Zaragoza is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego in the center of both Aragon and the Ebro basin. On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza was 701,090, within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres, ranking fifth in Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European Union; the population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population; the city lies at an elevation of 199 metres above sea level. Zaragoza hosted Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a world's fair on water and sustainable development, it was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2012. The city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, landmarks such as the Basílica del Pilar, La Seo Cathedral and the Aljafería Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings form part of the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Fiestas del Pilar are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain. The city was called by the ancient Romans Caesaraugusta; the Iberian town that preceded the Roman city was called Salduie. The Sedetani, a tribe of ancient Iberians, populated. On, Augustus founded a city called Caesaraugusta at the same location to settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars; the foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not been set with exact precision, though it is known to lie between 25 BC and 11 BC. The city did not suffer any decline during the last centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths in the fifth century AD. From 1018 to 1118, Zaragoza was one of the taifa kingdoms, independent Muslim states which emerged in the eleventh century following the destruction of the Caliphate of Córdoba. During the first three decades of this period, 1018–1038, the city was ruled by the Banu Tujibi. In 1038 they were replaced by the Banu Hud, who had to deal with a complicated alliance with El Cid of Valencia and his Castilian masters against the Almoravids, who managed to bring the Taifas Emirates under their control.
After the death of El Cid his kingdom was overrun by the Almoravids, who, by 1100, had managed to cross the Ebro into Barbastro, which brought Aragon into direct contact with them. The Banu Hud stubbornly resisted the Almoravids and ruled until they were defeated by them in May 1110. On 18 December 1118, the Aragonese led by Alfonso I conquered the city from the Almoravids, made it the capital of the Kingdom of Aragon. After Alfonso's death without heirs in 1134, Zaragoza was swiftly occupied by Alfonso VII of León and Castile; the city control was held by García Ramírez, king of Navarra, until 1136 when it was given to Ramiro II the Monk in the treaty signed at the betrothal of Ramiro's daughter Petronila and Alfonso's son Sancho. The wedding never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying Ramon Berenguer Count of Barcelona; the marriage union was the origin of the Crown of Aragón, union with Castile would not happen for another 333 years, when King Ferdinand II of Aragon and his wife, Queen Isabella I of Castile, each took their respective thrones.
13th century Zaragoza was the scene of two controversial martyrdoms related with the Spanish Inquisition: those of Saint Dominguito del Val, a choirboy in the basilica, Pedro de Arbués, head official of the inquisition. While the reality of the existence of Saint Dominguito del Val is questioned, his "murder" at the hands of "jealous Jews" was used as an excuse to murder or convert the Jewish population of Zaragoza. Zaragoza suffered two famous sieges during the Peninsular War against the Napoleonic army: a first from June to August 1808. Despite a decline in the outlying rural economy, Zaragoza has continued to grow; the General Military Academy, a higher training center of the Spanish Army, was re-established on 27 September 1940, by Minister of the Army José Enrique Varela Iglesias. During the second half of the 20th century, Zaragoza's population boomed as a number of factories opened in the region. In 1979, the Hotel Corona de Aragón fire killed at least 80; the armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization ETA has been blamed, but the fire is still regarded as accidental.
