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Philippe de Vitry

Philippe de Vitry was a French composer, music theorist and poet. He was an accomplished and influential composer, may have been the author of the Ars Nova treatise, he was acknowledged as the greatest musician of his day, with Petrarch writing a glowing tribute, calling him: "... the keenest and most ardent seeker of truth, so great a philosopher of our age." Details of his early life are vague. While some medieval sources claim that he was born in the Champagne region, more recent research indicates that he may have originated in Vitry-en-Artois near Arras. Given that he is referred to in documents as "Magister," he is thought to have studied at the University of Paris, he was prominent in the courts of Charles IV, Philippe VI and Jean II, serving as a secretary and advisor. In addition to all this, he was a diplomat and a soldier, known to have served at the siege of Aiguillon in 1346. In 1351 he became Bishop of Meaux, east of Paris. Moving in all the most important political and ecclesiastical circles, he was acquainted with many lights of the age, including Petrarch and the famous mathematician and music theorist Nicole Oresme.

He died in Paris on 9 June 1361. Philippe de Vitry is most famous in music history for the Ars nova notandi, a treatise on music attributed to him which lent its name to the music of the entire era. While his authorship and the existence of this treatise have come into question, a handful of his musical works do survive and show the innovations in musical notation mensural and rhythmic, with which he was credited within a century of their inception; such innovations as are exemplified in his stylistically-attributed motets for the Roman de Fauvel were important, made possible the free and quite complex music of the next hundred years, culminating in the Ars subtilior. In some ways the "modern" system of rhythmic notation began with the Ars Nova, during which music might be said to have "broken free" from the older idea of the rhythmic modes, patterns which were repeated without being individually notated; the notational predecessors of modern time meters originate in the Ars Nova. He is reputed to have written chansons and motets.

Each is strikingly individual, exploiting a unique structural idea. He is often credited with developing the concept of isorhythm. Five of his three-part motets have survived in the Roman de Fauvel. While there is still debate about what Vitry did and did not compose, the first sixteen works here, all motets, are considered to be his. Aman novi / Heu Fortuna / Heu me, tristis est anima mea Cum statua / Hugo / Magister invidie Douce playsence / Garison / Neuma quinti toni Floret / Florens / Neuma Garrit gallus / In nova fert / Neuma Impudenter circuivi / Virtutibus / Contratenor / Tenor O canenda / Rex quem / Contratenor / Rex regum Petre clemens / Lugentium / Tenor Tribum / Quoniam secta / Merito hec patimur Tuba sacre fidei / In arboris / Virgo sum Vos quid admiramini / Gratissima / Contratenor / Gaude gloriosaNote: The motet Phi millies / O creator / Iacet granum / Quam sufflabit and the ballade De terre en grec Gaulle appellee are securely attributed to Vitry, but no music for the latter survives, whilst the former survives only fragmentarily.

Colla iugo / Bona condit / Libera me Domine Firmissime / Adesto / Alleluya, Benedictus Flos ortus / Celsa cedrus / Tenor Orbis orbatus / Vos pastores / Fur non venit Quid scire proderit / Dantur officia Almifonis / Rosa / Tenor Amer / Durement / Dolor meus Apta caro / Flos / Alma redemptorisa mater In virtute / Decens carmen / Clamor meus / Contratenor O Philippe / O bone Per grama protho paret Scariotis / Jure Se cuers / Rex Se paour / Diex / Concupisco Servant regem / O Philippe / Rex regum Bent and Andrew Wathey. "Philippe de Vitry," Grove Music Online, Laura Macy, ed. accessed 18 December 2005 <>. Fuller, Sarah. "A Phantom Treatise of the Fourteenth Century? The Ars Nova"; the Journal of Musicology 4, no. 1: 23–50. Hoppin, Richard H. Medieval Music. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1978. ISBN 0-393-09090-6 Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel. "The Emergence of Ars Nova," The Journal of Musicology 13: 285–317. Sanders, Ernest H. "Philippe de Vitry". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie.

20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2 Schrade, Leo. "Philippe de Vitry: Some New Discoveries". The Musical Quarterly 42, no. 3: 330–54. Wathey, Andrew. "The Motets of Philippe de Vitry and the Fourteenth-Century Renaissance". Early Music History 12: 119–50. Zayaruznaya, Anna; the Monstrous New Art: Divided Forms in the Late Medieval Motet. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 15 July 2015. Zayaruznaya, Anna. "New voices for Vitry". Early Music 46 issue 3: 375–392. 2009 – En un gardin. Les quatre saisons de l'Ars Nova. Manuscrits de Stavelot, Utrecht, Leiden. Capilla Flamenca. MEW 0852. Contains recordings of "Vos quid admiramini virginem / Gratissima virginis / Gaude gloriosa" and "Adesto sancta trinitas / Firmissime fidem / Alleluia Benedicta" by Philippe de Vitry

Human rights in Burkina Faso

Human rights in Burkina Faso are addressed in the constitution. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted concerns regarding restrictions on the press and the operation of the judiciary system. Approved in 1991, the constitution of Burkina Faso addresses the basic civil liberties of the people; the government has ratified numerous UN treaties such as ICCPR and CEDAW. Amnesty International noted concerns over the arbitrary arrest of protesters, the failure to respect the principle of due process; the following chart shows Burkina Faso's ratings since 1972 in the Freedom in the World reports, published annually by US government funded Freedom House. A score of 1 is "most free" and 7 is "least free".1 Burkina Faso's stances on international human rights treaties are as follows: Freedom of religion in Burkina Faso Human trafficking in Burkina Faso Internet censorship and surveillance in Burkina Faso LGBT rights in Burkina Faso Politics of Burkina Faso 1.^ Note that the "Year" signifies the "Year covered".

