The Philippine Scouts was a military organization of the United States Army from 1901 until after the end of World War II. These troops were Filipinos and Filipino-Americans assigned to the United States Army Philippine Department, under the command of white American commissioned officers. Philippine Scout units were given the suffix "", to distinguish them from other U. S. Army units; the first Scout companies were organized by the US in 1901 to combat the Philippine Revolutionary Army led at that time by General Emilio Aguinaldo. In 1919–1920, the PS companies were grouped into regiments as part of the US Army and redesignated the 43d, 44th, 45th, 57th Infantry Regiments, plus the 24th and 25th Field Artillery Regiments, the 26th Cavalry Regiment and the 91st and 92nd Coast Artillery Regiments. Service and support formations were organized as engineer, medical and military police units; the infantry and field artillery regiments were grouped together with the U. S. 31st Infantry Regiment to form the U.
S. Army's Philippine Division. At this point, the Scouts became the U. S. Army's front line troops in the Pacific; the Philippine Department assigned the Scouts to subdue the Moro tribes on the island of Mindanao, to establish tranquility throughout the islands. In the 1930s, Philippine Scouts, along with the 31st Infantry Regiment, saw action at Palawan. Philippine Scout regiments became the first United States Army units to be in combat during World War II, until the surrender of USAFFE in May 1942. After that some individual soldiers and units refused to surrender and become beginning elements of the resistance to the Japanese occupation. Paroled POWs would join the resistance; when the Philippine Revolution erupted in 1896, Col. Eugenio Blanco, a Spaniard born in the Philippines who owned large estates near the town of Macabebe, in the municipality of Mexico, located in the province of Pampanga raised a regiment of troops called Guardias of Seville from among a Pampangan tribe on his estates.
The Americans popularized the idea that the Macabebes were indigenous people from Mexico in the Americas Aztecs, that they were brought by the Spaniards to the Philippines. No Spanish account supporting this theory exists, however Emilio Aguinaldo wrote about this account in his memoirs as cited by historian Teodoro Agoncillo; the Macabebes remained loyal to the Spaniards after the rest of Pampanga threw its support in the quest for independence. The Macabebes protected the retreating Spaniards, rescuing friars and the families of the Spanish Army. At the conclusion of the Spanish–American War 270 men of the 72nd Macabebe Regiment found themselves stranded in Manila. Many shipped out to join a Spanish garrison in the Caroline Islands. Col. Blanco and members of his command, Battalion No. 6, shipped to Spain and were decorated for their loyalty in Madrid. The remaining Macabebes slipped back into Macabebe; those who remained offered to serve as native guides for U. S. forces commanded by General Henry Lawton and, after authorization by General Elwell Otis two, five companies of Macabebe Scouts were formed on September 10, 1899 under Lieutenant Matthew A. Batson.
The Macabebes proved themselves reliable over the next two months, Batson formed five companies of 128 men each. In retaliation, Aguinaldo's forces under the command of Col. Agapito Bonzon burned the town of Macabebe and massacred 300 of its residents on June 26, 1898. Batson's Macabebe companies saw combat against Aguinaldo's forces beginning in October 1899, after which they were reorganized into "The Squadron of Philippine Cavalry, U. S. Volunteers" on June 1, 1900 and enlisted as irregulars; the Macabebes won lasting notability in the operation under General Frederick Funston to capture General Aguinaldo. In 1901, on the Army's recommendation, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt authorized the formation of a unified native Scouts organization; the Army activated this Native Scouts force in October 1901 by integrating 50 local companies into a single force of 5,000 men. Over the next ten years, the Scouts won accolades from their American commanders which contributed to their survival as a unit.
On July 26, 1941, in preparation for the coming war, President Roosevelt called General Douglas MacArthur back to active duty and put him in charge of a new military organization: The United States Army Forces in the Far East. MacArthur took command of all military forces in the Philippines except the U. S. Navy's Asiatic Fleet; the Philippine Division, Philippine Department and all other Philippine Scout units were included in USAFFE, as was the U. S. Army's Far East Air Force. At the time of USAFFE's formation, the unit consisted of 22,532 troops, of which 11,972 were Philippine Scouts. Of the 22,532 troops, 10,473 were members of the Philippine Division, itself containing 2,552 Americans and 7,921 Filipinos. All of the division's enlisted men, with the exception of the 31st Infantry Regiment and some of the military police and headquarters troops, were Philippine Scouts. In 1910, the U. S. Army began sending one outstanding Filipino soldier per year to West Point. Among these cadets were Vicente Lim, Fidel V. Segundo, Pastor Martelino, at least five others.
