Stradella bass system
The Stradella Bass System is a buttonboard layout equipped on the bass side of many accordions, which uses columns of buttons arranged in a circle of fifths. In a typical layout, as pictured, each column contains, in order: The major third above the root The root note The major chord The minor chord The dominant seventh chord The diminished seventh chord The name is from Stradella, a town and commune of the Oltrepò Pavese in the Province of Pavia in the northern Italian region of Lombardy, once an important center for the production of accordions; the following chart shows a common 120-button Stradella layout. Each bass note, each pitch in a chord, is sounded in multiple octaves. Larger accordions offer some control over the voicing with register switches. In modern accordions, each chord button sounds three individual pitches. Early accordions sounded four pitches for the diminished chords. Modern Stradella systems omit the 5th from these two chords. For example, an augmented seventh chord can be created by using the dominant seventh chord button and adding an augmented 5th from the right-hand manual or from one of the bass or counterbass buttons.
In most Russian layouts the diminished seventh chord row is moved by one button, so that the C diminished seventh chord is where the F diminished seventh chord would be in a standard Stradella layout. As the buttons are on the front face and cannot be seen by the player, an aid to navigation is provided by a small depression, hole or bump on the central C button in the root row supplemented by similar or different tactile marks on other selected root-bass buttons, such as the A♭ and E four buttons away in either direction; when naming chord buttons, major chords are suffixed with "M", for example "CM", to distinguish them from bass notes. In staff notation, notes below the center of the bass-clef staff are bass notes, notes above the center of the staff indicate chord buttons, labeled as necessary with "M", "m", "7", or "d" or "dim". Within this convention, the written octave for bass notes is arbitrary, as the Stradella system does not have buttons for higher and lower octaves. An example: Bass notes to be played on the major third row are indicated by repurposed "tenuto" lines below the notes, or underlined note names or numbers.
Single-note bass lines are labeled "B. S." when they extend above the middle of the staff. As with the piano, fingers are numbered 2 to 5, starting with the index finger, mirroring right-hand fingering; as a rule, the thumb, numbered 1, is not used. Patterns can be played identically in any desired key, changing only the starting position. Layouts with 16 or more columns are sufficient to play in any of the 12 keys of the circle of fifths. 4 -- 3 is a recommended fingering for its corresponding major chord. For alternate bass with the root and fifth, 4–3–2–3 can be used for major chords, 4–2–3–2 for minor and other types of chords. Scales and other bass lines are played on the bass note buttons, the row or rows closest to the bellows; the major scale can be fingered without stretching the hand, playing in any key as r4 r2 t4 r5 / r3 t5 t3 r4 or, with minimal movement of the index finger, r3 r2 t3 r4 / r2 t4 t2 r3. A recommended fingering for harmonic minor: Melodic minor: Larger and more expensive accordions may have as many as seven register switches on the bass side, controlling which reed ranks play and thus the octaves and voicing of the bass notes and chords, similar in concept to the treble register switches on the keyboard side.
Smaller or simpler accordions may have no bass switches, or a single switch that toggles between two settings. With the soprano or alto register selected, bass buttons duplicate individual notes from the chords, without the usual added lower octaves. An accordion with one or two register switches on the bass side might provide tenor and master registers, while accordions with additional switches might have larger subsets. Array system, same circle of fifths system for an mbira Alternate bass Free-bass system
Accordion reed ranks and switches
A reed rank inside accordions refers to a single full set of the reeds that are the means to achieve the instrument's sound range. These reed ranks are located in the reed chamber. Most accordions to this date have between 2 and 4 reed ranks on the treble side and between 3 and 5 reed ranks on the bass side; these can be selected individually or combined in various ways to provide a range of different timbres, by use of register switches arranged by register from high to low. More of the top-line expensive accordions may contain 5 or 6 reed blocks on the treble side for different tunings found in accordions which stress musette sounds. How many reeds an accordion has is specified by the number of treble ranks and bass ranks. For example, a 4/5 accordion has 5 on the bass side. A 3/4 accordion has 4 on the bass side. Reed ranks are classified by instrument names. Visually, they each have a fixed dot in a three-level icon as displayed in the photo on the right and tables below; these icons display.
