Philosophy of history

Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and its discipline. The term was coined by French philosopher Voltaire. In contemporary philosophy a distinction has developed between speculative philosophy of history and critical philisophy of history, now referred to as analytic; the former questions the meaning and purpose of the historical process whereas the latter studies the foundations and implications of history and the historical method. The names of these are derived from C. D. Broad's distinction between speculative philosophy. In his Poetics, Aristotle maintained the superiority of poetry over history because poetry speaks of what ought or must be true rather than what is true. Herodotus, a fifth-century BCE contemporary of Socrates, broke from the Homeric tradition of passing narrative from generation to generation in his work "Investigations" known as Histories. Herodotus, regarded by some as the first systematic historian, Plutarch invented speeches for their historical figures and chose their historical subjects with an eye toward morally improving the reader.

History was supposed to teach good examples for one to follow. The assumption that history "should teach good examples" influenced. Events of the past are just as to show bad examples that one should not follow, but classical historians would either not record such examples or would re-interpret them to support their assumption of history's purpose. From the Classical period to the Renaissance, historians alternated between focusing on subjects designed to improve mankind and on a devotion to fact. History was composed of hagiographies of monarchs or of epic poetry describing heroic gestures. In the fourteenth century, Ibn Khaldun, considered one of the fathers of the philosophy of history, discussed his philosophy of history and society in detail in his Muqaddimah, his work represents a culmination of earlier works by medieval Islamic sociologists in the spheres of Islamic ethics, political science, historiography, such as those of al-Farabi, Ibn Miskawayh, al-Dawani, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Ibn Khaldun criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data".

He introduced a scientific method to the philosophy of history and he referred to it as his "new science", now associated with historiography. His historical method laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of the state, communication and systematic bias in history. By the eighteenth century historians had turned toward a more positivist approach—focusing on fact as much as possible, but still with an eye on telling histories that could instruct and improve. Starting with Fustel de Coulanges and Theodor Mommsen, historical studies began to move towards a more modern scientific form. In the Victorian era, historiographers debated less whether history was intended to improve the reader, more on what causes turned history and how one could understand historical change. Many ancient cultures held mythical and theological concepts of history and of time that were not linear; such societies saw history with alternating Dark and Golden Ages. Plato taught the concept of the Great Year, other Greeks spoke of aeons.

Similar examples include the ancient doctrine of eternal return, which existed in Ancient Egypt, in the Indian religions, among the Greek Pythagoreans' and in the Stoics' conceptions. In his Works and Days, Hesiod described five Ages of Man: the Golden Age, the Silver Age, the Bronze Age, the Heroic Age, the Iron Age, which began with the Dorian invasion; some scholars identify just four ages, corresponding to the four metals, with the Heroic age as a description of the Bronze Age. A four-age count would match the Vedic or Hindu ages known as the Kali, Dwapara and Satya yugas. According to Jainism, this world has no beginning or end but goes through cycles of upturns and downturns constantly. Many Greeks believed that just as mankind went through four stages of character during each rise and fall of history so did government, they considered monarchy as the healthy régimes of the higher ages. In the East, cyclical theories of history developed in China and in the Islamic world in the work of Ibn Khaldun.

During the Renaissance, cyclical conceptions of history would become common, with proponents illustrating decay and rebirth by pointing to the decline of the Roman Empire. Machiavelli's Discourses on Livy provide an example; the notion of Empire contained in itself ascendance and decadence, as in Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. During the Age of Enlightenment, history began to be seen as both irreversible. Condorcet's interpretations of the various "stages of humanity" and Auguste Comte's positivism were among the most important formulations of such conceptions of history, which trusted social progress; as in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Emile treatise on education, the Enlightenment conceived the human species as perfectible: human nature could be infinitely developed through a well-thought pedagogy. Cyclical conceptions continued in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the works of authors

Wild Weasel

Wild Weasel is a code name given by the United States Armed Forces the US Air Force, to an aircraft, of any type, equipped with anti-radiation missiles and tasked with the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses: destroying the radar and Surface-to-Air Missile installations of enemy air defense systems. "The first Wild Weasel success came soon after the first Wild Weasel mission 20 December 1965 when Captains Al Lamb and Jack Donovan took out a site during a Rolling Thunder strike on the railyard at Yen Bai, some 75 miles northwest of Hanoi."The Wild Weasel concept was developed by the United States Air Force in 1965, after the introduction of Soviet SAMs and their downing of U. S. strike aircraft over the skies of North Vietnam. The program was headed by General Kenneth Dempster. Wild Weasel tactics and techniques began their development in 1965 following the commencement of Operation Rolling Thunder during the Vietnam War, were adapted by other nations during following conflicts, as well as being integrated into the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses, a plan used by U.

