SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Photography

Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but is not yet recognized internationally. The first use of the word by the Franco-Brazilian inventor became known after the research of Boris Kossoy in 1980; the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention. The article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print, it was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The astronomer Sir John Herschel is credited with coining the word, independent of Talbot, in 1839.

The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype". Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image; the discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a camera obscura in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura as well as the first true pinhole camera. The invention of the camera has been traced back to the work of Ibn al-Haytham. While the effects of a single light passing through a pinhole had been described earlier, Ibn al-Haytham gave the first correct analysis of the camera obscura, including the first geometrical and quantitative descriptions of the phenomenon, was the first to use a screen in a dark room so that an image from one side of a hole in the surface could be projected onto a screen on the other side.

He first understood the relationship between the focal point and the pinhole, performed early experiments with afterimages, laying the foundations for the invention of photography in the 19th century. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper. The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver." The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825.

In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviv

Phresher

Kashaun Rameek Rutling, known professionally as Phresher, is an American rapper from Brooklyn, New York. Phresher first gained recognition in 2016 for his single "Wait a Minute" featuring Remy Ma, found continued success with his single "Right Now" featuring Cardi B in 2017. In late 2017, he was featured on Eminem's song "Chloraseptic" from his ninth studio album Revival, which debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200. In 2018, he was featured on an official remix of "Chloraseptic" alongside 2 Chainz. Rutling was born in Brooklyn, New York, is of Trinidadian descent. Growing up in the Bamaz Projects, a crime-ridden area in East New York, Brooklyn, he was an only child raised by both his parents, he was an athlete in high school as a teenager, attended Thomas Jefferson High School, graduating in 2004. He was a member of the football team and played safety and wide receiver in Division II, his first son was born when he was sixteen years old, forcing him to quit sports in order to focus on raising his son.

It was. He decided to pursue a life in music when he was 21. At the beginning of his career, he wrote over 100 songs which were never released, but drastically helped him improve his writing and delivery. Rutling was a paraprofessional in New York City public schools for 10 years before he decided to pursue a musical career. During his time as a paraeducator, Rutling worked with special education students and worked in youth detention centers. At the time, he made music on the side as a novice. In addition to making music, Rutling owns a clothing line named "SO BarKlay Apparel." Phresher released his debut song, "Polo Song", in 2010. Around 2012, Phresher started to release singles, EPs, music videos onto the internet, which saw minor success, he released his debut mixtape, Take It Personal, in 2015. In 2016, his single "Wait a Minute" was pitched to the YouTube global music team by The Young'N Grateful Group, becoming an instant success. Following "Wait a Minute" receiving several million views, the video caught the attention of rapper 50 Cent, who appeared on a remix of the song along with rapper Remy Ma.

The song appeared as a bonus cut on the DJ Whoo Kid mixtape Lost Flash Drive and released on G-Unit Records. Rapper Royce da 5'9" put forth a freestyle remix over "Wait a Minute." Following Royce promoting the remix via social media, Eminem made a notable mention of the freestyle. Eminem's heavy revere as to Royce's word play led the Detroit rapper to become interested in Phresher. In 2017, Phresher's management duo Jay Andino and Michael Caseau had become sought after by Shady Redords staff. After several hundred instrumentals were sent by the Young'N Grateful collective to no avail, Caseau suggested to Shady Records A&R's, stating: "Phresher collaborating with Em' could give that same platform and vibe Royce gave on the remix. Instead of using a similar beat, we just need any beat with him on it to recreate the energy, not the sound design.”Thereafter, Caseau worked with Shady Records' A&Rs. In 2017, Eminem's long-time manager Paul Rosenberg contacted Andino, stating Eminem had interest in collaborating with Phresher.

Eminem's mix engineer flew to New York to meet with Phresher to record "Chloraseptic," listed as track No. 3 on Revival. Phresher spoke about the collaboration, stating: "When I first heard that he wanted me on the project, I was astonished. I didn't believe anything until they flew in and recorded the record. That's when I was like,'Oh! This is real.' It was about two months ago, three the most. That was just amazing. We met in the studio; that was just crazy."On April 5, 2018, Phresher released the song "Teamwork" as the lead single from his debut studio album, PH. The song's music video was released four days on April 9; the second single from the album, "You Do", was released on May 11, 2018. The music video for "You Do" was released on May 23, 2018. On June 3, 2018, Phresher was brought out to perform "Chloraseptic" alongside Eminem on the third day of the Governors Ball Music Festival in Randall's Island, New York City. After multiple delays, PH was released on June 15, 2018; the album contains sixteen tracks and features guest appearances by Busta Rhymes, Joey Badass, Cardi B, among others.