The pitch of a single bank of reeds is traditionally defined in a similar manner to the organ stops of a pipe organ. A bank that sounds at unison pitch when keys are depressed is called 8′ pitch: alluding to the length of the lowest-sounding organ pipe in that rank, eight feet. For the same reason, a stop that sounds an octave higher is at 4′ pitch, one that sounds an octave lower than unison pitch is at 16′ pitch. Most reed registers are in relative octave tuning, but some instruments have a reed bank tuned to a perfect fifth relative to the 8′ stop; this is a similar arrangement to stops for a pipe organ. On accordions with two 8′ ranks, one is tuned a fraction of a semitone higher than the other ranks; this causes beats. Tunings where the difference between the two is small and the beats are less noticeable are referred to as "dry", whereas those where the difference is large are referred to as "wet". Accordions with three 8′ ranks have the third tuned the same distance below the center, doubling the effect of the beats when all three play.
Register switches select combinations of reed ranks to produce contrasting timbres. Most accordions have automatic or preset switches, similar to voice selection on an electronic keyboard, or to a preset combination action in a pipe organ; these switches control which reed ranks are enabled or disabled: some switches enable a single reed rank, others enable several simultaneous reed ranks. In general, the formula for the number of potential switch combinations is one less than 2 to the number of unique reed blocks that are within the accordion. For example, if an accordion has 3 reed blocks, there are 23-1 = 7 combinations, though "less useful" ones are omitted. Unlike individual organ stops, only one combination is active at any given time. Here are a few examples of right-hand manual switches on a typical large accordion: Instead of automatic switches, some accordions have individual switches for the reed ranks that can be used in any combination, like organ stops. In addition to the master switch located with the other switches shown above, professional grade accordions have at least one extra master switch: either a chin master at the top of the instrument or palm master switch located at the side of the keyboard.
These allow for faster changes to the register. High-end accordions have a feature called a cassotto referred to as a "tone chamber", in the treble reed section. In this design, certain reed sets are mounted at a 90° angle to the remaining reeds; the sound from these specially-mounted reeds must travel farther, along a different path, before leaving the instrument, muting its harmonics and creating a distinctively mellow, refined sound. The sound of cassotto bassoon reeds is favored by jazz accordionists; the cassotto design requires a sophisticated treble mechanism where each key must open and close air passages not only for reeds mounted at the traditional angle, but for air passages at a relative 90° angle. To do this properly, each rod and pad must be positioned in relation to its perpendicular counterpart; because of the considerable extra time required for the cassotto's construction and adjustment, cassotto accordions cost more than similar non-cassotto models
The Schwyzerörgeli is a type of diatonic button accordion used in Swiss folk music. The name derives from the town/canton of Schwyz. Oergeli is the diminutive form of the word Orgel. Outside of Switzerland the instrument is not hard to find; the accordion was brought to Switzerland in the 1830s, soon after its invention in Vienna. The earliest accordions were the one- or two-row diatonic button accordions, which carried on in Switzerland as the Langnauerli, named for Langnau in canton Bern; the Langnauerli has one treble row of buttons and two bass/chord buttons on the left hand end, much like the accordion used in Cajun music, but is sometimes seen with 2 or 3 rows on a stepped keyboard. The Schwyzerörgeli was a further development from the 1880s, with changes in the treble fingering and a flat keyboard, unisonoric basses; the early makers including Eichhorn and Nussbaumer experimented with different arrangements and numbers of buttons. The typical Schwyzerörgeli today has 18 bass buttons arranged in two rows, 31 treble buttons on the RH arranged in 3 rows with a fingering similar to the'club' system.