S. air forces to establish immediate air supremacy prior to possible full-scale conflict. Known by the operational code "Iron Hand" when first authorized on 12 August 1965, the term "Wild Weasel" derives from Project Wild Weasel, the USAF development program for a dedicated SAM-detection and suppression aircraft; the technique was called an "Iron Hand" mission, though technically this term referred only to the suppression attack before the main strike.) Named "Project Ferret", denoting a predatory animal that goes into its prey's den to kill it, the name was changed to differentiate it from the code-name "Ferret", used during World War II for radar counter-measures bombers. In brief, the task of a Wild Weasel aircraft is to bait enemy anti-aircraft defenses into targeting it with their radars, whereupon the radar waves are traced back to their source, allowing the Weasel or its teammates to target it for destruction. A simple analogy is playing the game of "flashlight tag" in the dark; the result is a hectic game of cat-and-mouse in which the radar "flashlights" are cycled on and off in an attempt to identify and kill the target before the target is able to home in on the emitted radar "light" and destroy the site.

The modern term used in the U. S. Armed Forces for this mission profile is "Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses", or SEAD; the Wild Weasel concept was proposed in 1965 as a method of countering the increasing North Vietnamese SAM threat, using volunteer crews flying the two-seat F model of the F-100 Super Sabre. While an effective airframe, the F-100F Wild Weasel did not have the performance characteristics to survive in a high threat environment; the first Wild Weasel squadron was the 354th Tactical Fighter Squadron based at Takhli Royal Thai Air Base, Thailand. After 45 days of operations against North Vietnamese targets, the 354th had one airplane left and of the 16 aircrew members, four had been killed, two were POW's, three had been wounded and two had quit; the Wild Weasel II version was the first unsuccessful attempt to use the F-4C as the Wild Weasel platform. When that effort failed, the Wild Weasel role was passed to the F-105F in the summer of 1966; the F-105F was converted for the role and was designated Wild Weasel III.

The F-105F was equipped with more advanced radar, jamming equipment, a heavier armament. Anti-radiation missiles were outfitted; the F-105F Wild Weasel airframes were modified with improved countermeasures components in a standardized configuration and designated the F-105G. The F-105G was designated Wild Weasel III. Although in some documentation the F-105F was referred to as an EF-105F, that designation never existed in the operational flying squadrons; the F-105 was no longer in production by 1964. With severe combat attrition of the F-105 inventory, the need for a more sophisticated aircraft resulted in the conversion of 36 F-4C Phantom II aircraft, designated F-4C Wild Weasel IV; the F-4C Wild Weasel IV was not designated as an EF-4C. The F-4E, the most advanced Phantom variant with extensive ground-attack capabilities and an internal gun, became the basis for the F-4G Wild Weasel V; this modification consisted of removing the gun and replacing it with the APR-38 Radar Homing and Warning Receiver, a cockpit upgrade for the back seat to manage the electronic combat environment.

A total of 134 F-4G models were converted from F-4Es with the first one flying in 1975. Squadron service began in 1978. F-4Gs were deployed to three active wings. One was stationed at George AFB, California, as part of the Rapid Deployment Force. F-4Gs from George AFB, Clark AB and Spangdahlem AB saw combat during Operation Desert Storm in 1991 protecting strike packages from enemy air defenses. During this conflict the F-4G saw heavy use, with only a single loss: an aircraft from Spangdahlem AB crashed in Saudi Arabia while returning from a mission, after one of the AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missiles hang fired which left the aircraft's instruments not displaying the correct altitude information and a significant frame tweak from the damage made the plane h


Taralga is a small village in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Upper Lachlan Shire. It is located at the intersection of the Laggan-Taralga Road, it is accessible from Oberon to the north, Mittagong to the east, Goulburn to the south, Crookwell to the west. At the 2016 census, Taralga had a population of 467; the exact origin of the name Taralga is disputed. The two most supported theories are that the village was known as "Trial Gang" as within the early colonial boundaries of Argyle County, it was a location for the trials of convicts and bushrangers before the Crown; the second theory is that Taralga means "native companion" in the language of the Burra Aboriginal people. Taralga is located close to the famous Wombeyan Caves; the town experiences a volatile climate and is affected by snow in the winter months. The population of Taralga has fluctuated over time reflecting the town's fortunes. There were 100 residents in 1863, growing to over 700 by the 1890s. After the depression of the 1890s, the population shrank to half this size, but recovered by the mid 1950s to its peak level.