ETA carried out the 1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing in the city which killed eleven people, including a number of children, leading to 250,000 people taking part in demonstrations in the city. Since 1982, the city has been home to a large factory, built by General Motors for the production of Opel cars, some of which are exported to the United Kingdom and sold under the Vauxhall brand. Population, in thousands, can be seen here: Population data: National Statistics Institute of Spain In 2017 there were 64,003 foreign citizens in Zaragoza, which represent 9.6% of the total population. From 2010 to 2017 immigration dropped from a 27 % drop. Romanians represent 29.8% of foreigners living in Zaragoza, or 2,9% of the total city population, followed by Moroccans and Chinese. Zaragoza has a cool semi-arid climate, as it lies in a wide basin surrounded by mountains which block off moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean; the average annual precipitation is a scanty 322 millimetres with abundant sunny days, the most rainy seasons are spring and autumn, with a relative
Ratón was a Spanish fighting bull, nicknamed el toro asesino, el sangriento toro and el terrible Ratón for killing three people in bullfighting rings in Spain during 2006–2011 and injuring thirty more. The bull became legendary in Spain due to the large number of gorings. Bullfighting fans regarded him as a star and traveled from across the country to see the morlaco at his home at Sueca near Valencia. Matador Jesús Esteve said of Ratón: "He is a killer, he is lazy, he doesn't want to participate. He does his own thing, and when he gets you, he wallops you, he doesn't let up."Due to Ratón's fame, bullfighting clubs paid exceptionally high fees of up to €15,000 to feature him in their events. In 2010, for instance, the municipality of Ricla hosted Ratón during a festival in honour of St. Mary Magdalene, paying €9,000 – nine times the normal fee for a fighting bull; the bull's fame was so great that, as in the case of the Ricla fiesta, he was given star billing on advertisements. Although the organisers had to pay high fees to see Ratón perform, the bull's owner asserted that the outlay was worth it: "e works out the cheapest because wherever he goes organizers double the ticket price."
Born in April 2001, 500 kg Ratón was the offspring of a bull named a cow named Fusilera. He was given his name for his diminutive size as a calf, he first appeared in the bullring in September 2002 and gored a matador for the first time in Canals, Valencia, in 2004. As well as participating in bull running in the streets, Ratón often performed in the recortes, a style of bullfighting in which members of the public dodge the bull around obstacles such as wooden stairs or platforms placed in a bullring. At one such event held in Museros in 2005, Ratón gored a dozen people and injured several more in another event at Yátova in 2006. Ratón took his first life on 9 August 2006 during Sagunto's festival, when he gored a 56-year-old man from León more than ten times; the killing was viewed on the Internet by hundreds of thousands of people. It made Ratón an instant star, his owner was flooded with requests from bullfighting clubs. Bulls that have killed people are classified as muy buenos. Ráton's second kill was made in 2008 in the arena of Benifairó near Valencia when he attacked a 27-year-old amateur matador, catching the man only two feet from safety.
After hitting the man from behind, Ratón threw him in the air several times before leaving him trampled in the ring with fatal injuries. Ratón claimed his third victim in Xàtiva on 13 August 2011, killing a 29-year-old man who had jumped into the arena while drunk. A video played on Spanish television showed the unnamed man being lifted on the bull's horns before being thrown to the ground and attacked, he died in hospital. The man's death prompted controversy, she called the show "cruel and dangerous to animals and people" and said that it should not receive any public funding. The mayor of Sueca, Salvador Campillo, expressed regret at the death but said that it did not justify Sueca "no longer seeing its most famous bull", he supported plans to bring Ratón to an event in the town in September 2011 and said that the show would be well controlled and that drunken participants would be kept out. Ratón was worked compared to other fighting bulls. At 10 years old, Ratón's age was equivalent to that of a 60-year-old human.
He was due to retire in 2010, but due to demand from fans and municipalities organising fiestas, his owner, Gregorio de Jesús, decided to prolong the bull's career. De Jesús felt. In 2010, de Jésus proposed that Ratón be cloned and asked for financial assistance from the Generalitat Valenciana, but although he was told that the government would consider the request, no decision was made. Ratón's owner Gregorio de Jesús is a former matador who fought at the Plaza de Toros Monumental de Aguascalientes in Mexico. After hanging up his sword in 1993, he retired to Sueca, where he grows oranges and rice as well as breeding cattle, he compared Ratón to the boxer Muhammad Ali: "He is agile, fast. High-spirited. He's not a brute, not like other bulls that act on crash into everything; this one thinks and attacks." Responding to criticism that Ratón has "nothing special", de Jesús noted that great sporting figures have always had their detractors: "They doubt Raúl, but there are his goals. With Ratón the same thing happens, his performances will live on."De Jesús attributed Ratón's unusual deadliness to the bull's physique and action in the ring: "Ratón is a agile bull, with long limbs, which facilitates his actions on the stage and pyramid.
