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Phonaesthetics is the study of beauty and pleasantness associated with the sounds of certain words or parts of words. The term was first used in this sense by J. R. R. Tolkien, during the mid-twentieth century and derives from the Greek: φωνή plus the Greek: αἰσθητική. Speech sounds have many aesthetic qualities, some of which are subjectively regarded as euphonious or cacophonous. Phonaesthetics remains a budding and subjective field of study, with no scientifically or otherwise formally established definition. More broadly, phonaesthetics refers to the study of "phonaesthesia": sound symbolism. For instance, the British linguist David Crystal, who has compiled research on popular perceptions of beautiful-sounding English words, regards phonaesthetics as the "study of aesthetic properties of sounds the sound symbolism attributable to individual sounds". For example, English-speakers tend to associate unpleasantness with the sound sl- in such words as sleazy, slime and slush, or to associate formless repetition with -tter in such words as chatter, glitter and shatter.

Euphony is the effect of sounds being perceived as pleasant, lyrical, or harmonious. Cacophony is the effect of sounds being perceived as harsh, unpleasant and discordant. Compare with consonance and dissonance in music. In poetry, for example, euphony may be used deliberately to convey comfort, peace, or serenity, while cacophony may be used to convey discomfort, pain, or disorder; this is furthered by the combined effect of the meaning beyond just the sounds themselves. The California Federation of Chaparral Poets, Inc. uses Emily Dickinson's "A Bird Came Down the Walk" as an example of euphonious poetry, one passage being "... Oars divide the Ocean, / Too silver for a seam" and John Updike's "Player Piano" as an example of cacophonous poetry, one passage being "My stick fingers click with a snicker / And, they knuckle the keys". David Crystal's 1995 paper "Phonaesthetically Speaking" explores lists, created by reader polls and individual writers, of English words that are regarded as sounding beautiful, to search for any patterns within the words' phonetics.

Recurring example words in these lists include gossamer and tranquil. Crystal's findings, assuming a British Received Pronunciation accent, is that words perceived as pretty tend to have a majority of a wide array of criteria. Crystal suggests the invented words ramelon and drematol, which he notes are similar to the types of names employed in the marketing of pharmaceutical drugs; the English compound noun cellar door has been cited as an example of a word or phrase, beautiful purely in terms of its sound without regard for its meaning. The phenomenon of cellar door being regarded as euphonious appears to have begun in the early twentieth century, first attested in the 1903 novel Gee-Boy by the Shakespeare scholar Cyrus Lauron Hooper, it has been promoted as beautiful-sounding by various writers. Furthermore, the phenomenon itself is touched upon in many sources and media, including a 1905 issue of Harper's Magazine by William Dean Howells, the 1967 novel Why Are We in Vietnam? by Norman Mailer, a 1991 essay by Jacques Barzun, the 2001 psychological drama film Donnie Darko.

The origin of cellar door being considered as an inherently beautiful or musical word is mysterious. However, in 2014, Nunberg speculated that the phenomenon might have arisen from Philip Wingate and Henry W. Petrie's 1894 hit song "I Don't Want to Play in Your Yard", which contains the lyric "You'll be sorry when you see me sliding down our cellar door". Following the song's success, "slide down my cellar door" became a popular catchphrase up until the 1930s or 1940s to mean engaging in a type of friendship or camaraderie reminiscent of childhood innocence. A 1914 essay about Edgar Allan Poe's choice of the word "Nevermore" in his 1845 poem "The Raven" as being based on euphony may have spawned an unverified legend, propagated by syndicated columnists like Frank Colby in 1949 and L. M. Boyd in 1979, that cellar door was Poe's favorite phrase. Tolkien and others have suggested that cellar door's auditory beauty becomes more apparent the more the word is dissociated from its literal meaning, for example, by using alternative spellings such as Selador or Selladore, which take on the quality of an enchanting name.

Affection Assimilation Dissimilation Epenthesis Inherently funny word Japanese sound symbolism Onomatopoeia Phonestheme

Mustafa Do─čan

Mustafa Doğan is a retired German footballer of Turkish descent who played as a central defender. During his professional career, he played for teams in both his native country and land of adoption, representing the German national team in the late 90's. A native of the village of Dedeçam, in Yalvaç district, Isparta, Doğan started his career playing for TV Asberg, a small German club. At 13, he signed his first professional contract, with KFC Uerdingen 05, having made his first-team debut on 15 May 1994, in a second division match at Wuppertaler SV. In 1996, Doğan transferred to Istanbul's Fenerbahçe SK, he stayed there for seven years, the first five as a starter switched back to Germany, signing with Bundesliga outfit 1. FC Köln. On 18 October 2003, he netted his sole top flight goal, in a 1–0 home win against SC Freiburg. Beşiktaş J. K. took it upon themselves to bring the defender back to the Turkish first division and signed Doğan in 2004–05. Hampered by several injuries, he retired in 2007, at 31.

