Oliver Twist. The story centres on orphan Oliver Twist, born in a workhouse and sold into apprenticeship with an undertaker. After escaping, Oliver travels to London, where he meets "The Artful Dodger", a member of a gang of juvenile pickpockets led by the elderly criminal, Fagin. Oliver Twist is notable for its unromantic portrayal by Dickens of criminals and their sordid lives, as well as for exposing the cruel treatment of the many orphans in London in the mid-19th century; the alternative title, The Parish Boy's Progress, alludes to Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, as well as the 18th-century caricature series by William Hogarth, A Rake's Progress and A Harlot's Progress. In this early example of the social novel, Dickens satirises the hypocrisies of his time, including child labour, the recruitment of children as criminals, the presence of street children; the novel may have been inspired by the story of Robert Blincoe, an orphan whose account of working as a child labourer in a cotton mill was read in the 1830s.
It is that Dickens's own youthful experiences contributed as well. Oliver Twist has been the subject of numerous adaptations for various media, including a successful musical play, Oliver!, the multiple Academy Award-winning 1968 motion picture. Disney put its spin on the novel with the animated film called Oliver & Company in 1988; the novel was published in monthly instalments in the magazine Bentley's Miscellany, from February 1837 to April 1839. It was intended to form part of Dickens's serial, The Mudfog Papers. George Cruikshank provided one steel etching per month to illustrate each instalment; the novel first appeared in book form six months before the initial serialisation was completed, in three volumes published by Richard Bentley, the owner of Bentley's Miscellany, under the author's pseudonym, "Boz". It included 24 steel-engraved plates by Cruikshank; the first edition was titled: Oliver Twist, or, The Parish Boy's Progress. Serial publication dates: I – February 1837 II – March 1837 III – April 1837 IV – May 1837 V – July 1837 VI – August 1837 VII – September 1837 VIII – November 1837 IX – December 1837 X – January 1838 XI – February 1838 XII – March 1838 XIII – April 1838 XIV – May 1838 XV – June 1838 XVI – July 1838 XVII – August 1838 XVIII – October 1838 XIX – November 1838 XX – December 1838 XXI – January 1839 XXII – February 1839 XXIII – March 1839 XXIV – April 1839 Oliver Twist is born and raised into a life of poverty and misfortune in a workhouse in the fictional town of Mudfog, located 70 miles north of London.
Orphaned by his mother's death in childbirth and his father's mysterious absence, Oliver is meagerly provided for under the terms of the Poor Law and spends the first nine years of his life living at a baby farm in the'care' of a woman named Mrs. Mann. Oliver is brought up with few comforts. Around the time of Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, removes Oliver from the baby farm and puts him to work picking and weaving oakum at the main workhouse. Oliver, who toils with little food, remains in the workhouse for six months. One day, the hungry boys decide to draw lots; this task falls to Oliver himself, who at the next meal comes forward trembling, bowl in hand, begs Mr. Bumble for gruel with his famous request: "Please, sir, I want some more". A great uproar ensues; the board of well-fed gentlemen who administer the workhouse hypocritically offer £5 to any person wishing to take on the boy as an apprentice. Mr. Gamfield, a brutal chimney sweep claims Oliver. However, when he begs despairingly not to be sent away with "that dreadful man", a kindly magistrate refuses to sign the indentures.
Mr. Sowerberry, an undertaker employed by the parish, takes Oliver into his service, he treats Oliver better and, because of the boy's sorrowful countenance, uses him as a mourner at children's funerals. Mr. Sowerberry is in an unhappy marriage, his wife looks down on Oliver and loses few opportunities to underfeed and mistreat him, he suffers torment at the hands of Noah Claypole, an oafish and bullying fellow apprentice and "charity boy", jealous of Oliver's promotion to mute, Charlotte, the Sowerberrys' maidservant, in love with Noah. Wanting to bait Oliver, Noah insults the memory of Oliver's biological mother, calling her "a regular right-down bad'un". Enraged, Oliver assaults the much bigger boy. Mrs. Sowerberry takes Noah's side, helps him to subdue and beat Oliver, compels her husband and Mr. Bumble, sent for in the aftermath of the fight, to beat Oliver again. Once Oliver is being sent to his room for the night he weeps; the next day Oliver escapes from the Sowerberrys' house and decides to run away to London to seek a better life.
