In biology, phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms. These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits; the result of these analyses is a phylogeny —a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, represent the'end', or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. A phylogenetic tree can be unrooted. A rooted tree indicates ancestral lineage, of the tree. An unrooted tree makes no assumption about the ancestral line, does not show the origin or "root" of the gene or organism in question. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution and genomes. Taxonomy is the identification and classification of organisms, it is richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline.
The degree to which taxonomies depend on phylogenies differs depending on the school of taxonomy: phenetics ignores phylogeny altogether, trying to represent the similarity between organisms instead. Usual methods of phylogenetic inference involve computational approaches implementing the optimality criteria and methods of parsimony, maximum likelihood, MCMC-based Bayesian inference. All these depend upon an implicit or explicit mathematical model describing the evolution of characters observed. Phenetics, popular in the mid-20th century but now obsolete, used distance matrix-based methods to construct trees based on overall similarity in morphology or similar observable traits, assumed to approximate phylogenetic relationships. Prior to 1950, phylogenetic inferences were presented as narrative scenarios; such methods are ambiguous and lack explicit criteria for evaluating alternative hypotheses. The term "phylogeny" derives from the German Phylogenie, introduced by Haeckel in 1866, the Darwinian approach to classification became known as the "phyletic" approach.
During the late 19th century, Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory, or "biogenetic fundamental law", was accepted. It was expressed as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", i.e. the development of a single organism during its lifetime, from germ to adult, successively mirrors the adult stages of successive ancestors of the species to which it belongs. But this theory has long been rejected. Instead, ontogeny evolves – the phylogenetic history of a species cannot be read directly from its ontogeny, as Haeckel thought would be possible, but characters from ontogeny can be used as data for phylogenetic analyses. 14th century, lex parsimoniae, William of Ockam, English philosopher and Franciscan friar, but the idea goes back to Aristotle, precursor concept 1763, Bayesian probability, Rev. Thomas Bayes, precursor concept 18th century, Pierre Simon first to use ML, precursor concept 1809, evolutionary theory, Philosophie Zoologique, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck, precursor concept, foreshadowed in the 17th century and 18th century by Voltaire and Leibniz, with Leibniz proposing evolutionary changes to account for observed gaps suggesting that many species had become extinct, others transformed, different species that share common traits may have at one time been a single race foreshadowed by some early Greek philosophers such as Anaximander in the 6th century BC and the atomists of the 5th century BC, who proposed rudimentary theories of evolution 1837, Darwin's notebooks show an evolutionary tree 1843, distinction between homology and analogy, Richard Owen, precursor concept 1858, Paleontologist Heinrich Georg Bronn published a hypothetical tree to illustrating the paleontological "arrival" of new, similar species following the extinction of an older species.
Bronn did not propose a mechanism responsible for precursor concept. 1858, elaboration of evolutionary theory and Wallace in Origin of Species by Darwin the following year, precursor concept 1866, Ernst Haeckel, first publishes his phylogeny-based evolutionary tree, precursor concept 1893, Dollo's Law of Character State Irreversibility, precursor concept 1912, ML recommended and popularized by Ronald Fisher, precursor concept 1921, Tillyard uses term "phylogenetic" and distinguishes between archaic and specialized characters in his classification system 1940, term "clade" coined by Lucien Cuénot 1949, Jackknife resampling, Maurice Quenouille, precursor concept 1950, Willi Hennig's classic formalization 1952, William Wagner's groundplan divergence method 1953, "cladogenesis" coined 1960, "cladistic" coined by Cain and Harrison 1963, first attempt to use ML for phylogenetics and Cavalli-Sforza 1965 Camin-Sokal parsimony, first parsimony criterion and first computer program/algorith
KUAT-FM is a radio station operated out of the University of Arizona and serving the Tucson, metropolitan area. It operates on K209AF 89.7 MHz on the FM dial with a classical format. The broadcast schedule consists of playlists announced by local hosts, as well as nationally syndicated broadcasts, including those from the San Francisco Symphony, the Cleveland Orchestra, the Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic, the Metropolitan Opera and San Francisco Opera during their seasons, the Exploring Music program with host Bill McGlaughlin, the Radio Netherlands Live! at the Concertgebouw series. On Sundays, the NPR program From the Top, showcasing young classical musicians, is heard on KUAT, as well as Community Concerts, a program of classical music from the University of Arizona School of Music. During the overnight hours, the Music Through the Night service from Public Radio International is heard. KUAT-FM has translators throughout southern Arizona: KUAT-FM first went on the air on May 19, 1975, in classical format and as a National Public Radio affiliate.
