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Physical Graffiti

Physical Graffiti is the sixth studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin. It was released as a double album on 24 February 1975 by the group's new record label, Swan Song Records; the band wrote and recorded eight new songs for the album in early 1974 at Headley Grange, a country house in Hampshire, which gave them ample time to improvise arrangements and experiment with recording. The total playing time covered three sides of an LP, so they decided to expand it into a double by including unreleased tracks from the sessions for the earlier albums Led Zeppelin III, Led Zeppelin IV and Houses of the Holy; the album covered a range of styles including progressive rock, rock'n' roll and folk. The album was mixed over summer 1974 and planned for an end-of year release, it was delayed because of the sleeve, designed by Peter Corriston and featured a theme around a tenement block in Manhattan, New York. Physical Graffiti was commercially and critically successful upon its release and debuted at number one on album charts in both the US and the UK.

It was promoted by a successful US tour and a five-night residency at Earl's Court and has since been viewed as one of the group's strongest albums and the artistic peak of their career. The album has been reissued on CD several times, including an expansive 40th anniversary edition in 2015. Physical Graffiti was certified 16x platinum in the United States by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2006, signifying shipments of over eight million copies; the first attempt by Led Zeppelin to record songs for Physical Graffiti took place in November 1973 at Headley Grange in Hampshire, where they had recorded their untitled fourth album. The recording equipment consisted of Ronnie Lane's Mobile Studio. Guitarist and producer Jimmy Page and drummer John Bonham recorded an instrumental, reworked as "Kashmir" during this visit. However, these sessions came to a halt and the studio time was turned over to Bad Company, who used it to record songs for their eponymous debut album; the press reported that bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones was unable to record.

However, he became disillusioned with the group and fed up with touring, told manager Peter Grant he was considering quitting. Grant asked him to take the rest of the year off to recuperate; the group reconvened at Headley Grange in January and February 1974, where they recorded eight tracks engineered by Ron Nevison. Lead singer Robert Plant referred to these eight tracks as "the belters", including "off-the-wall stuff that turned out nice"; as with previous sessions at Headley Grange, the informal atmosphere allowed the group to improvise and develop material while recording. Sometimes the group would rehearse or record a track several times, discuss what went wrong or what could be improved and realised they had worked out an alternative arrangement for it, better. Bonham was a driving force at the sessions suggesting ideas or the best ways in which a complicated arrangement could be played successfully; this led to him getting a lead songwriting credit on several tracks. The eight songs extended beyond the length of a conventional album, spanning three sides of an LP, so the group decided to create a double album, adding material they had recorded for previous albums but never issued.

This included various jam sessions such as "Boogie With Stu", which Page thought would be unsuitable as a track on a single album. Additional overdubs were laid down, the final mixing of the album was performed in July 1974 by Keith Harwood at Olympic Studios, London; the title "Physical Graffiti" was coined by Page to illustrate the whole physical and written energy that had gone into producing the set. The album spanned several years of recording and covered a range of musical styles, including hard rock, eastern-influenced orchestral rock, progressive rock, driving funk, acoustic rock and roll, love ballad, blues rock, soft rock, country rock romp, acoustic guitar instrumental. Several tracks from the album became live staples at Led Zeppelin concerts. In particular, "In My Time of Dying", "Trampled Under Foot", "Kashmir", "Ten Years Gone", "Black Country Woman", "Sick Again" became regular components of the band's live concert set lists following the release of the album. "Custard Pie" was recorded at Headley Grange in early 1974.

The first take was played at a faster tempo than the finished version, with various improvised vocals. After a basic run-through, the group discussed possibilities for rearranging it. Page played the guitar solo through an ARP synthesiser, while Jones overdubbed a Hohner Clavinet part and Plant played harmonica."The Rover" was written in 1970 at Bron-Yr-Aur, a cottage near Machynlleth, Wales. It was first recorded at Headley Grange in May 1970 as an acoustic number for Led Zeppelin III, it was reworked as an electric number in 1972 for Houses of the Holy, which formed the basis for the backing track. Page subsequently added guitar overdubs in 1974 with Keith Harwood engineering."In My Time of Dying" is based on a traditional song that Bob Dylan recorded on his debut album in 1962. The track was recorded live, with Page adding further slide guitar overdubs; the arranging and structuring was led by Bonham, who worked out where the various stop / start sections in the track should be, how the group would know where to come back in.

The end of the song features his off-mic cough, causing the rest of the gro

Online creation

Online creation referred to as OLC, online coding, online building, online editing, is a software feature of MUDs that allows users to edit a virtual world from within the game itself. In the absence of online creation, content is created in a text editor or level editor, the program requires a restart in order to implement the changes. An aspect of online creation that separates it from "mere game play" is that online creation systems can be used to create new content — new objects, new locations, new creatures — rather than creating instances of predefined items in the game world; some have observed that certain forms of online creation — notably those associated with creating new commands — can threaten the stability of the server. The first publicly available MUD that featured in-game creation of the game world was Skrenta's 1988 Monster. "Monster allows players to do something that few, if any, other games allow: the players themselves create the fantasy world as part of the game. Players can create objects, make locations, set up puzzles for other players to solve.