Since December 2019, Phresher has starred as a cast member on VH1's reality series Love & Hip Hop: New York. In an interview, Phresher stated that his influences include Eminem, Jay-Z, Lil Wayne and The Notorious B. I. G. Phresher is known for his versatile sound. People say I sound like I'm from the South, some say I sound like I'm from California." Phresher has a son and a daughter. In his spare time, he coaches football. "My Circle" "On the Low" "Danny Devito" "Wait a Minute" "Wait a Minute" "My Circle" "Lyft" "Feel a Way" "Whole Thang" "Radio" "Cookin'" "Right Now" "Teamwork" "Like Dis" "You Do" "Keep It Up" "Papi Chulo" "All the Smoke" "Birthday Drip" "Duck Sauce" "Add It Up" - Mone Yukka "Doing Well" - Ghetto God (feat. Phresher

Die Tat

Die Tat was a monthly publication of politics and culture. It was founded in April 1909 and its publisher was Eugen Diederichs from Jena. From 1939 until 1944 Die Tat was continued as Das XX. Jahrhundert; the magazine was founded by the freemason Ernst Horneffer. It had the subtitle Wege zu freiem Menschentum. In October 1912 Eugen Diederichs took control of the magazine, which at that point had only a distribution of about 1,000; the content would change, from now on it would sport the subtitle Eine sozial-religiöse Monatsschrift changed to Sozial-religiöse Monatsschrift für deutsche Kultur. It would not be published during the First World War. Again, in 1921 Diederichs would change the title of Die Tat, implying another change of viewership and ideology: Die Tat. Monatsschrift für die Zukunft deutscher Kultur. In 1928 Diederichs transferred editorial control of Die Tat to the writer Adam Kuckhoff; this would only last shortly. The magazine would be restyled however, getting the subtitle Monatsschrift zur Gestaltung neuer Wirklichkeit.

Hans Zehrer would become chief editor of Die Tate in September 1929, would together with Ernst Wilhelm Eschmann, Ferdinand Fried and Giselher Wirsing make Die Tate into an influential promoter of the Tatkreis and the Conservative Revolutionary movement. In a short time the circulation of the magazine would rise to 30,000, attracting a middle-class populace, becoming a front-runner of the Nazi propaganda machine with the magazine's stress on autarky and anti-capitalistic tendencies, it provided a front for Kurt von Schleicher, when Die Tate took control of the Berlin paper Tägliche Rundschau in 1932. In 1933 the Nazis took control of the publication and Giselher Wirsing would become its main editor, changing the subtitle of the magazine to Unabhängige Monatsschrift in 1934; the last subtitle change of the magazine occurred in 1936, fittingly it was now to be named the Deutsche Monatsschrift. Tatkreis Hans Brunzel: Die „Tat“ 1918–1933, Diss. phil. Bonn 1952 Irmgard Heidler, Der Verleger Eugen Diederichs und seine Welt.

Wiesbaden 1998. Hans Henneke: „Ulrich Unfried" und der Tat-Kreis in: Criticón 182/183, 2004, S. 43–46 Edith Hanke & Gangolf Hübinger: Von der "Tat"-Gemeinde zum "Tat"-Kreis. Die Entwicklung einer Kulturzeitschrift, in: Gangolf Hübinger: Versammlungsort moderner Geister. Der Eugen Diederichs Verlag – Aufbruch ins Jahrhundert der Extreme, München 1996, S. 299–334 Klaus Fritzsche: Politische Romantik und Gegenrevolution. Fluchtwege in der Krise der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft: Das Beispiel des Tat-Kreises. Frankfurt a. M. 1976 Kurt Sontheimer: Der Tatkreis, in: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 7, Heft 3, 1959, S. 229–260 PDF Siegfried Kracauer: Aufruhr der Mittelschichten. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit dem "Tat"-Kreis, in: Ders.: Schriften, Bd. 5.2, Frankfurt/Main 1990, S. 405–424 Stefan Breuer: Anatomie der Konservativen Revolution Darmstadt 1993 Alfred Weber: Ausgewählte Briefwechsel, hg. von Eberhard Demm und Hartmut Soell, Marburg 2003. Eugen Diederichs: Leben und Werk. Ausgewählte Briefe und Aufzeichnungen, hg. von Lulu von Strauß und Torney-Diederichs, Jena 1936.

Marino Pulliero: Une modernité explosive. La revue Die Tat dans les renouveaux religieux, culturels et politiques de l’Allemagne d’avant 1914–1918. Genf 2008Zum Lebensgefühl der Zwischenkriegsjugend: Klaus Mann, Der Wendepunkt. Frankfurt a. M. 1956. Areti Georgiadou: Das Leben zerfetzt sich mir in tausend Stücke. Frankfurt a. M. 1996