The Phrygians were an ancient Indo-European people dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges, changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont. However, the Balkan origins of the Phrygians are debated by modern scholars. From tribal and village beginnings, the state of Phrygia arose in the eighth century BC with its capital at Gordium; the Phrygian Kingdom, based out of Gordium, arose in the eighth century BC. Around 690 BC, it was invaded by the Cimmerians. Phrygia was conquered by its neighbour Lydia, before it passed successively into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great and the empire of Alexander and his successors. After this, it was taken by the Attalids of Pergamon, became part of the Roman Empire; the last mention of the Phrygian language in literature dates to the fifth century AD and it was extinct by the seventh century. The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language; some contemporary historians, among whom Strabo is the best known, considered the Phrygians to be a Thracian tribe, part of a wider "Thraco-Phrygian" group.
Other linguists dismiss this hypothesis since Thracian seems to belong to the Satem group of Indo-European languages, while Phrygian shared several similarities with other Indo-European languages of the Centum group. According to this second group of linguists, of all the Indo-European languages, Phrygian seems to have been most linked to Greek, suggesting that the two languages belonged to the same dialectal subgroup of early Indo-European. Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians and from Ancient Egyptians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found funereal, so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources. Based on archaeological evidence, some scholars such as Nicholas Hammond and Eugene N. Borza argue that the Phrygians were members of the Lusatian culture that migrated into the southern Balkans during the Late Bronze Age. However, the lack of western ceramic ware, the continuation of the pre-Bronze Age collapse pottery styles in central Asia Minor, have led some scholars to reject a Balkan or European origin for the Phrygians.
A conventional date of c. 1180 BC is used for the influx of the pre-Phrygian Bryges or Mushki, corresponding to the end of the Hittite empire. Following this date, Phrygia retained a separate cultural identity. In classical Greek iconography the Trojan Paris is represented as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, worn by Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the "Liberty cap" of the American and French revolutionaries. Phrygia developed an advanced Bronze Age culture; the earliest traditions of Greek music are in part connected to Phrygian music, transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia the Phrygian mode, considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian Midas, the king of the "golden touch", was tutored in music by Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was a reed instrument with two pipes. Marsyas, the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag, was a Phrygian follower of Cybele, he unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo and lost, whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele's own sacred tree, a pine.
It was the "Great Mother", Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, worshipped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as "Mountain Mother". In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos, a veil covering the whole body; the version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias, the sculptor Agoracritus, became the image most adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon, a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine; the Phrygians venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus, representations of him at Roman times, show him as a horseman god, his conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus. This king resided at Iconium, the most eastern city of the kingdom of Phrygia at that time, after his death, at the age of 300 years, a great flood overwhelmed the country, as had been foretold by an ancient oracle; the next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called "manic" in Phrygia. Thereafter the kingdom of Phrygia seems to have become fragmented among various kings. One of the kings was Tantalus who ruled over the north western region of Phrygia around Mount Sipylus. Tantalus was endlessly punished in Tartarus, because he killed his son Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of human sacrifice. Tantalus was falsely accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the mythic age before the Trojan war, during a time of an interregnum, Gordius, a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular p
Sing meinen Song – Das Tauschkonzert is a German reality television series produced by Schwartzkopff TV Productions and broadcast on German television station VOX. Part of The Best Singers series, it is based on the Dutch series De beste zangers van Nederland; the inaugural series launched on 22 April 2014. The first German season of Sing meinen Song included the following artists: Sarah Connor, Andreas Gabalier, Sandra Nasić, Roger Cicero, Gregor Meyle and Xavier Naidoo; the album to accompany the series comprised 14 tracks. The deluxe version comprised 5 tracks performed in the shows by Xavier Naidoo and 4 by each of the other participants. In May 2016 it entered the German charts at No.2. The fourth season of Sing meinen Song included the following artists: The BossHoss, Stefanie Kloß, Mark Forster, Michael Patrick Kelly, Moses Pelham; the fifth season of Sing meinen Song included the following artists: Mark Forster, Mary Roos, Rea Garvey, Judith Holofernes, Johannes Strate, Leslie Clio and Marian Gold.