The basses progress in 4ths like the Stradella system seen on chromatic and piano accordions, but in the opposite direction. Some Schwyzerörgelis have fewer buttons in the upper/inside row on the RH much like the club models, or more buttons - sometimes an extra row on the outside - and fewer or more basses. Since Swiss music uses minor chords Örgelis with 4 bass rows have no minor chords but majors and 7ths instead; the only other variety still being made in substantial numbers today is the Schwyzerörgeli with chromatic fingering - with a C system treble side and Stradella bass fingering. As most diatonic accordions are centered on certain keys, the Schwyzerörgeli is tuned in'flat' keys to fit with the clarinet, with the outer row giving a B♭ scale, the next row E♭, the next giving a mixture of notes allowing music to be played in A♭, D♭ and G♭ when fingered across the rows. Of course this means; this instrument is labelled a'B-Oergeli' or'B/Es'. Less common keys are A/D, C/F and B/E; the Schwyzerörgeli has a unique tuning, called Schwyzerton.
On the treble side, each button has 3 sets of reeds, with one main set and two other sets an octave higher than the first, each tuned apart to give a somewhat tremolo sound. The reeds are arranged around one big reed block with a tone chamber inside, rather than a separate reed block for each row like most accordions; some Örgelis only have 2 sets of reeds tuned an octave apart, Bandonion-style. The Örgeli with 2 sets of treble reeds of the same octave, tuned apart, is called a Wienerörgeli because of the'Viennese' tuning, widespread among button accordions around the world such as those made by Hohner and the Steirische Harmonika; the internal construction of this Örgeli is not like the others but more like other accordions, but the fingering and the appearance is of the typical Schwyzerörgeli. In Canton Bern, there is a variety of Schwyzerörgeli called the Bernerörgeli, pioneered by Ernst Salvisberg, distinguished by a beveled bass end and dry tuning, called Bernerton
The Duet concertina is a family of concertinas, distinguished by being unisonoric and by having their lower notes on the left and higher on the right. Instruments built according to various duet systems are the last development step in the history of the instrument and less common than other concertinas. Duet concertina systems aim to simplify playing a melody with an accompaniment. To this end the various duet systems feature single note button layouts that provide the lower notes in the left hand and the higher notes in the right with some overlap. Sir Charles Wheatstone was the first to patent a Duet concertina, in 1844. One of the first recorded concertina players was Alexander Prince, who as early as 1906 was recorded playing his Maccann-system Duet concertina on the Zonophone label. Fellow vaudevilleiean Percy Honri specialized in the Maccann system. Despite the predominance of the Anglo concertina, the instrument found a small level of adoption in the Boeremusiek of the Afrikaner people of South Africa, who refer to the Crane and Maccann duet systems as the 5-ry and 6-ry, respectively.
The most common key layouts within the Duet system are: Maccann system, the most produced vintage Duet system, an improvement on Wheatstone's earlier Duette system, patented by "Professor" John Hill Maccann in 1884 and licensed to Lachenal & Co. Crane system, patented in 1896, adopted by the Salvation Army in 1912 and labeled the "Triumph" system, it is said to be "easier to learn than the McCann or Jeffries". Jeffries system, less common than the above, though unisonoric the layout of the buttons resembles that of the Anglo concertina; the distribution of notes is described as "splendidly haphazard". Hayden system, invented in 1963 and patented in 1986, is an isomorphic system in which all scales and intervals are arranged uniformly. Years after its invention, it was discovered that a nearly identical layout had been patented by the Swiss designer Kaspar Wicki in 1896. Though a more recent development, the majority of newly-produced Duet concertinas since the 1980s are in the Hayden system. There are a number of other types, far less common: a 1983 article notes patents including "Sharp's 1890, Hank's 1896, Huish's 1901, a number of Patents by Dr. Pitt-Taylor between 1916 and 1924."
Duet concertina designer Brian Hayden has noted the Linton and Piano systems, the last including variants such as the Rust system and Jedcertina. Duet concertinas are held by placing the hands through a leather strap, with thumbs outside the strap and palms resting on wooden bars; the largest duets play bass notes down to C below the stave, a competent performer can play solo piano music with little compromise
In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a old musical instrument, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria, who invented the water organ, it was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world during races and games. During the early medieval period it spread from the Byzantine Empire, where it continued to be used in secular and imperial court music, to Western Europe, where it assumed a prominent place in the liturgy of the Catholic Church. Subsequently it re-emerged as a recital instrument in the Classical music tradition. Pipe organs use air moving through pipes to produce sounds. Since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary in timbre and volume. Hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electronic additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible when the lowest of the pipes can be replaced.