Therefore the information for the year marked 2008 is from the report published in 2009, so on. 2.^ As of January 1. 3.^ The 1982 report covers the year 1981 and the first half of 1982, the following 1984 report covers the second half of 1982 and the whole of 1983. In the interest of simplicity, these two aberrant "year and a half" reports have been split into three year-long reports through interpolation. 2012 Annual Report, by Amnesty International Freedom in the World 2012 Report, by Freedom House


Nostoceratidae is a diverse family of heteromorph ammonites found throughout the oceans of the world during the Late Cretaceous. The nostoceratids are famous for the bizarre coiling of their shells. Many genera, such as Yezoceras, Ainoceras and some species of Bostrychoceras and Eubostrychoceras, display, as young shells at least, a helical coiling similar to the shells of the related family, Turrilitidae; as adults, the coils curve away from the axis of coiling, either as an oxbow-like curve around the juvenile coils as in Ainoceras and Anaklinoceras, or in a simple curved loop beneath the juvenile coils, as in Yezoceras. Other genera form loose coils, sometimes in a spiral, such as those of Madagascarites, Muramotoceras and the infamously convolute Nipponites; the ecology of nostoceratids is the subject of continued speculation, as the bizarrely coiled shells have no streamlining suggesting that the living animals had extraordinarily poor swimming ability, if any ability at all. As such and ammonite enthusiasts presume that the nostoceratids either floated passively in the water column, or were bottom-dwellers that may or may not have crawled on the seafloor.

The nostoceratids, as with all other Cretaceous ammonites, perished during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Scientific report on the functional morphology of Cretaceous heteromorph ammonites

Gerrianne Raphael

Gerrianne Raphael is an American stage and voice-over actress. Though much of her career has been spent in the theatre, she is best known for her major role as the voice of "Pumyra" on the original ThunderCats cartoon. Gerrianne Raphael was born in New York City on February 23, 1935 to Sidney, a concert pianist and Evelyn Raphael, a former actress, she was married three times, most to actor Noah Keen, from 2004 until his death in 2019. Her first husband was stage manager/actor John Weaver. Gregory Allen Hirsch was a theatrical lighting designer, she has three daughters from her first marriage. She graduated from the Professional Children's School in New York City, in 1949. Raphael's first professional performances were on radio when she was four years old on Let's Pretend, a children’s program of fairy tales, her first Broadway show was at seven years of age in a play called Solitaire by John Van Druten. She understudied the daughter of Alfred Hitchcock. Since her countless stage performances have included the landmark production of Threepenny Opera with Lotte Lenya and Beatrice Arthurand the original Broadway production of Man of La Mancha.

Having started in radio as a child, the progression to commercial voice-overs, "audiobooks"and cartoons was a natural. At one point Raphael had voice-overs for Revlon, Gloria Vanderbilt and Helena Rubinstein all running at the same time, she had provided the voice for the littlest dwarf on the Ajax commercials in the 1950s. Gerrianne Raphael on IMDb Gerrianne Raphael at the Internet Broadway Database Gerrianne Raphael at the Internet Off-Broadway Database

Samurai (disambiguation)

A samurai is a member of the Japanese warrior caste. Samurai may refer to: Samurai Champloo, series of manga and anime Samurai Jack, an American animated series Samurai Pizza Cats, series of manga and anime Samurai Troopers, series of manga and anime Samurai X, series of manga and anime Samurai Deeper Kyo, a manga series by Akimine Kamijyo Samurai, a Japanese superhero on the cartoon Super Friends Silver Samurai, a Marvel Comics character Samurai, starring Paul Fung Le Samouraï, a 1967 French film known as The Samurai The Samurai, a Japanese historical fiction TV series of the 1960s Samurai Trilogy, a film trilogy starring Toshirō Mifune as Miyamoto Musashi The Last Samurai, a 2003 film starring Tom Cruise Samurai, a 2002 Tamil-language film Samurai, a TV documentary Power Rangers Samurai, the 18th series of the Power Rangers trilogy "Samurai", an episode of Power Rangers: SPD Samurai, a wargame by Avalon Hill Samurai, a German-style board game Samurai, a 1979 videogame for the Magnavox Odyssey Samurai Shodown, name of a fighting game series by SNK Playmore Samurai, a character class in the roleplaying game Samurai, a fictional band in the role-playing game Cyberpunk 2020 Samurai!, an autobiographical book by Martin Caidin, based on the life and career of Saburō Sakai The Samurai, a 1980 novel by Shusaku Endo Samurai, a heavy metal album released 2004 Samurai, an album by Matti Nykänen, released 1993 "Samurai", a 1985 song by Michael Cretu "Samurai", song by Dschinghis Khan Dschinghis Khan "Samurai", the nickname of the Japan national Australian rules football team "Samurai Blue", the nickname of the Japan national football team WCAG Samurai, a web accessibility development group.