Nearing London Oliver encounters Jack Dawkins, a pickpocket more known by the nickname the "Artful Dodger", his sidekick, a boy of a humorous nature named Charley Bates, but Oliver's innocent and trusting nature fails to see any dishonesty in their actions. The Dodger provides Oliver with a free meal and tells him of a gentleman in London who will "give him lodgings for nothing, never ask for change". Grateful for the unexpected assista
Pickpocket is a 1959 French film directed by Robert Bresson. It stars the young Uruguayan Martin LaSalle, a nonprofessional actor at the time, in the title role, with Marika Green as the ingénue, it was the first film for which Bresson wrote an original screenplay rather than "adapting it from an existing text."Pickpocket is considered to be one of Bresson's greatest films. Michel steals some money from a spectator, he leaves the racetrack confident that he was not caught when he is arrested. The inspector releases Michel. Michel soon falls in with a small group of professional pickpockets who teach him their trade and invite him to join them on coordinated pickpocketing sprees in crowded public areas. Visiting his mother, Michel meets Jeanne, his friend Jacques invites Michel along. But after stealing a watch, Michel leaves Jeanne at the carnival. While they are at a bar, the inspector asks Michel to show him a book by George Barrington about pickpocketing, bringing the book to the police station on an appointed date.
Michel goes down with the book. At the station, the inspector glances at the book. Michel returns to his apartment realizing. However, the cops failed to find his stash of money. Michel's mother dies, he goes to the funeral with Jeanne; the inspector visits Michel in his apartment, tells him that his mother had had some money stolen, but dropped the charges knowing the thief was her son. The inspector leaves without arresting Michel, he travels from Milan to Rome and ends up in England where he "spent two years in London pulling off good jobs", but throws his earnings away on alcohol and women. Returning to France, Michel returns to Jeanne, who has had a child by Jacques but did not want to marry him and is now left with nothing. Michel begins to work again to support her, but gives into temptation and goes back to steal at the horse track, where he is caught by a plainclothes policeman. Jeanne visits him in jail. On one such visit, Michel realizes. Martin LaSalle as Michel Marika Green as Jeanne Jean Pélégri as Chief Inspector Dolly Scal as The Mother Pierre Leymarie as Jacques Kassagi as 1st Accomplice Pierre Étaix as 2nd Accomplice César Gattegno as an Inspector Bresson has said that Pickpocket "was written in three months and shot in the midst of crowds in a minimal amount of time."
The resulting disorder proved to be a challenge during shooting, but was sometimes used to the crew's advantage, as in the Gare de Lyon sequence. The film is considered an example of "parametric narration" in which the style "dominates the syuzhet or is equal in importance to it"; as in Diary of a Country Priest, some screen time is devoted to the protagonist's writings, and, as in A Man Escaped, the protagonist's voice is heard more in the voice over than in dialogue. The film uses two pieces of orchestral baroque music, which the credits attribute to Jean-Baptiste Lully. However, both fragments are taken from Orchestral Suite No. 7 by Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer. Roger Ebert sees echoes of Dostoyevsky's Punishment in the film. "Bresson's Michel, like Dostoyevsky's hero Raskolnikov, needs money in order to realize his dreams, sees no reason why some lackluster ordinary person should not be forced to supply it. The reasoning is immoral, but the characters claim special privileges above and beyond common morality.
Michel, like the hero of Crime and Punishment, has a'good woman' in his life, who trusts he will be able to redeem himself.... She comes to Michel with the news. Michel gives Jeanne money for her. Why does he avoid her? Bresson never supplies motives. We can only guess." Pickpocket exerted a formative influence over the work of Paul Schrader, who has described it as "an unmitigated masterpiece" and "as close to perfect as there can be", whose films American Gigolo, Patty Hearst, Light Sleeper all include endings similar to that of Pickpocket. In addition, his screenplay for Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver bears many similarities, including confessional narration and a voyeuristic look at society. Schrader's admiration for Pickpocket led to his contribution in an extra in The Criterion Collection's DVD release in 2005. Pickpocket has been paraphrased by other films, such as Leos Carax's Les Amants du Pont-Neuf. Pickpocket was nominated for the 10th Berlin International Film Festival's Golden Bear award.