After having represented Germany's U21, Doğan was capped twice by his adoptive nation in 1999, the first in July, a 2–0 defeat with the United States in the FIFA Confederations Cup, playing his second and last three months in a UEFA Euro 2000 qualifier against, of all the teams, Turkey. A goalless home draw was the outcome. After retiring, Doğan worked as football commentator for Turkish sports television NTV Spor. Mustafa Doğan at Mustafa Doğan at Mustafa Doğan at Mustafa Doğan – FIFA competition record

Adam Loveday

Adam Loveday is a novel by Kate Tremayne, is the first in the Loveday series of books. The plot centres on his brother St John; as the younger of the two, Adam knows that when their father dies, the family estate and shipyard that he loves so much will be inherited by his wayward brother. The rivalry between the two men intensifies when Adam falls in love with Meriel Sawle, the beautiful daughter of the local tavern keeper, but St John is determined that Adam will have neither Meriel. According to genealogical information provided in the book, Adam Loveday was born in Cornwall in 1767 as the son of Edward and Marie Loveday, he has St John Loveday. Adam Loveday was encouraged to join the Royal Navy, spent much of his early life as a junior officer. However, he was forced to leave after being caught duelling with a rival officer, Lieutenant Francis Beaumont. After this he spent much time working in his father's shipyard where his designs for new ships helped to expand and improve the business, his talent for shipbuilding encouraged his father to make Adam heir to the family shipyard, further fuelling the rivalry between himself and St John.

Adam is described as being tall, with dark shoulder length hair, a lean build and tanned skin from his long days spent at sea. He is twenty years old when introduced in the first book of the Loveday series


Atziluth or Atzilut, is the highest of four worlds in which exists the Kabbalistic Tree of Life. Beri'ah follows it, it is known as the World of Causes. In the Kabbalah, each of the Sephiroth in this world is associated with a Name of God, it is associated with the Suit of Wands in the Tarot. Atziluth is the realm of pure divinity; the four worlds of Kabbalah relate to the Tree of Life in two primary ways: Firstly, it is taught that the whole tree is contained in each of the four worlds, in this manner they are described one on top of another, in symbolic form, by a diagram called Jacob's Ladder. Secondly, is taught that the Tree of Life can be subdivided into four horizontal sections, each representing one of the four worlds, it should be remembered that in Kabbalah each of the ten Sephirot of the Tree of Life contains a whole tree inside itself. In this philosophy of the "whole in the part," Kabbalastic theories are in harmony with David Bohm's model of implicate order; the realm of Atziluth is thus related to the top three Sephirot of the Tree of Life.

The word is derived from "atzal" in reference to Ezekiel 42:6. The theory of emanation, conceived as a free act of the will of God, endeavors to surmount the difficulties that attach to the idea of creation in its relation to God; these difficulties are threefold: the act of creation involves a change in the unchangeable being of God. The simile used for the emanation is either the soaked sponge that emits spontaneously the water it has absorbed, or the gushing spring that overflows, or the sunlight that sends forth its rays—parts of its own essence—everywhere, without losing any portion, however infinitesimal, of its being. Since it was the last-named simile that chiefly occupied and influenced the Kabbalistic writers, Atziluth must properly be taken to mean "eradiation". On the expression "Atziluth" assumed a more specific meaning, influenced no doubt by the little work, Maseket Atzilut. Herein for the first time, the four worlds are distinguished: Atziluth, Beri'ah, Assiah, but here too they are transferred to the region of spirits and angels: In the Atzilah-world the Shekinah alone rules.

In the Zohar, Atziluth is taken to be the direct emanation of God, in contradistinction to the other emanations derived from the Sephirot. No fourfold world is mentioned. Moses Cordovero and Isaac Luria were the first to introduce the fourfold world as an essential principle into Kabbalistic speculation. According to this doctrine, the Atzilah-world represents the ten Sephirot. In contradistinction to the Atzilah-world, which constitutes the domain of the Sephirot, the three other worlds are called by the general name "Pirud". Kabbalists explain "Atziluth" as meaning "excellence," so that according to them the Atzilah-world would mean the most excellent or highest world; the letter yud י in the Tetragrammaton The sefirah of Chochmah and hence the partzuf of Abba The element of Fire The soul-level of Chayah The brain The Shemoneh Esrei in the Shacharit prayer service In the allegory of the teacher and the student, the first stage where the teacher has a flash of inspiration, or an unexpanded concept that he wishes to give to the student The fixed, sign of Leo.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Kaufmann Kohler. "Azilut". In Singer, Isidore; the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls

Richmond, Texas

Richmond is a city in Fort Bend County, United States. It is the county seat, is located within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area; as of the 2010 U. S. census, the city population was 11,679. In 1822, a group of Austin's colonists went up the Brazos River, stopping near present-day Richmond where they built a fort called "Fort Bend". Named after Richmond, the town was among the 19 cities first incorporated by the short-lived Republic of Texas, in 1837. Early residents of the city include many prominent figures in Texas lore such as Jane Long, Deaf Smith, Mirabeau Lamar, who are all buried in Richmond. On August 16, 1889, the town was the site of the "Battle of Richmond", an armed fight culminating the Jaybird–Woodpecker War, a violent feud over post-Reconstruction political control of Fort Bend County; the mayor from 1949 until his death in 2012 was Hilmar Moore. Richmond had government agencies and nonprofit organizations, while most of the area private businesses were located in Rosenberg.

Richmond is located near the center of Fort Bend County. Most of the city is situated on the southwest side of the Brazos River, with a small portion on the northeast side, connected by US Highway 90A. Richmond is bordered to the southwest by the city of Rosenberg. US 90A leads west through Rosenberg 19 miles to East Bernard. Downtown Houston is 30 miles to the northeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Richmond has a total area of 4.3 square miles, of which 3.9 square miles are land and 0.35 square miles, or 8.22%, is covered by water. In 2003, Jeannie Kever of the Houston Chronicle said, "Some of the old buildings have been reincarnated as shops or law offices, but in other ways, life in Richmond isn't so different from that in the big city, with its Wal-Mart and fast-food joints, check-cashing businesses and strip-center sprawl." As of 2006 several strip malls are along U. S. Route 59 south of town. During the same year, the community included tack stores, two-lane blacktop roads, horse ranches.

John P. Lopez of the Houston Chronicle said, "Richmond is a city of transition. It's as if the place is not sure if it wants to be a part of Houston's bustle or remain a slow-paced farm and ranch town, it tries to be both," and, "It is part Acres Homes, part Fort Bend County Fair." The wealthiest neighborhood, as of 2003, in Richmond is Hillcrest. Winston Terrace, another neighborhood, had its first houses built in 1940. Construction increased around the end of World War II. Most of the houses were built between 1940 and 1965. Jeannie Kever of the Houston Chronicle said that Winston Terrace is "a swath of mid-20th-century America, with sweeping oak trees and colorful brick or wood bungalows, named for the descendants of one of the region's most illustrious pioneers.""Mud Alley" as of 1985 had older bars and strip clubs. Mud Alley is located in an area; as of 1993 many police raids for drugs occurred in "Mud Alley". "Mud Alley" was known by several other nicknames, including "Little Boomtown". The area had a lot of recreational drugs.

As of the census of 2000, there were 11,081 people, 3,413 households, 2,628 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,975.4 people per square mile. There were 3,595 housing units at an average density of 965.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 51.20% White, 10.55% African American, 0.63% Native American, 3.53% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 31.00% from other races, 3.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 58.71% of the population. There were 3,413 households out of which 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.0% were non-families. 18.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.16 and the average family size was 3.60. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.6% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,888, the median income for a family was $35,801. Males had a median income of $27,457 versus $22,723 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,195. About 17.0% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.4% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Jester State Prison Farm units, including the Jester I Unit, the Carol Vance Unit, the Jester III Unit, the Jester IV Unit, in an unincorporated area 4 miles east of Richmond. Fort Bend County Libraries operates the George Memorial Library, the central library and the site of the administrative offices of the library system, located along Farm to Market Road 762. Richmond has the Fort Bend County Law Library; the Main Library moved from Rosenberg to its current location in Richmond in 1986.

The George Foundation funded the 77,000 square feet library facility, designed by Ronald Wedemeyer Associates and built on 6 acres of land. When the library opened, it had unfinished areas to facilitate future expansion. In December 1989 the Commissioners Court of Fort Bend County, in accordance with Texas Local Government code §323.021, ordered the construction of a

Imaichi Station

Imaichi Station is a railway station on the Nikkō Line in Nikkō, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Imaichi Station is served by the Nikkō Line, is located 33.9 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Utsunomiya The station consists of an island platform serving two tracks, connected to the station building by a footbridge. Imaichi Station opened on 1 June 1890. On 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR East with the privatization of the Japanese National Railways. A new station building was completed in 2013. Former Imaichi city hall Imaichi Post Office National Route 119 National Route 121 List of railway stations in Japan JR East Station information