Non-piped organs include the reed organ or harmonium, which like the accordion and harmonica use air to excite free reeds. Electronic organs or digital organs, notably the Hammond organ, generate electronically produced sound through one or more loudspeakers. Mechanical organs include the barrel organ, water organ, Orchestrion; these are controlled by mechanical means such as book music. Little barrel organs dispense with the hands of an organist and bigger organs are powered in most cases by an organ grinder or today by other means such as an electric motor; the pipe organ is the largest musical instrument. These instruments vary in size, ranging from a cubic yard to a height reaching five floors, are built in churches, concert halls, homes. Small organs are called "positive" or "portative"; the pipes are controlled by the use of hand stops and combination pistons. Although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect dynamics, some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box, allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters.
Some organs are enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive, it has existed in its current form since the 14th century, though similar designs were common in the Eastern Mediterranean from the early Byzantine period and precursors, such as the hydraulic organ, have been found dating to the late Hellenistic period. Along with the clock, it was considered one of the most complex human-made mechanical creations before the Industrial Revolution. Pipe organs range in size from a single short keyboard to huge instruments with over 10,000 pipes. A large modern organ has three or four keyboards with five octaves each, a two-and-a-half octave pedal board. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called the organ the "King of instruments"; some of the biggest instruments have 64-foot pipes, it sounds to an 8 Hz frequency fundamental tone. The most distinctive feature is the ability to range from the slightest sound to the most powerful, plein-jeu impressive sonic discharge, which can be sustained in time indefinitely by the organist.
For instance, the Wanamaker organ, located in Philadelphia, USA, has sonic resources comparable with three simultaneous symphony orchestras. Another interesting feature lies in its intrinsic "polyphony" approach: each set of pipes can be played with others, the sounds mixed and interspersed in the environment, not in the instrument itself. Most organs in Europe, the Americas, Australasia can be found in Christian churches; the introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the 7th century. Due to its simultaneous ability to provide a musical foundation below the vocal register, support in the vocal register, increased brightness above the vocal register, the organ is ideally suited to accompany human voices, whether a congregation, a choir, or a cantor or soloist. Most services include solo organ repertoire for independent performance rather than by way of accompaniment as a prelude at the beginning the service and a postlude at the conclusion of the service. Today this organ may be a pipe organ, a digital or electronic organ that generates the sound with digital signal processing chips, or a combination of pipes and electronics.
It may be called a church organ or classical organ to differentiate it from the theatre organ, a different style of instrument. However, as classical organ repertoire was developed for the pipe organ and in turn influenced its development, the line between a church and a concert organ became harder to draw. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, symphonic organs flourished in secular venues in the United States and the United Kingdom, designed to replace symphony orchestras by playing transcriptions of orchestral pieces. Symphonic and orchestral organs fell out of favor as the orgelbewegung took hold in the middle of the 20th century, organ builders began to look to historical models for inspiration in constructing new instruments. Today, modern builders construct organs in a variety of styles for both secular a
The garmon is a kind of Russian button accordion, a free-reed wind instrument. A garmon has two rows of buttons on the right side, which play the notes of a diatonic scale, at least two rows of buttons on the left side, which play the primary chords in the key of the instrument as well as its relative harmonic minor key. Many instruments have additional right-hand buttons with useful accidental notes, additional left-hand chords for playing in related keys, a row of free-bass buttons, to facilitate playing of bass melodies; the garmons can be of two major classes: unisonoric, meaning that each button plays the same note or chord when the bellows is being expanded as it does when compressed, bisonoric, in which the note depends on the direction of the bellowswork. Examples of unisonoric type are Khromka. Bisonoric garmons are, e.g. Tula accordion and talyanka Beside Russian folk music, the garmon is an important musical instrument for Caucasian and Mari ￼￼folk in Volga and Ural regions. It's used in popular music.