Pickpocket on IMDb Pickpocket: Robert Bresson: Hidden in Plain Sight an essay by Gary Indiana at the Criterion Collection
Media in London
London is a major international communications centre with a unrivalled number of media outlets. All of the major media organisations in the UK are based in London. Much of the British media is concentrated in London and is sometimes accused of having a "London bias". All the major television networks are headquartered in London including the BBC, which remains one of the world's most influential media organisations, the largest Broadcaster in the world. To counter complaints about London bias, the BBC announced in June 2004 that some departments are to be relocated to Manchester. Other networks headquartered in London include ITV, Channel 4, Five, CNN International and BSkyB. Like the BBC, these produce some programmes elsewhere in the UK, but London is their main production centre. Local programming, including news, is provided by the regional services of the main networks: e.g. BBC London News on BBC One and ITV London on ITV. There is a huge choice of radio stations available in London. Local citywide stations include music-based stations such as Absolute Radio, Capital 95.8, Kiss 100, Magic 105.4, Heart 106.2 and Xfm.
Popular news/talk stations include BBC London, LBC 97.3 and LBC News 1152. The London newspaper market is dominated by London editions of the national newspapers, all of which are edited in London; until the 1970s, most of the national newspapers were concentrated in Fleet Street, but in the 1980s they relocated to new premises with automated printing works. Most of these are in East London, most famously the News International plant at Wapping; the move was resisted by the printing trade union SOGAT 82, strike action at Wapping in 1986 led to violent skirmishes. The last major news agency in Fleet Street, moved to Canary Wharf in 2005, but Fleet Street is still used as a collective term for the national press. London has two citywide daily newspaper titles - the Evening Standard and Metro, both of which are available on the streets and at London tube and railway stations; the Evening Standard became a free newspaper in October 2009 after 182 years as a paid-for publication. There is a freesheet covering financial news, City A.
M.. The independent weekly listings guide Time Out Magazine has been providing concert, film and arts information since 1968. There are a vast number of local newspapers in the London area covering a small section of the city as well as two free magazines and Shortlist London is at the centre of British film and television production industries, with major studio facilities on the western fringes of the conurbation and a large post-production industry centred in Soho. London is one of the two leading centres of English-language publishing alongside New York. Globally important media companies based in London range from publishing group Pearson, to the information agency Reuters, to the world's number one advertising business group, WPP. Economy of London Hollywood and the United Kingdom List of companies based in London Media of the United Kingdom
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Shoplifting is the unnoticed theft of goods from an open retail establishment. Shoplifting involves a person concealing a store item on their person, in pockets or under clothes and leaving the store without paying for it. With clothing, shoplifters may leave the store wearing the clothes; the terms "shoplifting" and "shoplifter" are not defined in law. The crime of shoplifting falls under the legal classification of larceny. Shoplifting is distinct from robbery or armed robbery. In the retail industry, the word shrinkage or shrink, can be used to refer to merchandise lost by shoplifting, but the word includes loss by other means, such as waste, uninsured damage to products, theft by store employees. Shoplifters range from amateurs acting on impulse, to career criminals who habitually engage in shoplifting as a form of income. Career criminals may use several individuals to shoplift, with some participants distracting store employees while another participant steals items. Amateurs steal products for personal use, while career criminals steal items to resell them in the underground economy.
Other forms of shoplifting include swapping price labels of different items, return fraud or eating a grocery store's food without paying for it. Shoplifted items are those with a high price in proportion to their size, such as disposable razor blades, alcoholic beverages and cigarettes. Retailers have reported. Stores use a number of strategies to reduce shoplifting, including storing small, expensive items in locked glass cases; some stores have security guards at the exit, who check receipts. Stores combat shoplifting by training employees how to detect potential shoplifters; the first documented shoplifting started to take place in 16th-century London. By the early 19th century, shoplifting was believed to be a female activity. In the 1960s, shoplifting began to be redefined again, this time as a political act. Researchers divide shoplifters into two categories: "boosters", professionals who resell what they steal, "snitches", amateurs who steal for their personal use. Shoplifting is the act of knowingly taking goods from an establishment in which they are displayed for sale, without paying for them.
Shoplifting involves concealing items on the person or an accomplice, leaving the store without paying. However, shoplifting can include price switching, refund fraud, "wardrobing", "grazing". Price switching is now an extinct form of shoplifting for two reasons. Firstly, the labels will split apart upon attempted removal, secondly all retail cashiers now scan items at the register, rather than relying on price stickers. Retailers report that shoplifting has a significant effect on their bottom line, stating that about 0.6% of all inventory disappears to shoplifters. Criminal theft involves taking possession of property illegally. In self-service shops, customers are allowed by the property owner to take physical possession of the property by holding or moving it; this leaves areas of ambiguity that could criminalize some people for simple mistakes, such as accidental putting of a small item in a pocket or forgetting to pay. For this reason penalties for shoplifting are lower than those for general theft.