The sister station KUAT-AM had a dual classical-jazz format, in 1975 became jazz. KUAT-FM official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KUAT Radio-Locator information on KUAT Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KUAT Query the FCC's FM station database for K209AF Radio-Locator information on K209AF Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for K209AF
Klepon, or kelepon, is a traditional Southeast Asian green-coloured balls of rice cake filled with liquid palm sugar and coated in grated coconut, originating from Indonesia. The sweet glutinous rice balls is one of popular Indonesian kue, it is found in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, it is a boiled rice cake, covered in coconut bits. The dough is made from glutinous rice flour, sometimes mixed with tapioca, it is green because the glutinous rice dough is flavoured and coloured with a paste made from the leaf of pandan or dracaena plant — whose leaves are used in Southeast Asian cooking. The small pieces of palm sugar are hard when inserted into glutinous rice dough and rolled into balls; the balls are boiled, subsequently the palm sugar melts due to high temperature, creating a sweet liquid inside the balls' core. The balls are rolled in grated coconut, thus the coconut bits stick to the sticky balls' surface. One must be careful. Besides the possibility that the bite could squirt and eject liquid palm sugar, a freshly boiled one – which contains hot liquid palm sugar, should be consumed or best to be left to cool down for some moment.
Klepon are traditionally served in a banana leaf container, in traditional marketplaces they are sold in banana leaf package containing four or ten balls. Today however, they might be packed in plastic wrappings. Klepon is Javanese name for this sweet glutinous rice balls. In other parts of Indonesia, such as in Sulawesi, Sumatra and in neighbouring Malaysia, it is known as onde-onde or in some regions,'buah melaka'. In Java however, onde-onde refers to the Chinese Jin deui, a rice cake ball coated with sesame seeds and filled with sweet green bean paste. Although popular across Southeast Asia, klepon may have originated in Java; the dish is called as klepon in the Netherlands. In the 1950s, klepon was introduced by Indo immigrants to the Netherlands and is available in toko shops, Dutch or Chinese Indonesian restaurants and supermarkets throughout the country. In Java, along with getuk and cenil, are eaten as morning or afternoon snacks, they are categorised as kue basah, are part of traditional Javanese jajan pasar.
Traditional klepon is quite homogenous in Indonesia and neighbouring Singapore. New recipes has been developed in the country. Several new variants has been created – for example by replacing the rice flour with yam or sweet potato dough, or replacing the liquid palm sugar filling with chocolate, or replacing the grated coconut with grated cheddar cheese. Colourful klepon has been created using potato-based dough and food colouring to make them more appealing for children. Klepon is quite similar to Kue putu, with the difference in its shape and the flour being used — klepon uses glutinous rice flour, while kue putu uses common rice flour, klepon has somewhat a chewy sticky texture similar to mochi, while kue putu has soft yet crumbly texture akin to common cake. Klepon shape is balls. There is a modern fusion that combine the baking technique of cupcake with onde-onde ingredients. List of Indonesian cuisine Javanese cuisine List of stuffed dishes
Jan Palthe was an 18th-century portraitist of the Northern Netherlands. He was the son of Gerhard Jan Palthe. In 1742 he became a member of part of the Leiden Guild of St. Luke, he is known for portrait etchings. His brother Anthonie, trained as a portrait painter, married Agatha Ketel and began a business in wall paper, a new and popular form of interior decoration; when his brother died, his sister-in-law Agatha married the painter Wybrand Hendricks. Biography in French Jan Palthe Portretschilder 1717–1769, Peggie Breitbarth, Exhibition Catalog 28 May – 28 August 2000, Historisch Museum Het Palthe Huis- Oldenzaal Bénézit: Dictionnaires des peintres tome 10 Neues Allgemeines Künstler Lexicon München 1841 tome 10 De nieuwe schouburg der nederlantsche kunstschilders, by Jan van Gool, 1751
Antonis Vratsanos, was a saboteur of the Greek People's Liberation Army, the military branch of the National Liberation Front during the Axis Occupation of Greece, of the Democratic Army of Greece during the Greek Civil War. Born in Larissa in 1919, he fought in the Greco-Italian War as a Reserve 2nd Lieutenant of Engineers. With the onset of the Occupation, he joined the EAM-ELAS, rising to become commander of the Olympus Engineers Battalion, with which he was engaged in numerous sabotage acts against the railway network used by the occupation forces.. During the subsequent civil war of 1946–49, he led a saboteur brigade of the communist Democratic Army of Greece. Following the communists' defeat, he went to exile in Romania. On February 28, 2007, he was awarded by the President of the Hellenic Republic, Karolos Papoulias, the "Grand Commander of the Order of Honor" for his actions in the Greek Resistance in the years 1941–44
Roberto Eduardo Biagio Borgatta y Ruiz, known professionally as Robert Edward Borgatta, was an American artist and foremost a nature painter whose style evolved from abstractions and became more representational. Robert was born in Havana and had a peripatetic childhood as his father worked for Marconi Communications as a communications engineer and installing telegraph systems throughout Latin America. Robert's father Carlos was of Northern Italian and Mexican Indian descent, fluent in both Spanish and Italian, an Italian citizen, he worked with David Sarnoff at Marconi Communications and Sarnoff would later found RCA. Prior to the outbreak of WWII when Italy became allied with Germany, Sarnoff offered Carlos a job at RCA and facilitated the visas for his immediate family to immigrate to the US from Italy. Onorio Ruotolo of the Leonardo da Vinci Art School in New York recognized Robert's talents as a child painter and accepted him as the youngest student in the school at nine years of age.