Known as the Harmonika it is popular in Slovenia. Modern music is played on the Garmon, with some artists achieving popularity in Europe and the United States of America; the Slovenian style of play differs from the Russian. There are over 300 popular ensembles in Slovenia, one ensemble consisting of several singers and an accordionist, the musicians often being young or middle-aged. Although reduced and expanded versions are available, the standard arrangement is as follows: 25 treble buttons in two rows: Three diatonic octaves plus three accidentals. 25 bass buttons in three rows: Two rows of eight buttons, with bass notes and chords. The treble keyboard is arranged; the low and high octaves have identical fingering. The three accidental notes are arranged so as to mirror the position of the left-hand chords that contain them; the bass keyboard is arranged so that the principal chords for the major key are in the outer row, placed in circle of fifths order. One free bass accidental note is included.
Since the introduction of the accordion from Germany to Russia in the 1830s, Russian masters invented a lot of different types of local garmons during the 19th and 20th centuries. Tula garmon was the first Russian accordion, it had five or seven buttons on the right keyboard, like in the most Western diatonic accordions it produced different sounds on pull and push. So Tula garmon had two full diatonic octaves; the left bass keyboard had two buttons. Tula garmon was a base for all the Russian diatonic bisonoric garmoshkas Khromka was invented in 1870 in Tula on the design of Russian musician Nikolay Beloborodov, it was a unisonoric diatonic accordion but on the right keyboard there was two or three chromatic buttons g1♯, d2♯, f2♯, so hence the name khromka came as it was chromatic. It became the most popular and widespread button accordion in Russia, so all modern Russian garmons are khromkas. Vyatka garmon first appeared on the factories of Vyatka governorate in the middle of the 19th century.
It was chromatic unisonoric, it had a piano keyboard on the right side and two bass buttons on the left one. Vyatka garmon was a prototype for many different types of national accordions in the Volga region and the Caucasus. After it there were made Russian diatonic and chromatic accordions: Elets "royal" garmon, Beloborodov's royal garmon and others. Saratov garmon is a diatonic bisonoric garmoshka with bells which ring when the bass and chord keys are played. Lidia Ruslanova sang to the accompaniment of this garmonika. Livenka or Livenskaya garmoshka was developed during 1860-1870s in the factories around the town of Livny. Russian garmons were popular not only among the Russians but among the other nations of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. All the national garmons are based on Tula and Khromka garmons with modifications needed to fit the local national musical traditions; some were professionally invented in musical factories in the 20th century. Mari accordion is seven-button diatonic bisonoric, based on Tula garmon.
Mari koga-karmon and Chuvash kubos based on Khromka. Phændur or Ossetian accordion was developed on the base of European accordion, it was designed for the features of Ossetian folk musik but the other Caucasians found it relevant and the instrument became popular all over the Caucasus. Oriental bayan or accordion was invented in 1936 in the Kazan musical factory, it has a right-hand piano keyboard but a little smaller, so in fact it imitates a piano accordion. In 1961 in the Kazan factory it was revised and the left keyboard mirrored the right on
Chromatic button accordion
A chromatic button accordion is a type of button accordion where the melody-side keyboard consists of rows of buttons arranged chromatically. The bass-side keyboard is the Stradella system or one of the various free-bass systems. Included among chromatic button accordions are the Russian bayan and Schrammel accordion. There can be 3 to 5 rows of vertical treble buttons. In a 5 row chromatic, two additional rows repeat the first 2 rows to facilitate options in fingering. Comparing the layout to the piano accordion, the advantages of a chromatic button accordion are the greater range and better fingering options. On the other hand, some fingering positions require twisting of the wrist and the aspect of alternative fingering patterns may stunt one in sessions of difficult sight reading. Throughout the former Yugoslavia a 6-row chromatic button layout is used based on the B system, it is referred to as dugmetara. Bandoneon Diatonic button accordion Piano accordion Isomorphic keyboard