He attacks with short and repetitive thrusts at the same time as swinging the head to the left and right, causing all his victims a much higher number of injuries than normal in these cases." According to de Jesús, Ratón's savage temperament may have derived from an early trauma when children locked the young bull in the dark for hours. The animal was shaking when de Jesús found him, sinc
Route of the Bull
The Route of the Bull is a tourist trail in the province of Cádiz, that traverses the areas where fighting bulls are raised. These bulls, used in bullfights throughout Spain, are of a breed native to Spain, a breed appreciated for its beef; the Route of the Bull is meant to direct tourists through landscapes where it is possible to observe these totemic animals in their natural habitat, but the scenic beauty of the countryside, the myriad points of historical and cultural interest along the way, make following the route worthwhile for the visitor who finds the notion of the bullfight off-putting. The trail runs between Jerez de la Frontera and Tarifa, it passes through the municipalities of San José del Valle, Paterna de Rivera, Medina Sidonia, Benalup-Casas Viejas, Alcalá de los Gazules, Jimena de la Frontera, Castellar de la Frontera, San Roque and Los Barrios. Another tourist trail of this sort is the route that wanders through the pueblos blancos of the province of Cádiz, the so-called White Towns of Andalusia.
A feria is an annual local festival in Spain and southern France, characterized by bullfights, bull running in the streets and bandas. The word festayre means ferias' partiers; the Spanish word feria designates a fair. Bullfights are given on the occasion of fairs, so the Spaniards came to designate by the term "fair" a series of bullfightings organized on this occasion, - in Andalusia - the festivities that accompany these bullfights. In many parts of Spain, there are still a parting between the festivities and the feria which takes place on this occasion. Thus, in Pamplona, one differentiates the San Fermín of the Feria del Toro, which means the eight bullfights cycle, a novillada and a bullfight on horseback proposed for the festivities. Thus, festivities without taurine activities cannot be termed ferias; the word continues to be used in Spain with the same meaning as the English "fair." Just a look at the calendarios de ferias of all the Spanish regions to note that the majority of them have no bullfights.
One of Spain's most famous ferias is the Feria de abril of Seville. During this feria, the city hosts not only bullfights, but hundreds of casetas with flamenco dancing, a large modern fairground with rides and Ferris Wheel and food courts selling paella and grilled meats; the streets come alive with horses and horse carriages bearing locals in traditional Andalusian costume. Other notable ferias take place each year in Cordoba in May. In France, the word was used to refer to a series of bullfights. In the southwestern and southeastern parts of France, people confounded taurine feria and festival. Gascon towns have organized this movement over the past forty years. Thus, the Fêtes de Dax became the Feria de Dax, thus breaking with the Spanish meaning and tradition; the popularity of these feasts and the media coverage, made favored the substitution of the word fêtes by feria. Many municipalities - including those who hold no bullfight - as well have renamed their annual patron saint's festivals into ferias.
And current usage followed. However, in Mont-de-Marsan as in Bayonne, the sumer festive week continues to be called Fêtes de la Madeleine and Fêtes de Bayonne; the feria de Nîmes are the largest ferias in France. The Pentecost Feria attracts nearly a million visitors over six days. South East region: Alès Feria d'Arles Beaucaire Béziers Carcassonne Céret Châteaurenard Collioure Istres Lunel Millas Mauguio Nîmes Palavas-les-Flots Pézilla-la-Rivière Saint-Gilles Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer Vauvert South West region: Aire-sur-Adour Amou Arzacq-Arraziguet Bayonne Dax Eauze Floirac Hagetmau Mimizan Mont-de-Marsan Orthez Pomarez Saint-Vincent-de-Tyrosse Vic-Fezensac Condom Saint-Sever Ondres Parentis-en-Born
Portuguese-style bullfighting differs in many aspects from Spanish-style bullfighting. The cavaleiros and the forcados are unique as well as the horsewomen. Cavaleiros - A horseman or woman, dressed in traditional 18th century costumes fights the bull from horseback; the horses are Portuguese Lusitanos, specially trained for the fights. These horses are skilled in dressage and may exhibit their art in the arena; the purpose of this fight is to stab four bandarilhas in the back of the bull. In the past, horseback bullfighters were members of old aristocratic families; the horsewomen are a unique feature of the Portuguese bullfighting. Ana Batista, Sónia Matias, Ana Rita and Joana Andrade are among the first and most renowned cavaleiras of Portugal. Forcados - The forcados are a group of eight men who challenge the bull directly, without any protection or weapon of defense; the front man provokes the bull into a charge to perform pega de caras. The front man secures the animal's head and is aided by his fellows who surround and secure the animal until he is subdued.