Dapper Day

Dapper Day is an organization that celebrates refined style from yesterday and today by organizing outings and social events with various locations including museums, concert halls, Disney parks, other venues, where participants are encouraged to "step out in style." Dapper Day is most famous for their popular semi-annual outings to Disney theme parks in Anaheim and Paris each spring and fall. The Disney park outings are described as intended to celebrate the tradition of "stepping out in style"; the first Dapper Day outing was held in February 2011 at the Disneyland theme park in Anaheim, California, as a small function organized by Justin Jorgensen. The Anaheim events have since grown to attract as many as 25,000 participants and have been held with additional related attractions, including the Dapper Day Expo, Folly: the official Dapper Day after-party, the Dapper Day car show. Dapper Day events are not associated with The Walt Disney Company. Dapper Day states. "We do not aim to recreate a specific period.

All sophisticated attire is encouraged from vintage-inspired classics to chic, contemporary looks." Dapper Day outings to Disney parks do require park admission as usual. Active and retired military are encouraged to wear their service uniforms or dress blues. Although not a vintage event, participants dress in a style that can be likened to the idea of "their Sunday best", a concept popularized in the 1950s and 1960s. Dapper Day Disneyland outing traditions include an afternoon ride on the Mark Twain Riverboat, referred to as the "Mark Twain Mixer", an evening ride on the King Arthur Carrousel, referred to as the "Dapper Derby" during the event. Dapper Day has expanded to include events with cultural institutions such as the Los Angeles County Museum of Art where their first event was held July 22, 2016 in partnership with LACMA in celebration of the exhibit Reigning Men: Fashion in Menswear, 1715–2015, their second event with LACMA, September 2, 2017 was in conjunction with the exhibit Chagall: Fantasies for the Stage.

A third LACMA event is planned for June 9, 2018 in celebration of the exhibit David Hockney: 82 Portraits and 1 Still-life. January 18, 2018 Dapper Day held their first event with a natural history museum. DAPPER DAY Visits NHMLA was held in partnership with the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. February 21, 2018 Dapper Day held their first event with a theatrical production with Dapper Day Visits LA Opera for the final production of Candide. Justin Jorgensen, the founder of Dapper Day at Disneyland, grew up in North Dakota; the inspiration behind the name "Dapper Day" is connected to a childhood experience Jorgensen had, in which his family travelled to Winnipeg, encountered a store called "Dapper Dan". After taking one of the free promotional pins from the store, Jorgensen asked his mother what the word "dapper" meant, to which she responded, "It means you’re well-dressed — smart and sharp." A self-proclaimed "eccentric" dresser, Jorgensen decided to name his organization "Dapper Day".

Jorgensen works as a creative director and brand consultant. Additional reports note that Jorgensen recognized a trend among his friends to "dress down" when frequenting the park, where as they would be more dressed up as a matter of personal style. In an pushback against this relaxed park attire, Jorgensen imagined a day dedicated to "dapper" dress where people would not feel uncomfortable expressing their personal style; the first Dapper Day outing was held in February 2011 at the Disneyland theme park in Anaheim. Over a two-week period, Justin Jorgensen promoted the first Dapper Day outing using social media. Nearly 100 people showed up for that first Dapper Day outing, the number of attendees has increased each year. Jorgensen's photographs from the event gained popularity on the Internet, interest grew for holding another Dapper Day event. In response, Jorgensen decided on a biannual format that would take place in the fall and in the spring. Due to warmer weather conditions, the fall event was positioned as a nighttime event, whereas the spring event would take place all day.

This model lends itself to the fashion-centric nature of Dapper Day, mirroring the daytime and evening looks of a fall and spring collection. However due to a string of hot Septembers, the fall outings were moved to the cooler November; the second Dapper Day outing to Disneyland drew an estimated 500 people. In spring 2012, the event had 1,200 participants, more than tripled its size in the fall of that same year with a crowd of 4,500 people. Just two years after the first Dapper Day Disneyland outing was held, over 10,000 people came to the park. Following this dramatic increase in participation in the spring, Jorgensen began running the semiannual event full-time. At the Dapper Day Disneyland event in the spring of 2017, an estimated 25,000 people participated. Starting in 2016, Dapper Day began organizing events with museums and cultural institutions including LACMA, LA Opera, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Dapper Day produces a variety of accessories including parasols, folding fans, silk scarves, pocket squares, lapel pins and brooches, with new designs each spring and fall.

Justin Jorgensen has said that he first thought of the concept of a Disneyland dress-up day a decade before the first Dapper Day event took place. Jorgensen has said that he was inspired by the Walt Disney Imagineering concept design illustrations from the early days of Disneyland. In renderings by John Hench, Herbert Ryman, ot