In October 2018, it was announced that Michael Patrick Kelly will replace Mark Forster as the show's host in season six. Kelly will be joined by Belgian musician Milow and Spanish-German singer Álvaro Soler as well as German singers Wincent Weiss, Johannes Oerding, Jeanette Biedermann, Jennifer Haben from metal band Beyond the Black; the Best Singers
The Combatant Status Review Tribunals were a set of tribunals for confirming whether detainees held by the United States at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp had been designated as "enemy combatants". The CSRTs were established July 7, 2004 by order of U. S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz after U. S. Supreme Court rulings in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld and Rasul v. Bush and were coordinated through the Office for the Administrative Review of the Detention of Enemy Combatants; these non-public hearings were conducted as "a formal review of all the information related to a detainee to determine whether each person meets the criteria to be designated as an enemy combatant." The first CSRT hearings began in July 2004. Redacted transcripts of hearings for "high value detainees" were posted to the Department of Defense website; as of October 30, 2007, fourteen CSRT transcripts were available on the DoD website. The Supreme Court of the United States found these tribunals to be unconstitutional in Boumediene v. Bush.
The CSRTs are not bound by the rules of evidence that would apply in court, the government's evidence is presumed to be "genuine and accurate." The government is required to present all of its relevant evidence, including evidence that tends to negate the detainee's designation, to the tribunal. Unclassified summaries of relevant evidence may be provided to the detainee; the detainee's personal representative may view classified information and comment on it to the tribunal to aid in its determination but does not act as an advocate for the detainee. If the tribunal determines that the preponderance of the evidence is insufficient to support a continued designation as "enemy combatant" and its recommendation is approved through the chain of command established for that purpose, the detainee will be informed of that decision upon finalization of transportation arrangements; the rules do not give a timetable for informing detainees in the event that the tribunal has decided to retain their enemy combatant designations.
Article 5 creates a particularized limited process, intended to sort individuals when any doubt exists as to their status. The sole question for determination is whether the captive meets the definition of POW in Article 4 of the Prisoner of War Convention. Secretary of the Navy Gordon R. England stated: As you will recall, in last June's Supreme Court decision in "Hamdi," Justice O'Connor explicitly suggested that a process based on existing military regulations—and she cited Army regulation 190-8—might be sufficient to meet due process standards. You'll perhaps know that that Army regulation is what the U. S. uses to implement Article 5 of the Geneva Convention. So our CSRT process incorporates that guidance from Article 5, Army regulation 190-8... Thus, the tribunals themselves are modeled after the procedures—AR 190-8 Tribunals—the military uses to make determinations in compliance with the Article 5 of the Third Geneva Convention This is most because, in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, a plurality of the Supreme Court suggested the Department of Defense empanel tribunals similar to the AR 190 to make factual status determinations.
The mandate of the CSRTs and the AR 190-8 Tribunals differed in that AR 190-8 Tribunals were authorized to determine that captives were civilians, who should be released, "lawful combatants", whom the Geneva Conventions protect from prosecution. The exact location of the current CSRT hearings is unknown, but prior CSRT hearings were held in trailers in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Images of the trailers, with the white, plastic chairs the detainees sat in shackled to the floor and the large, black leather chair behind a microphone where the President sat can be found on the DoD website. A dramatization of the conduct of CSRTs, based on CSRT transcripts, is presented in the film The Response; the identity of the presiding officers at CSRTs hearings is classified. In the CSRT transcripts released on the DoD website, that information has been removed from the transcripts; the ranks of those present and their service branch remain in the documents. For example, at Guleed Hassan Ahmed's CSRT in April 2007, the CSRT President was a Lieutenant Colonel from the U.
S. Air Force. Other services present include the U. S. Marine Corps and the U. S. Army. In other CSRTs, the ranks and persons present varied. At certain CSRTs, a non-military language analyst was present; the CSRT Recorder had several tasks. First, he or she was charged with keeping a record of the CSRT process by recording the CSRT process. Second, the Recorder swore in all the CSRT participants by administering an oath. Third, the Recorder was charged with presenting classified and unclassified material during the CSRTs. Fourth, the Recorder was asked to explain or clarify facts or information during the CSRT. In Guleed Hassan Ahmed's CSRT transcript one finds the following exchange: PRESIDENT:Tribunal has completed its review of the unclassified evidence provided. We do have one question for the Recorder. Is Somalia, and/or Kenya a coalition partner? RECORDER: Somalia is not. Detainees had the option of attending their CSRTs; some detainees protested the CSRTs by not attending, opting instead to send