Forcados were people from lower classes who, to this day, practice their art through amateur associations. In California, these men sometimes take the humorous nickname of'Suicide Squad'. Matadores - Same as the Spanish matadores, but they do not kill the bull in the end. Bandarilheiros - These men are the matador's and/or cavaleiro's helpers in the arena, they wear the suit of light as the matador, except not with the gold sequins. While in the arena, they are holding the gold/pink cape to position the bull. Most Portuguese bullfights are held in two phases: the spectacle of the cavaleiro, followed by the pega. In Portugal, the main stars of bullfighting are the cavaleiros, as opposed to Spain, where the matadores are the most prominent bullfighters. Bullfights with matadores are frequent, notably with Portuguese matadores who practice their trade in Spain and who, when in Portugal, replace the sword in their final strike with a bandarilha. Examples of famous Portuguese matadores are Vítor Pedrito de Portugal.
During the cavaleiro, a horseman on a Portuguese Lusitano horse fights the bull from horseback. The purpose of this fight is to stab four bandeirilhas in the back of the bull. In the second stage, called the pega, the forcados, a group of eight men, challenge the bull directly without any protection or weapon of defense; the front man provokes the bull into a charge to perform pega de caras. The front man secures the animal's head and is aided by his fellows who surround and secure the animal until he is subdued. Many people who watch Portuguese-style bullfights in the United States use the term, "suicide squad", to refer to this group of eight men; the bull is not killed, at the end of the corrida, leading oxen are let into the arena and two campinos on foot herd the bull along them back to its pen. After the fight the bull may be either killed by a professional butcher or, after a good performance, restored to health and released to pasture for breeding. Tradition was so strong at the small frontier town of Barrancos, where the bull was illegally killed, that the government was forced to relent and permit the town to follow its ancient matador tradition and kill the bull.
There are other forms of traditional bullfighting in Portugal, some differing markedly from the version described above. In the Azores, bullfighting is reminiscent of the running of the bulls in Pamplona in the respect that those most at risk are human beings, not the bulls themselves; the Azorean style involves a group of people vying in a tug-of-war with a young bull by holding fast to a long stout rope tied around the bull's neck. This is called the tourada à corda. In Portugal, some bulls have their horns severed and covered in a way that they do not present sharp points; this practice is believed to have been introduced by King Joseph I of Portugal after a tragic event in a bullfight over which he was presiding at Salvaterra de Magos. The son and heir of the 4th Marquis of Marialva was fighting a bull on horseback when the animal wounded his horse; the young man was kicked by the bull and killed. The Marquis himself around 70 years of age, jumped from the royal cabin that he shared with the king, drew his sword and killed the animal.
Some southern and central regions of Portugal, such as Ribatejo and parts of the Alentejo, as well as Terceira Island in the Azores, are traditionally more interested in the corrida de touros. In Portugal's northern regions, bullfighting has a much lower presence, except for Póvoa de Varzim where bullfighting arenas are known to exist, at various locations, since the 18th century. In Northern Portugal, Viana do Castelo prohibited bullfighting in 2009, the arena was only used once a year since the 1990s and its bullfighting locations can be traced to 1871. In July 2018, the Póvoa de Varzim municipality has announced a bullfighting ban, starting January 1 2019, it is absent from most Azorean islands and from Madeira. The public television station RTP shows bullfights in prime-time; this has been notoriously criticized by left-wing parties who have tried to ban the programme and, in another instance, rating the show to an adults-only classification. Portuguese School of Equestrian Art Lusitano
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
La Feria d'Arles is a popular festival centered on bull activities, held each year in Arles, France. Two different ferias take one in mid-September and one in April; the Easter feria in April opens the French bullfighting season and attracts more than 500,000 people, including 50,000 who assist with the bullfights in the Arles Amphitheatre. Numerous abrivados and bull games are organized in the city and people gather in the streets with bodegas, moving orchestras and concerts