Game mechanisms allow players to: Create and describe new objects and locations Specify how game objects function Provide text descriptions for events that may happen Further modifications could be made via the menu-based Customize command. For rooms, the name and secondary descriptions could be changed. A mystery message could be added to a room that would be displayed when a magic object was brought into a room by a player. Trapdoors could be created to bounce players to a named exit or for bouncing dropped objects to another room. For exits, one could set multiple aliases as well as extended descriptions. Player traversal of exits could be allowed if a magic object was defined on the exit. Success and failure messages for attempted traversal could be defined as well as the messages other players saw when a player entered or came out of an exit. Exits could be marked concealed and/or flagged as doors to require the player to attempt to open a door or search the room for concealed exits. For objects, one could edit the description, the article to be used with it, an extended description shown upon closer examination.

A magic object or magic room could be defined that would allow or prevent an object from being picked up or used unless inside a specific place. Like exits and failure messages could be defined for'getting' or'using' an object. An object's type could be set. Other MUD-like systems that allow creation of online content have followed; some of these are alternative implementations, others provide significant new features. Monster influenced the design of TinyMUD. TinyMUD was an attempt to create a "stripped-down" version of Monster with just object creation and locking; as time went on some of the functionality, deliberately left out was reinvented. TinyMUD itself inspired an entire family of MUDs based on the premise of allowing users to build online. Among those subsequent MUDs are TinyMUCK and TinyMUSH. TinyMUCK added the following features to the "online building" interface: the ability to write and modify multi-user Forth programs online, the ability to attach these programs to things — such as objects and players — and the ability to delete objects online.

TinyMUSH's online creation language is more Lisp-like in nature. For example, LPMud tries to avoid the stability risks by abstracting the system into a virtual machine, protected from mistakes made in objects written in the game's LPC programming language. Other MUDs that shipped with online creation features include LambdaMOO, CoolMUD. Diku and Merc MUDs did not support online creation capabilities — DikuMUD was designed to be a better AberMUD, notorious for having a hard-coded world. A number of different packages were created to add online creation capabilities, the first of these was Armageddon for DikuMUD by Dan Brumleve, Nasri Hajj, Santiago Zorzopulos, which allowed builders to create zones, exits and mobiles interactively through a VT100 menu, or command line driven, interface, their online creation system was added to the DikuMUD derived SillyMUD codebase, released in 1993. The Merc derived codebase The Isles, released in 1994 featured online creation. SMAUG, a descendant of the Diku and Merc branches, included.

Online creation does not only exist in the text-based MUD context. For example, A Tale in the Desert is a massively-multiplayer online role-playing game. From within the game's client, players can engage in certain limited forms of creation. Second Life is a 3-D virtual world which provides its users with tools to modify the game world and participate in an economy, trading user content created via online creation for virtual currency. Cube and its successor, Sauerbraten are first-person shooter engines designed for online creation. According to an article at The Guardian: It's an emerging rule of thumb that suggests that if you get a group of 100 people online one will create content, 10 will "interact" with it and the other 89 will just view it; the principals of Second Life have indicated that over 60% of their users are active content creators. TinyMUX Wiki MUSHcode help, Server details, indepth articles for the four major MUSH codebases. MUSHcoding and MUSH related resources.

Monster's Web Home "A brief guide to TinyMud" by Jennifer Stone and Rusty Wright


The signaled by retinoic acid 8 gene is activated only upon stimulation by retinoic acid and expresses a cytoplasmic protein in the gonads of male and female vertebrates. This protein functions to initiate the transition between mitosis and meiosis, aiding in spermatogenesis and oogenesis. In females, its signaling begins 12.5 days after conception, is localized in the primordial germ cells of female ovaries, ushers in the first stage of meiosis. Male expression begins postnatally and continues throughout life, matching the need of spermatogenesis compared to the limited window of oogenesis in females. Sperm of mice that had induced null mutations for Stra8 gene were able to undergo mitotic divisions, while some sperm were able to transition into the early stages of meiosis I, but could not transition into further sub-stages of meiosis I. Errors in chromosome pairing and chromosome condensation were observed following these failures. In female mice, loss of Stra8 signaling shows failure to enter into meiosis.

Both males and females are left infertile if Stra8 signaling is absent


Calixtlahuaca is a Postclassic period Mesoamerican archaeological site, located near the present-day city of Toluca in the State of Mexico. Known as "Matlatzinco", this urban settlement was a powerful capital whose kings controlled a large territory in the Toluca Valley. Archaeologist José García Payón excavated the monumental architecture at Calixtlahuaca in the 1930s and restored a number of temples and other buildings. Most notable are Structure 3, a circular temple dedicated to the Aztec wind god Ehecatl, Structure 17, a large royal “palace”; the architecture and stone sculpture at the site is similar to that of other Middle to Late Postclassic period Aztec sites in central Mexico. In 1930, the preserved area of site had an extension of 144 hectares, today it only has 116. Between 1988 and 1998, some projects have been implemented to preserve and protect the site contents; these projects included drainage requirements, leveling of some areas, site regulations, protection against urban growth.

In 1998, archeologist Jorge Villanueva Villalpando restored the south wall of the eastern facade of Building III, damaged by constant and strong storms. In 2002 Dr. Michael E. Smith initiated a new research project at Calixtlahuaca; this project was sponsored by Arizona State University and the National Science Foundation, fieldwork began in 2006 with a full-coverage intensive survey of the site. In 2007 a series of houses and terraces were excavated, revealing the form of life of the inhabitants of Calixtlahuaca for the first time, it is believed that the initial settlers of this region were nomadic natives who used to visit seasonally. Lázaro Manuel Muñoz, stated that the Matlatzincas, or their nomad ancestors, visited this site at least 640 BCE and that Otomi hunter-gatherer groups were present 3,000 years ago at the now dried up lake, fed by melting water from Nevado de Toluca. Subsequently, the Matlatzinca arrived and founded a small settlement which became under eventual Toltec cultural influence.

It is believed that the Matlatzinca ethnic group belonged to the Nahua family that had invaded the territory. The town of Tecaxic was conquered by the mexicas and became dominated by the Aztecs at about 1476 AD. during the reign of Tlatoani Axayacatl. As the city was destroyed, the Aztecs built a new city, called Calixtlahuaca. In 1510, the Matlatzinca tried to end the Aztec tutelage and Moctezuma II ordered the city destroyed and the inhabitants fled west towards Michoacán; the city was repopulated by various groups, which concentrated on agriculture and animal husbandry. Among the municipalities formed were Tollocan, Ocuilan and Tepemaxalco, the latter being the most important; the Matlatzinca lands were considered a corn producing region, this may have been the main reason for the continued invasions from the epiclassical period, first by the Toltecs and subsequently by Chālcah in the 12th century. The region was divided into three Altepetls, two of which were prepared to remain independent and associate with the Purépechas of Michoacán, but a third Altepetl, wanted an association with the Aztecs.

This division prompted the Matlatzinca migration to other regions, such as Tiripitío, Huetamo and Undameo, among others. Axayacatl, the Tenochtitlan Huey Tlatoani fought against Cuextapalin, a Mazatleca general, whose slingshot stuck Axayacatl in the leg, tried to take him prisoner unsuccessfully; the Aztecs returned with their Tollocan allies and fought against Matlatzinca in 1474, taking 11,070 prisoners to be sacrificed in Tenochtitlan, thus preventing further uprisings in the region, as well as resettling Nahua families to Calixtlahuaca. From 1482 to 1484, there was another attempted Matlatzinca rebellion, but Tizoc destroyed the Calixtlahuaca temples, marking his victory on a stone; the last rebellion attempt occurred in 1510, the Aztec Tlatoani Montezuma II, ordered the destruction of the area, which led to the emigration of its inhabitants to Michoacán. As a result of some of the investigations performed, the following occupation periods have been interpreted and established: Preclassical Period Small clay heads type A, B, C, D & F, as well as vertical walls tied with mud as part of the constructive system of terraces in the middle of the Tenismo hill, where some housing units were located.

Classical Period Ceramic belonging to the Teotihuacán third classic period, first stage of building III, damaged during the 1475 earthquake. Epiclassical period Toltec influence with the increased construction of terraces on slopes and some buildings. Postclassical Period Distinguished by a Matlatzinca near hegemony, limited by the Aztec influence; the Postclassic site extended 264 square hectares, covering portions of the valley floor, the majority of the Cerro Tenismo hill, portions of a smaller hill to the east. All of the major monumental architecture at the site was built during this period. Unlike many Postclassic Mesoamerican cities, which have a single central group of monumental architecture, the large structures at Calixtlahuaca are split into multiple smaller architectural groups scattered from the valley floor to the summit of the hill; the areas between the monumental groups were filled in with a mixture

Aylmer Haldane

General Sir James Aylmer Lowthorpe Haldane, was a senior British Army officer with a long and distinguished career. Born to physician Daniel Rutherford Haldane and his wife Charlotte Elizabeth née Lowthorpe, James Aylmer Lowthorpe Haldane came from a family of distinguished Scottish aristocrats based in Gleneagles, he was cousin to Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, Secretary of State for War 1905–1912, instigator of the Haldane Reforms. In September 1882, after attending the Edinburgh Academy and the Royal Military College, Haldane was commissioned as a British officer of the Gordon Highlanders. On 18 February 1886, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, on 8 April 1892 to the rank of captain. Between 1894 and 1895, Haldane was part of the Waziristan Field Force and participated in the Chitral Expedition, he was dispatched to quell the Afridis rebellion in the Tirah campaign for the next two years, was appointed a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order on 20 May 1898, became aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief East Indies the same year.