Today the town and surrounds service around 400 people. The area around Taralga was the traditional land of the Burra Burra peoples, a warlike tribe who clashed with neighbouring tribes and never lost a fight. Although no major clashes with the Europeans seem to have been recorded, nor tales of collaboration with them, their last great gathering or corroboree seems to have been in the 1830s after which they are not recorded by European history. Accordingly, they would have been pushed further west to less fertile plains after the disease brought by the Europeans. Charles Throsby passed through the Taralga area in 1819 on a journey from Cowpastures to Bathurst in search of new grazing lands. By 1824, John Macarthur's son James and his nephew Hannibal had established themselves in the Taralga region where they helped pioneer Australia's wool industry. A private village was established on land donated by James Macarthur and cleared by convicts in order to house and service members of the Macarthur family and their employees.

Orchard Street, now the main thoroughfare is located on the site of Macarthur's orchard. During the town's early history, Macarthur Street functioned as the main street and many examples of heritage buildings still stand here. An 1828 census revealed a small number of residents at Taralga suggesting the village was under way by that time, although there were no more than a few buildings. For the first few decades of the colony of New South Wales, most of the settlers were convicts assigned to the landowners and it was they who cleared the land, built the huts and houses, ran the farms. Taralga started to look like a town after the first few houses were built in the 1840s, but more rapid growth would be experienced in the 1860s in part due to the Robertson Land Acts allowing freehold title over land to settlers at favourable rates. Taralga was established as a town in the 1860s, with a school in 1857, churches—Presbyterian in 1861, St. Ignatius Roman Catholic in 1864, St. Lukes Anglican in 1866 and Methodist in 1868.

There were a number of stores and artisans' businesses and two hotels recorded in 1866. There was a large increase in population in Taralga after the 1860s, caused by the gold rush bringing new migrants to the area. In 1923, the town was visited by Premier Sir George Fuller, marking a period of renewed interest and prosperity in Taralga. During this visit, the Premier unveiled a war memorial honouring those residents who served in World War I, turned the first sod for construction of a railway link as well as laying the foundation stone for the Taralga Co-Operative Dairy Company's new butter factory; the 25 km Taralga railway line, constructed as a branch from the Crookwell line at Roslyn opened in 1926 and closed in 1957. The line little remains of the formation. Electricity was first provided in the 1930s by way of a plant set up by local Mr Sid Holt. Taralga has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Macarthur Street: Catholic Church of Christ the King While the population of Taralga declined after the gold rush period, the character of the town did not.

Today there are many significant buildings to be observed throughout the town. Small vineyards are located around the town. There are two heritage listed hotels, a sports club with lawn bowling greens and tennis courts. There is a 9-hole golf course with sand greens; the town hosts the annual "Australia Day Rodeo" and the Taralga Tigers Rugby Club always attracts big crowds during the Winter months and in the summer touch football is played. The town is situated on the Goulburn-Oberon Road, designated Main Road 256, progressively upgraded between 2002 and 2008. Taralga is the largest settlement between the two towns and a convenient stop for travellers between Goulburn and Bathurst wishing to bypass Sydney; the town can be accessed by rural roads from Crookwell and Marulan. On 20 February 2012, approval was granted by the New South Wales Government for work to commence on the Taralga Wind Farm; the project will see the construction of 51 wind turbines generating 106.8 Megawatts of electricity on ridges to the east of Taralga.

Electricity generated by the project will be fed into the national power grid through a 38 km transmission line to Marulan Substation. The project is expected to create up to 200 local jobs during the construction phase. Approval of the wind farm followed an unsuccessful challenge by the Taralga Landscape Guardians in the Land and Environment Court of New South Wales to block the project on the gro