henri-Piéron center contains the school of psychology, whereas the Law school is located in Malakoff; the dentistry school is located in Montrouge. The undergraduate program of Paris Descartes is selective, with an acceptance rate of 11%. Admission to the second year of the university's master programs is selective as well, some of these programs admitting only 1.7% of applicants which can represent 25 students by programs. The University Paris V has signed over 150 conventions with foreign universities across five continents, including Manchester, Copenhagen, Madrid, Helsinki, Stockholm or Ghent; the university focuses on medical sciences, biomedical sciences, social sciences, computer science and law. The University Paris Descartes supports a modern approach of social sciences on the basis of fieldwork, participant observation and ethnography.
The dual master's degree in partnership with other important French academic institutions such as Pantheon-Sorbonne University and the École Normale Supérieure emphasizes opportunities offered as far as research is concerned. Paris Descartes was rated by the 2017 QS World University Ranking by Subject: 51-100th in Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 151-200 in Biological Sciences, 121 in Medicine, 251-300th in Psychology, 251-300th in Linguistics It was rated by the 2016/17 The Times Higher Education Subject Rankings as: 201-250 in Medicine, 201-250 in Psychology. In Law, in 2016/17, it was not ranked among the top 10 of France of Eduniversal rankings. Georges Balandier Erwan Dianteill Axel Kahn Michel Kazatchkine Michel Maffesoli Hervé Morin Georges Vigarello Olivier Brandicourt and former CEO of Sanofi Jon Elster and political theorist François Fillon, former French Prime Minister Béatrice Galinon-Mélénec, founder of the e. laboratory on Human Trace Complex System Unesco Nadey Hakim and Vice President of the Royal Society of Medicine Élizabeth Teissier, astrologist Jardin Botanique, Université Paris V Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière René Descartes Media related to Université Paris Descartes at Wikimedia Commons University web site Faculté des Sciences Humaines et Sociales - Sorbonne Institut de Psychologie
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Enghien-les-Bains is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 13.5 kilometres in the département of Val-d'Oise. Enghien-les-Bains is famous as a spa resort and a well-to-do suburb of Paris, developed in the nineteenth century around the scenic lake of Enghien. A casino, the only one in the vicinity of Paris, is located on the shores of the lake; the suffix les Bains was added to the name when the commune was incorporated in 1850, to distinguish this place from the Belgian city of Enghien, near Mons, to acknowledge the thermal baths for which Enghien-les-Bains is famous. The name Enghien itself does refer to the Belgian city, a fief of the princes of Condé, a cadet branch of the French royal family, who inherited the duchy of Montmorency in 1633. In 1689 they were allowed by King Louis XIV to rename the duchy of Montmorency to be the "duchy of Enghien", in order to revive the title, duc d'Enghien, which they had lost in 1569 at the death of Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, who had not registered the title.
The village of Montmorency continued to be known as "Montmorency", despite the official name change, but the name "Enghien" clung to the nearby lake and marshland that would become the commune of Enghien-les-Bains. Before the French Revolution, what is now Enghien-les-Bains was a lake and a marshland under the jurisdiction of Montmorency. In 1766, a priest at the oratory of Montmorency discovered a warm sulphur spring near the lake of Enghien, the area began to develop as a spa resort. At the creation of the communes in 1790, during the French Revolution, the area of Enghien was withdrawn from the jurisdiction of Montmorency and divided between several communes. In the nineteenth century, the development of Enghien led to its incorporation as a commune; the commune, named Enghien-les-Bains, was created on 7 August 1850 by detaching a part of the territory of Deuil-la-Barre and merging it with a part of the territory of Saint-Gratien, a part of the territory of Soisy-sous-Montmorency, a part of the territory of Épinay-sur-Seine.
Enghien-les-Bains is served by two stations on the Transilien Paris–Nord suburban rail line: La Barre–Ormesson and Enghien-les-Bains. Known as the biggest place to gamble near Paris, Enghien les Bains casino, which opened in 1901 was renovated to provide luxury and comfort to all tourists traveling to the capital of France; the resort has two hotels and offers to the guests the opportunity to dine in one of its many restaurants. You will find bars and a theater where concerts and shows are organized. On the first floor of the casino, you will find nearly 40 table games featuring Blackjack, Punto Banco in addition to French and English Roulette. Enghien-les-Bains is twinned with: Enghien, Belgium Bad Dürrheim, Germany Marcel Bleustein-Blanchet, member of the Free French resistance and founder of the Publicis advertising empire. Johanna Joseph, basketball player. Mistinguett and singer. Alphonse Laurencic, Republican activist and trade unionist in Spain. Laurine Lecavelier, figure skater. Aurelien Collin, Football player for New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer.
Philippe Méaille, Contemporary Art Collector. Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Enghien-les-Bains city council website Photo gallery of Enghien and its lake on photoenligne
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC