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Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the studies of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the universe and with fundamental questions about its origin, structure and ultimate fate. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed those physical laws to be understood. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the development in 1915 of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, followed by major observational discoveries in the 1920s: first, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe contains a huge number of external galaxies beyond the Milky Way; these advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, allowed the establishment of the Big Bang theory, by Georges Lemaître, as the leading cosmological model. A few researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies. Dramatic advances in observational cosmology since the 1990s, including the cosmic microwave background, distant supernovae and galaxy redshift surveys, have led to the development of a standard model of cosmology.

This model requires the universe to contain large amounts of dark matter and dark energy whose nature is not well understood, but the model gives detailed predictions that are in excellent agreement with many diverse observations. Cosmology draws on the work of many disparate areas of research in theoretical and applied physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory and observational astrophysics, general relativity, quantum mechanics, plasma physics. Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of observation. In 1916, Albert Einstein published his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. At the time, Einstein believed in a static universe, but found that his original formulation of the theory did not permit it; this is because masses distributed throughout the universe gravitationally attract, move toward each other over time. However, he realized that his equations permitted the introduction of a constant term which could counteract the attractive force of gravity on the cosmic scale.

Einstein published his first paper on relativistic cosmology in 1917, in which he added this cosmological constant to his field equations in order to force them to model a static universe. The Einstein model describes a static universe. However, this so-called Einstein model is unstable to small perturbations—it will start to expand or contract, it was realized that Einstein's model was just one of a larger set of possibilities, all of which were consistent with general relativity and the cosmological principle. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann in the early 1920s, his equations describe the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe, which may expand or contract, whose geometry may be open, flat, or closed. In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects. One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this.

Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications. In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the "explosion" of a "primeval atom"—which was called the Big Bang. In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître's theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars, he discovered a relationship between the redshift of its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds proportional to their distance.

This fact is now known as Hubble's law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing about the types of Cepheid variables. Given the cosmological principle, Hubble's law suggested. Two primary explanations were proposed for the expansion. One was Lemaître's Big Bang theory and developed by George Gamow; the other explanation was Fred Hoyle's steady state model in which new matter is created as the galaxies move away from each other. In this model, the universe is the same at any point in time. For a number of years, support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state; the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have ser

Shaf Keshavjee

Dr. Shaf Keshavjee is the current Surgeon-in-Chief at University Health Network in Toronto Ontario, the Director of the Toronto Lung Transplant Program, as well as a clinical scientist and professor with the University of Toronto, his clinical practice in Thoracic Surgery and Transplant Surgery is based at the Toronto General Hospital, where he leads a research team in lung transplantation studies. Dr. Keshavjee gained international recognition for the development of his lung preservation solution for donor lungs en route to transplantation. Further, he broke new ground with his research to the recondition and repair of injured human donor lungs, making them suitable for patient transplantation, using the Toronto XVIVO Lung Perfusion System, his work has allowed for an increase in the number of available donor lungs. In 1985, Dr Keshavjee completed his medical degree at the University of Toronto, he did a comprehensive surgical internship at the Mount Sinai Hospital in 1986. His Research Fellowship and Surgical Scientist Program in the Division of Thoracic Surgery were done at the University of Toronto and Toronto General Hospital in 1989.

That same year he received his MSc in the Institute of Medical Science at the University of Toronto. A few years in 1993, Dr. Keshavjee became a Fellow in Thoracic Surgery at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre in New York. In 2012 he went to Harvard University, JFK School of Government and Cambridge to obtain a degree in continuing education for Leadership for the 21st Century: Chaos and Courage. In 1994, he joined the faculty at the University of Toronto. 1994–Present: Director of Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory, Toronto General Research Institute and University of Toronto 1995–Present: Faculty in the Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Graduate Studies at the University of Toronto 1997–Present: Senior Scientist, Division of Experimental Therapeutics, UHN, TGRI 1997–Present: Director, Toronto Lung Transplant Program, Toronto General Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children 2002–Present: Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery, U of T 2010–Present: Surgeon-in-Chief, Sprott Department of Surgery, UHN 2012–Present: Adjunct Scientist, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute Dr. Keshavjee has served on the Board of Directors of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, the Canadian Society of Transplantation, on the Governing Council of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery.

Over the course of his career, he has received many awards for his medical contributions. These have included: The George Armstrong Peters Young Investigator Award Canada's Top 40 Under 40 Award The Colin Woolf Award for Excellence in Continuing Medical Education The Lister Prize in SurgeryThe Lister Prize in Surgery is the highest award for research achievement that one can obtain within the University of Toronto's Department of Surgery. On February 6, 2013, Dr. Keshavjee was inducted into the Order of Ontario, he has received two Queen's Jubilee medals in recognition for his work. On December 26, 2014, Dr. Keshavjee was made an officer of the Order of Canada. At TED MED 2010, Dr. Keshavjee gave a talk entitled ‘Can a human lung breathe outside the body in which he addressed the process of repairing organs outside the human body. At his Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory, Dr. Kehavjee's research interests include lung transplantation, lung injury, lung preservation, his current studies examine molecular diagnostics and gene therapy strategies for engineering organs for lung transplantation.

The Lab's work explores the underlying mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury and bronchiolitis obliterans – two areas that limit successful lung transplantation – and develops gene therapy strategies for either preventing or reversing them. Several areas within ischemia-reperfusion injury are examined, including the role of complement and cytokine-related lung injury and its relation to reperfusion; the work is done on cell culture models, rat single lung transplant models, pig single lung transplant models. Dr. Keshavjee and his research team have developed a technique of lung preservation that can improve lung function after its transplantation; the solution is used in the Ex Vivo. The LPD solution is applied in both the Toronto lung transplant program and in clinical programs around the world. Dr. Keshavjee's research team focuses its main efforts on the role of gene therapy in lung transplantation, they are developing techniques for genetically modifying the donor lung so it can withstand stress during the transplant process.

These techniques would be used to address both ischemia-reperfusion injury and obliterative bronchiolitis. Dr. Keshavjee's work has demonstrated that immunosuppression related to transplantation leads to an altered expression of the transgene, immunosuppression will lead to the prolonged-expression of the transgene. To this effect, he and his team have proved that gene therapy will help recipients recover from lung transplantation surgery without a significant immune system response; when addressing obliterative bronchiolitis in a rat tracheal transplant model of fibrous airway obliteration related to transplantation, Dr. Keshavjee's research showed that the adenoviral IL-10 gene transfection was able to prevent the development of bronchiolitis obliterans; this was the first time. The team is studying the effect of the IL-10 transfection on ischemia-reperfusion therapy, as well as mechanisms of cell death and the genes controllin

Kokava nad Rimavicou

Kokava nad Rimavicou is a village and municipality in the Poltár District in the Banská Bystrica Region of Slovakia. The village stands in the Stolica Mountains of the Inner Western Carpathians. Kokava in the past had been center for regional glass production. In the 20th century were established two paper mills, a potash workshop and a steam timber, although they went through a recession recently. Nearby holiday location Kokava-Línia offers several chalets and cottages used by winter skiers. Kokava is known for its festival tradition. In 2012 the folklore festival Koliesko celebrated its 22nd anniversary. Additionally, there is annual country music festival Country fest Kokava and a festival of gypsy music Balvafest. Na Chorepe byva Havran, vtak.. List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1804-1896 Lutheran church records: 1837-1911 Reformated church records: 1771-1896 Official homepage Folklore festival Koliesko information Surnames of living people in Kokava nad Rimavicou

Mantidactylus charlotteae

Mantidactylus charlotteae is a species of frog in the family Mantellidae. It is endemic to Madagascar and found in the eastern part of the country in the coastal rainforest belt between Marojejy in the north and as far as Andohahela in the south. Males measure 22–26 mm and females 26–32 mm in snout–vent length; the body slender. The head is long with rounded snout; the tympanum is distinct. The limbs are slender; the fingers are without webbing. The back is reddish brown without markings. There are reddish dorso-lateral glandular ridges; the flanks are blackish, with a sharp border towards the dorsum. Its natural habitats are pristine or disturbed rainforests at elevations of up to 600 m above sea level, it is a terrestrial species, found near streams where. It lays its eggs on land. Mantidactylus charlotteae is a abundant species, although it is suspected to be decreasing because of habitat loss and deterioration; these threats are driven by agriculture, timber extraction, spread of eucalyptus, livestock grazing, expanding human settlements.

However, it occurs in several protected areas. Media related to Mantidactylus charlotteae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Mantidactylus charlotteae at Wikispecies

Françoise Vergès

Françoise Vergès is a French political scientist and feminist. Françoise Vergès was a editor at Panthéon-Sorbonne University, she holds a PhD in Political Science, from the University of California, Berkeley in May 1995, a thesis published under the title Monsters and revolutionaries. Colonial family romance and grooming.. She took as a plot the political history of Réunion from its origins to the present day, to trace the journey of her family engaged in politics since 1930. In 1996, she taught at University of Sussex, was a member of the political science department at the Center for Cultural Studies at Goldsmiths, University of London, she studies the problem of colonial slavery and the phenomena of creolization using political theories using postcolonial logic. After being vice-president, Françoise Vergès became, on 13 February 2008, replacing Maryse Condé, the president of the National Committee for the memory and history of slavery. A decree of 10 May 2009 names her as Chairperson of the National Committee for the Memory and History of Slavery.

In 2009, she is an "expert", within the framework of the Overseas Estates General. She is for several years, the scientific director of the Réunion Cultural Center, her appointment, as well as the project itself, are subject to debate in Réunion society. On the 3rd, the journalist Pierrot Dupuy filed a civil suit against Paul Vergès for having appointed his daughter to the management, which would constitute, according to him, a conflict of interest, it seems that the call for candidatures to the head of the MCUR had been unsuccessful, to date, the illegal nature of the appointment of Françoise Vergès is not proven. Regarding the scientific project of the MCUR, the Commission of public inquiry gives in its report of 19 February 2010 to the prefect Michel Lalande a favorable opinion. On the 21st, the strong opposition to the MCUR project, expressed at the polls, as well as the victory of the party led by Didier Robert to the Réunion Regional Council, led to the end of the MCUR project. Upon his election, in accordance with his program, Didier Robert announced the end of the MCUR project.

On 10 May 2017, Françoise Vergès was appointed to the "Mission of the memory of slavery and their abolitions" public interest group. A feminist activist, Françoise Vergès collaborated with the journal Women in Motion, a monthly and weekly, published between 1978 and 1982, with the collection "Women in struggle of all countries", at Éditions des femmes, from 1981 to 1983. Leading her feminist and anti-racist struggles, Françoise Vergès has collaborated with the association Rualité created by the hip-hopp artist Bintou Dembélé, she is a member of the MAFED, a group that the political scientist Laurent de Boissieu located in the political field of racialism and defines as close to the Indigenous Party of the Republic. She is a member of the College of Diversity at the Ministry of Culture and a founding member of the Decolonizing the Arts collective. Françoise Vergès signed the calls to the Marches for Justice and Dignity, as well as a large number of petitions defending differentialist and "decolonial" positions, including "Stop the Cyberbullying Against the Controversial Lallab Association".

De l'Esclave au citoyen, avec Philippe Haudrère, Gallimard, 1998, coll. " Découvertes Gallimard Texto ", Monsters and revolutionaries. Colonial family romance and "métissage", Duke University Press, 1999 Abolir l'esclavage. Une utopie coloniale, les ambiguïtés d'une politique humanitaire, Albin Michel, 2001 Racines et itinéraires de l'unité réunionnaise. La Réunion, Graphica-Région Réunion, 2003 Amarres. Créolisations india-océanes, avec Jean-Claude Carpanin Marimoutou, Paris, Ka, 2003. Questions sur l'esclavage, Albin Michel, 2006 La République coloniale. Essai sur une utopie, avec Pascal Blanchard et Nicolas Bancel, Hachette, 2006, coll. " Pluriel » Nègre, je suis, Nègre je resterai. Entretiens avec Aimé Césaire, Albin Michel, 2007 La Colonisation française, avec Nicolas Bancel et Pascal Blanchard, Toulouse, Éditions Milan, coll. " Les Esentiels ", 2007 Nègre. Nègrier. Traite des nègres. Trois articles du Grand Dictionnaire universel de Pierre Larousse, Saint-Pourçain, Bleu autour, 2007 Fractures postcoloniales, avec Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard et Achille Mbembe, Paris, La Découverte, 2010 L'Homme prédateur, ce que nous enseigne l'esclavage sur notre temps, Albin Michel, 2011, coll.

" Bibliothèque Idées »Works in EnglishRod Edmondm Vanessa Smith "The Island of Wandering Souls: Processes of Creolization, Politics of Emancipation and the Problematic of Absence on Reunion Island", Islands in History and Representation, Routledge, 2003. ISBN 9780415286664 This article incorporates text available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license

In with the Flynns

In with the Flynns is a British sitcom created by Caryn Mandabach, produced by Caryn Mandabach Productions, broadcast by the BBC. The first series began broadcast on 8 June 2011 for six episodes on BBC One and in high definition on BBC One HD in the United Kingdom, it is an adaptation of the American series Grounded for Life. Set in Manchester in northern England, the series stars Will Mellor as Liam Flynn, Niky Wardley as his wife Caroline, Nadine Rose Mulkerrin, Daniel Rogers, Lorenzo Rodriguez as their children, Chloe and Mikey. Other characters include Tommy's father Jim. Given the working title of Meet the Doyles, this was changed during production; the theme song is "For Anyone" by the band Beady Eye. On 22 December 2011, Will Mellor confirmed in an interview that the show had been given a second series, filmed and broadcast in 2012. Taping took place at the new dock10, MediaCityUK and the second series, of six episodes, began on BBC One on 17 August 2012. On 30 October 2012, it was reported.

The series is set in Manchester in the north of England, but as with many British sitcoms, it was filmed in front of a live studio audience in London, in this case at Teddington Studios. The show is written by a team of writers. A first series containing six episodes aired on BBC One throughout June and July 2011. A second series containing six episodes aired again on BBC One from 17 August 2012. Will Mellor as Liam Flynn, husband to Caroline and father of three children, Liam is a doting father and a loving husband. Although he and Caroline were married when they were teenagers, they are still much in love. Niky Wardley as Caroline Flynn, Liam's wife and mother of three children. Caroline loves her children and her husband and she is forced to tolerate Liam's brother and father living in her house, although she complains about them. Warren Clarke as Jim Flynn, Liam and Kevin's widowed father, he is a fan of fishing, is seen boring his family with his stories. He is always trying to impress his grandchildren.

Craig Parkinson as Tommy Flynn, Liam's older brother is a freeloading workshy man who sleeps on Liam's sofa, much to Liam and Caroline's disapproval. In Series 2, Tommy has run away with his little brother Kevin's fiancee and it is presumed that the Flynns have lost contact with him. Orla Poole / Nadine Rose Mulkerrin as Chloe Flynn Daniel Rogers as Steve Flynn Lorenzo Rodriguez as Mikey Flynn Alex Carter as Kevin Flynn, Liam's younger brother, he comes to live with his father Jim when his brother, runs away with his fiancée, he remains fearful of women. And has a gambling habit. Beverley Callard as Pat, the mother of Caroline. Paul Copley as Alan, the father of Caroline. Pat and Alan live in Spain; the first episode brought mixed reviews from television critics. The Telegraph′s James Walton commented negatively "this is the kind of sitcom that comedies such as The Royle Family and Outnumbered are meant to have seen off long ago - and whose strange persistence traditionally fills critics with a mixture of puzzlement and dismay".

However he went on to praise the performances of the cast, called it "a acceptable 30 minutes of undemanding television". In much the same way, the Guardian's reviewer Zoe Williams called it "bland and unremarkable" and "the acting is not great" but she acknowledged that the problem was the set-up: "if they want us to fall in love with the Flynns...they need to be a bit more like actual people". One more positive review came from Metro, who said "Don't set your expectations too high. It's not terrible, has a decent cast... Maybe it'll settle into a more chucklesome formula. Series two of the show was criticized by some commentators. Sam Wollaston of The Guardian wrote, "The BBC's In With the Flynns feels like a tired, lame sitcom because it is a tired, lame sitcom.", while Phil Harrison of Time Out wrote, "Sky has thrown down the gauntlet to the BBC lately. Daring dramas, comedies that raise a chuckle and the annexation of one of the Beeb's comedy crown jewels in Alan Partridge. How will Auntie respond?

With a second series of piss-weak sitcom In With The Flynns, that's how.... The dialogue is flat, the jokes telegraphed and the characterisation superficial". However, Emma Sturgess writing for The Guardian, was more positive. A second series was confirmed on 22 December 2011 and was filmed and broadcast in 2012. There was one cast change, with Chloe Flynn being portrayed by Nadine Rose Mulkerrin instead of previous actress Orla Poole. In addition, the character of Tommy Flynn, portrayed by Craig Parkinson, was dropped and the character of a third brother, Kevin Flynn, was added for Series 2; the series consists of six 30 minute episodes, began broadcasting on 17 August 2012 on BBC One. A DVD of the first series of In with the Flynns was released on 3 September 2012. In with the Flynns at BBC Programmes In with the Flynns at British Comedy Guide In with the Flynns on IMDb