Photogrammetry is the art and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through the process of recording and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant imagery and other phenomena. Photogrammetry appeared in the middle of the XIX century simultaneously with the appearance of photography itself; the use of photographs to create topographic maps was first proposed by the French surveyor Dominique F. Arago in about 1840; the term photogrammetry was coined by the Prussian architect Albrecht Meydenbauer, which appeared his 1867 article "Die Photometrographie."There are many variants of photogrammetry. One example is the extraction of three-dimensional measurements from two-dimensional data. Another is the extraction of accurate color ranges and values representing such quantities as albedo, specular reflection, metallicity, or ambient occlusion from photographs of materials for the purposes of physically based rendering.
Close-range photogrammetry refers to the collection of photography from a lesser distance than traditional aerial photogrammetry. Photogrammetric analysis may be applied to one photograph, or may use high-speed photography and remote sensing to detect and record complex 2D and 3D motion fields by feeding measurements and imagery analysis into computational models in an attempt to successively estimate, with increasing accuracy, the actual, 3D relative motions. From its beginning with the stereoplotters used to plot contour lines on topographic maps, it now has a wide range of uses such as sonar and lidar. Photogrammetry uses methods from many disciplines, including optics and projective geometry. Digital image capturing and photogrammetric processing includes several well defined stages, which allow the generation of 2D or 3D digital models of the object as an end product; the data model on the right shows what type of information can go into and come out of photogrammetric methods. The 3D co-ordinates define the locations of object points in the 3D space.
The image co-ordinates define the locations of the object points' images on the film or an electronic imaging device. The exterior orientation of a camera defines its location in its view direction; the inner orientation defines the geometric parameters of the imaging process. This is the focal length of the lens, but can include the description of lens distortions. Further additional observations play an important role: With scale bars a known distance of two points in space, or known fix points, the connection to the basic measuring units is created; each of the four main variables can be an output of a photogrammetric method. Algorithms for photogrammetry attempt to minimize the sum of the squares of errors over the coordinates and relative displacements of the reference points; this minimization is known as bundle adjustment and is performed using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. A special case, called stereophotogrammetry, involves estimating the three-dimensional coordinates of points on an object employing measurements made in two or more photographic images taken from different positions.
Common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be constructed from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of these rays. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information about the scene, known a priori, for example symmetries, in some cases allowing reconstructions of 3D coordinates from only one camera position. Stereophotogrammetry is emerging as a robust non-contacting measurement technique to determine dynamic characteristics and mode shapes of non-rotating and rotating structures. Photogrammetric data with a dense range data in which scanners complement each other. Photogrammetry is more accurate in the x and y direction while range data are more accurate in the z direction; this range data can be supplied by techniques like LiDAR, laser scanners, white-light digitizers and any other technique that scans an area and returns x, y, z coordinates for multiple discrete points. Photos can define the edges of buildings when the point cloud footprint can not.
It is beneficial to incorporate the advantages of both systems and integrate them to create a better product. A 3D visualization can be created by georeferencing the aerial photos and LiDAR data in the same reference frame, orthorectifying the aerial photos, draping the orthorectified images on top of the LiDAR grid, it is possible to create digital terrain models and thus 3D visualisations using pairs of aerial photographs or satellite. Techniques such as adaptive least squares stereo matching are used to produce a dense array of correspondences which are transformed through a camera model to produce a dense array of x, y, z data which can be used to produce digital terrain model and orthoimage products. Systems which use these techniques, e.g. the ITG system, were developed in the 1980s and 1990s but have since been supplanted by LiDAR and radar-based approaches, although these techniques may still be useful in deriving elevation models from old aerial photographs or satellite images. Photogrammetry is used in fields such as topographic mapping, engineering, quality control, police investigatio
The Fútbol Club Marina Central de Reservas known as Cañoneros Marina, is a Mexican football club based in Mexico City. The club was founded on 2012, plays in Serie A; the team was founded on 2012 by an agreement between the mexican Secretariat of the Navy and amateur soccer league, Liga de Fútbol Torneo Central de Reservas. The creation of the team was made with the objective of creating a team to train the talents of the national navy and athletes emerged in the amateur tournament; this club is funded in part by the Mexican government by relying on a Federal Secretariat. From 2012 to 2018, the team participated in Tercera División; the team's greatest success came in the 2017-18 season, when it achieved the second place in the category, after being defeated by Acatlán F. C. in the final series. The condition as runner-up of the team allowed him to get promotion to Serie B, because his rival did not meet the requirements to participate in this division; the club maintains a reserve team competing in Tercera División.