Robert traveled alone daily to the school via the elevated subway from Maspeth, Queens back home nine hours later. Carlos located the school through his acquaintance with Ruotolo from northern Italy; the School emphasized traditional European art training with extensive time spent drawing life size plaster casts of classical Greco Roman sculptures and extensive instruction on human anatomy. Robert was trained as Italian artists are trained as in the tradition of the Renaissance, where emphasis is first placed on drawing from classical Greek and Roman sculpture, before graduating to life model drawing and the study of perspective and on to art history; the School marked Robert's introduction to and lifelong admiration of Vesalius' anatomical drawings, he would return to this reference book throughout his career when he was sculpting. At the school, Robert developed a friendship with the sculptor Isamu Noguchi and the two maintained contact for many years thereafter. Noguchi had a long relationship with the School and like Robert, was a favorite of Ruotolo.
Like Robert, Noguchi was very different and stood apart from the other teachers and students: he was Japanese American and the oldest teacher at the time, Robert was the youngest student and still learning English. Noguchi enabled "Robbie" to attend the life drawing classes where subjects were nude models.. Robert attended life modeling classes throughout his career and found the experience of life drawing an important resource that helped him resolve technical issues when developing new works. In 1931 at the age of eleven, Robert was a recipient of a Wannamaker Prize bestowed upon the best child artist in New York City; the individual prizes were commemorative medals in the likeness of Rutherford B. Hayes the nineteenth President of the United States; this was one of his most cherished possessions and he carried it with him as an army intelligence officer during World War II. Leonardo da Vinci School, New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts. Bachelor of Fine Arts, magna cum laude, 1940 Yale University School of Art, MFA, 1942 Robert received his bachelor's degree from New York University School of Architecture and Allied Arts graduating magna cum laude in 1940, a Masters of Fine Arts from Yale University School of Fine Arts in 1942.
His masters thesis was on sculptor Modigliani. Robert was working on abstractions, portraits and representational works during his years as a student at NYU and Yale. United States Army Rangers, Military Intelligence In September 1945 as an officer in U. S. Army Intelligence, Master Sergeant Robert Borgatta testified in the trial of Rita Louisa Zucca known as “Axis Sally.” Zucca who had renounced her American citizenship in 1941 was broadcasting Nazi propaganda to U. S. troops in the Mediterranean. The tribunal would sentence her to four years for conspiring with the enemy with the intent of demoralizing U. S. soldiers. Robert was featured again on the front page of the Times for a more light-hearted piece regarding his liberation of a small Italian village; the Office of Strategic Services was a precursor to the CIA and Robert performed his duties through his Army Rangers attachment as an interrogator of Axis prisoners in Italy and North Africa. His fluency in five languages: French, Italian and English, along with charm and presence, made him an effective interrogator.
Despite these skills and his college degree, he refused officer commissions and stayed at the rank of Master Sergeant. His first hand experiences at Monte Cassino changed him into a lifelong pacifist and an anti-war activist during the Viet Nam era. Robert had returned to New York a World War II veteran having spent three years overseas, prior to that having completed his MFA at Yale, his paintings in this period are moody, dense urban landscapes and abstractions. Upon his return, Robert received an important commission from the prizefighter Joe Louis to produce a mural for Joe Louis’ nightclub and restaurant in Harlem: a fifty by eight foot mural depicting black contributions to American culture. Among the historic figures he portrayed were Booker T. Washington, Dr. George Washington Carver, Paul Robeson, Bill “Bojangles” Robinson and Marian Anderson. Robert's objective was to “represent most of the distinguished black personalities in American history”. Joe Louis was a war veteran and like Robert, an outsider in America.