By 1941 some of these men had risen to the rank of senior officers, some transferred to the Philippine Army when the Philippine Commonwealth began to build up its own forces in 1937. In July 1941, there were fifteen Filipino Scout
The cardinal lory is a species of parrot in the family Psittaculidae. The cardinal lory lives in the mangrove and the lowland forests of the Solomon Islands, Bougainville Island and easternmost islands of the Bismarck Archipelago, it was found in the genus Chalcopsitta. Because it is of the Syzygium species it prefers fruit-bearing trees; the cardinal lory is 31 cm long. All plumage is red; the beak is orange with black at its base. The bare skin at base of beak and around eyes is black, the irises are orange-red, its legs are grey. The male and female are identical in external appearance; the beaks of the juveniles are dull orange with more prominent black areas than the adults, pale grey eye-rings, yellow irises. In 1989, the Solomon Islands permitted. However, because of the Wild Bird Conservation Act in 1992, the exportation of cardinal lories from the Solomon Islands to the US was banned except for approved breeding. Forshaw, Joseph M.. Parrots of the World. Illustrated by Frank Knight. Princeton University Press.
Amarachuku C. Enyia, known as Amara Enyia, is an American politician, community organizer, municipal consultant, she is the director of the Austin Chamber of Commerce in Chicago and Chief Executive Officer of ACE Municipal Partners, a municipal consulting firm. Enyia was a candidate for mayor of Chicago in 2015 and 2019. Enyia's parents were migrated to the United States in the 1970s, she was born in Baltimore and raised in University Park, where she attended Crete-Monee High School. She attended graduate school and law school at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where she received a Master of Education in 2008, a J. D. in 2009, a Ph. D. in Educational Policy Studies in 2010. Enyia worked in the policy department of the Chicago mayor's office until the end of Mayor Richard M. Daley's term in May 2011. After the fellowship, she worked as a community organizer in Chicago's West Side, served as the executive director of Austin Coming Together, an umbrella organization that promotes coordination and collaboration between community and nonprofit organizations in Austin, Chicago.
She founded ACE Municipal Partners, a consulting firm that works with municipal officials, serves as executive director for the Austin Chamber of Commerce. From 2013 to 2016, she maintained a blog about local government affairs entitled "The Municipal Maven."In May 2017, Enyia took a job as the interim village manager of University Park, Illinois. Her brief tenure as interim village manager was reported to have been troublesome, with a dispute taking place between her and the village surrounding what her salary should be, some village trustees criticizing her during her tenure for doing what they regarded to be an insufficient amount of work; the village's mayor Vivian Covington praised the value of Eniya's legal expertise, despite critics in the village arguing it was limited in value by the fact she was not a practicing attorney. In August 2017, her tenure ended. Enyia announced her candidacy for the 2015 mayoral election in February 2014, she endorsed Bob Fioretti the next day. On August 28, 2018, Enyia announced that she would once again run for Chicago mayor in the 2019 election, at a campaign launch event in Bridgeport.
Enyia has expressed support for police reform, increasing budget transparency, investment in neighborhood development projects, has proposed the creation of a public bank and the use of Community Benefits Agreements for large development projects. On October 16, 2018, she was endorsed by Chance the Rapper, garnering significant attention for her campaign in local media and national media. Chance donated $400,000 to her campaign. On January 31, Dorothy A. Brown, whose own candidacy had ended after she was removed from the ballot due to issues with her petition, endorsed Enyia. Due to her 2015 campaign not filing quarterly finance reports after it was suspended, she accrued $73,540 in debt that would have to be paid in order for her to appear on the 2019 ballot. On October 22, 2018, Kanye West made a contribution of that exact amount to Enyia's campaign; the campaign released a statement saying "The $73,540 debt to the Illinois State Board of Elections has been paid in full. The Amara Enyia campaign thanks Chicago native, Kanye West, for his generous action."In the election on February 26, 2019, Enyia placed sixth in a field of 14 candidates, winning about 8% of the vote.
In July 2019, Enyia's campaign was sued by 24 former campaign staffers alleging wage theft. Enyia's campaign responded by saying that the campaign was in debt, that it planned to continue holding fundraisers to pay off the debt and unpaid wages, she lives in the Garfield Park neighborhood in Chicago. She has five siblings, including a twin sister. Campaign website