In the first season in Serie B, the team qualified for the playoffs. In the quarterfinals the team eliminated Mineros de Fresnillo by 6-2 in the aggregate. In semifinals, Marina tied with Atlético Saltillo Soccer, but advanced by his condition of best-seeded team. In the final, the navy defeated Deportivo CAFESSA 3-2 on aggregate, thus winning its first championship in history. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Marina Reserve team. Serie B de México: 2018–2019 Tercera División de México: Runner Up: 2017–2018 Club Cañoneros Marina on Facebook Club Cañoneros Marina on Twitter Team Info
Sauvīra was an ancient kingdom of the lower Indus Valley mentioned in the Late Vedic and early Buddhist literature and the Hindu epic Mahabharata. It is mentioned alongside the Sindhu Kingdom, its capital city was Roruka, identified with present-day Aror/Rohri in Sindh, mentioned in the Buddhist literature as a major trading center. According to the Mahabharata, Jayadratha was the king of the Sindhus and Sivis, having conquered Sauvira and Sivi, two kingdoms close to the Sindhu kingdom. Jayadratha was the husband of Duryodhana's sister Dussala; the kingdom of Sauvira is stated to be close to the Dwaraka and Anarta kingdoms. The Sauvira people mentioned in the Mahabharata may be related to the modern-day Saraiki people. Persian scholar Al-Beruni considered Sauvira to represent southwest Punjab, including Multan and adjacent areas in the region of the confluence of the Indus river with other rivers of Punjab in modern Pakistan. Culturally, the Sauviras were mentioned by the character Karna as being similar to the Madras: "The Prasthalas, the Madras, the Gandharas, the Arattas, those called Khasas, the Vasatis, the Sindhus and the Sauviras are as blamable in their practices."
The Gandharvas, the Sindhus, the Sauviras fight best with their nails and lances. They are brave and endowed with great strength, their armies are capable of vanquishing all forces. The Usinaras are skilled in all kinds of weapons; the Easterners are skilled in fighting from the backs of war elephants and are proficient with alternate fighting methods. The Yavanas, the Kamvojas, those that dwell around Mathura are well skilled in fighting with bare arms; the Southerners are skilled in fighting sword in hand. In book 5, section 133 of the Mahabharata, the character Kunti tells the story of Vidula. Vidula persuaded her son, the king of Sauvira but banished by the Sindhu king, to fight against the Sindhus and take back his kingdom from them: "And the princess Vidula, one day, rebuked her own son, after his defeat by the king of the Sindhus, lay prostrate with heart depressed by despair." "Rejoice, O son, make thyself happy in the possession of wealth in the company of the daughters of the Sauviras and do not, in weakness of heart, be ruled over by the daughters of the Saindhavas."
"Pierced by the wordy arrows of his mother, the son roused himself like a steed of proud mettle and achieved all that his mother had pointed out." The kingdom of Sauvira was founded by one of the sons of Sivi. The neighboring kingdoms of Madra and Sindhu belonged to Madraka and Vrsadarbh, the other three sons of Sivi. Jayadratha was the king not only of Sindhu and other countries as well; the warriors of the Sivi and Sindhu tribes were under the command of Jayadratha. In section 22 of book 11, Jayadradtha is again mentioned as the king of Sindhu and Saivira, being married to — besides Dussala — two other wives, one from Gandhara and the other from Kamboja. Jayadratha is mentioned as the king of Sauvira at many places in the Mahabharata, such as in this conversation between Jayadratha's ally Kotika and Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas: I am king Suratha's son whom people know by the name of Kotika, that man with eyes large as the petals of the lotus, sitting on a chariot of gold, is the warrior known by the name of Kshemankara, king of Trigarta.
And behind him is the famous son of the king of Pulinda, now gazing on thee. Armed with a mighty bow and endued with large eyes, decorated with floral wreaths, he always liveth on the breasts of mountains; the dark and handsome young man, the scourge of his enemies, standing at the edge of that tank, is the son of Suvala of the race of Ikshwaku. And if, O excellent lady, thou hast heard the name of Jayadratha, the king of Sauviras he is there at the head of six thousand chariots, with horses and elephants and infantry, followed by twelve Sauvira princes as his standard-bearers, named Angaraka, Guptaka, Srinjaya, Prabhankara, Ravi, Sura and Kuhana, all mounted on chariots drawn by chestnut horses; the brothers of the king, viz. the powerful Valahaka, Anika and others, are among his followers. These strong-limbed and noble youths are the flowers of the Sauvira chivalry; the king is journeying in the company of these his friends. A king named; the whole chapter consists of a sage in the Bharadwaja clan.
Arjuna and the other Pandava princes became so powerful that they slew in battle the great Sauvira who had performed a sacrifice extending over three years, undaunted by the raids of the Gandharvas. And the king of the Yavanas himself, whom the powerful Pandu had failed to bring under subjection, was brought by Arjuna under control. Again Vipula, the king of the Sauviras, endued with great prowess, who had always shown a disregard for the Kurus, was made by the intelligent Arjuna to feel the edge of his power, and Arjuna repressed by means of his arrows king Sumitra of Sauvira known by the name of Dattamitra who had resolutely sought an encounter with him. A prajapati named Manu, his descendants who ruled Sauvira, are described by Bhishma: Manu had a son of the name of the Ikshwaku, his tenth son was named Dasaswa, this virtuous prince of infallible prowess became the king of Mahismati. Dasaswa's son was ruled over the Earth as her lord, he was dev