Haldane fought in the Second Boer War in South Africa. While imprisoned in Pretoria, he planned the escape. Haldane failed to escape at the same time and complained of Churchill's lack of regard for those who should have escaped with him. However, Haldane managed his own escape. Haldane was appointed a staff captain in the Intelligence Section at the War Office on 27 June 1901, promoted to major on 23 July 1902, received the brevet rank of lieutenant colonel on the following day, he was military attaché with the Imperial Japanese Army from July 1904 to September 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, accompanied Japanese forces into Manchuria. Following promotion to brevet colonel, Haldane was appointed Companion of the Bath on 16 March 1906 and granted the rank of colonel on 29 October 1906. From 1906 to 1909, he served as assistant director of military intelligence. On 1 October 1909, Haldane was promoted to temporary brigadier-general and in 1910 become commander of 10th Infantry Brigade. Haldane fought in World War I as General Officer Commanding 3rd Division part of the British Expeditionary Force.

He was given command of 6th Army Corps in France in 1916. After WWI, Haldane was appointed General Officer Commanding Mesopotamia in 1920 and remained in that post until 1922, he retired in 1925. Haldane was buried at Brookwood Cemetery. Order of the Sacred Treasure, Japan, 1905. Haldane's published writings encompass 6 works in 8 publications in 1 language and 311 library holdings. How We Escaped from Pretoria. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood. 1901. A brigade of the old army, 1914, relating to operations of 10 Infantry Bde, Aug–Nov 1914. London: Edward Arnold. 1920. The Insurrection in Mesopotamia, 1920. London: W. Blackwood and sons. 1922. The Haldanes of Gleneagles. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood. 1929. A Soldier's Saga: The Autobiography of General Sir Aylmer Haldane. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood. 1948. LIDDELL HART CENTRE FOR MILITARY ARCHIVESThe papers of Lt Gen Sir Lawrence Worthington Parsons include letter from Haldane relating to 16 Irish Div 1916.

Sihina Wasanthayak

Sihina Wasanthayak was a popular Sri Lankan television series directed by Sunil Costha and Saranga Mendis. A romantic drama, it was an adaption from the 2004 Tamil language film Autograph and was telecast on Sirasa TV in 2008-2009; the songs and soundtrack for the series were composed by Dinesh Subasinghe. The series was produced by Harold Wijesinghe, Broadcast Solutions, Sirasa TV in 2007, it consisted of 62 episodes in each 20 minutes long. The filming began in June 2007 at Dambulla and Sigiriya and shifted to Colombo; this Sri Lankan romance begins with the character Nirmal setting off on a journey, distributing wedding invitations for his forthcoming wedding. Along the way, he encounters various individuals from his past, who bring back memories of three women that have affected his love life; the journey to his childhood days begins there. The happenings in the school, his tussle with his friends and his first love with his classmate, Sunimali are all pictured realistically. Nirmal reaches the village and invites all, including Sunimale, who promises to come to the wedding with her husband and three children.

He goes to North where he had his college education. His major crush at that time was a girl of mixed Tamil and Malayalee parentage, with whom he fell in love; the affair proved to be short-lived. On reaching Kerala to invite her, Nirmal is shattered to see his lover as a widow, he comes across a trusted friend Pooja, who instils confidence and teaches him the lesson that one has to go ahead in life without looking back. However, she does not reveal the tragedy, but as time passes by, she reveals that her mother is paralyzed and that she now has to work for her own survival. The main members of the cast were Niroshan Wijesinghe, Kanchana Mendis, Kanjana Mendis, Cleetus Mendis, Kumara Thirimadhura, Pramudhi Karunarathna, Sachini Ayendra Stanley, Nimal Pallewatha, Warsha Perera, Isham Samzudeen, The show's theme song, "Sansara purudada mey", was performed by Amal Perera, Prabodha Kariyakarawana and Dinesh Subasinghe; the children's voices were sung by Madawa Senivrathana. Cover versions of the song have been performed on the Derana TV program Dream Stars by Chinthaka Malith and Dinesh Tharanga, on the Sirasa TV program Superstar by Meena Prasadhini and Wirajika Murashini.

The sound track and songs were recorded and mixed at G 1 Studio, Dee R Cee Studio and Penguin Studio in Colombo and were released on CD in 2009 by Dinesh Subasinghe with M entertainment. Sihina Wasanthayak on IMDb