Few jurisdictions have specific shoplifting legislation with which to differentiate it from other forms of theft, so reduced penalties are at a judge's discretion. Most retailers are aware of the serious consequences of making a false arrest, will only attempt to apprehend a person if their guilt is beyond a reasonable doubt. Depending on local laws, arrests made by anyone other than law enforcement officers may be illegal; some shoplifters are amateurs who do not steal from stores and who do not use shoplifting as a form of income. Researchers call these amateurs "snitches,". In several countries, criminal flash mobs made up of teenagers and young adults, enter stores with the intention of stealing merchandise while accomplices distract staff. However, there are groups who make their living from shoplifting and other crimes, they tend to be more skilled career criminals. Researchers call professional thieves "boosters," as they tend to resell what they steal on the black market. Shoplifting is subject to prosecution.
In the United Kingdom, theft is defined as "dishonestly appropriate property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it. It is one of the most common crimes. Shoplifting peaks between 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. and is lowest from 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. In the United States, shoplifting increases during the Christmas season, arrest rates increase during spring break. Rutgers University criminologist Ronald V. Clarke says shoplifters steal "hot products" that a
Fagin is a fictional character in Charles Dickens' novel Oliver Twist. In the preface to the novel, he is described as a "receiver of stolen goods", he is the leader of a group of children whom he teaches to make their livings by pickpocketing and other criminal activities, in exchange for shelter. A distinguishing trait is his constant—and insincere—use of the phrase "my dear" when addressing others. At the time of the novel, he is said by another character, Monks, to have made criminals out of "scores" of children. Nancy, the lover of Bill Sikes, is confirmed to be Fagin's former pupil. Fagin is a self-confessed miser who, despite the wealth he has acquired, does little to improve the squalid lives of the children he guards, or his own. In the second chapter of his appearance, he is shown that he cares less for their welfare, than that they do not "peach" on him and the other children. Still darker sides to the character's nature are shown when he beats the Artful Dodger for not bringing Oliver back.
He indirectly but intentionally causes the death of Nancy by falsely informing Sikes that she had betrayed him, when in reality she had shielded Sikes from the law, whereupon Sikes kills her. Near the end of the book, Fagin is captured and sentenced to be hanged, in a chapter that portrays him as pitiable in his anguish. In popular culture, Fagin is used in comparison with adults who use children for illegal activities. Dickens took Fagin's name from a friend he had known in his youth while working in a boot-blacking factory. Fagin's character might be based on the criminal Ikey Solomon, a fence at the centre of a publicised arrest, escape and trial; some accounts of Solomon describe him as a London underworld "kidsman". The popularity of Dickens' novel caused "fagin" to replace "kidsman" in some crime circles, denoting an adult who teaches minors to steal and keeps a major portion of the loot. Other sources, such as Howard Mancing in The Cervantes Encyclopedia, claim that Fagin is assumed to be modeled on Monipodio, one of the main characters in Miguel de Cervantes' Rinconete y Cortadillo.
Monipodio is the leader of a criminal ring in 17th-century Seville that features cutpurses and cape stealers. Fagin has been the subject of much debate over antisemitism, during Dickens' lifetime and in modern times. In an introduction to a 1981 Bantam Books reissue of Oliver Twist, for example, Irving Howe wrote that Fagin was considered an "archetypical Jewish villain." The first 38 chapters of the book refer to Fagin by his racial and religious origin 257 times, calling him "the Jew", against 42 uses of "Fagin" or "the old man". In 2005, novelist Norman Lebrecht wrote that "A more vicious stigmatisation of an ethnic community could hardly be imagined and it was not by any means unintended." Dickens, who had extensive knowledge of London street life, wrote that he had made Fagin Jewish because: "it was true, of the time to which the story refers, that the class of criminal invariably was a Jew". It is argued that Fagin was based on a specific Jewish criminal of the era, Ikey Solomon. Dickens claimed that by calling Fagin "the Jew" he had meant no imputation against the Jewish people: "I have no feeling towards the Jews but a friendly one.
I always speak well of them, whether in public or private, bear my testimony to their perfect good faith in such transactions as I have had with them..."In editions of the book, printed during his lifetime, Dickens excised over 180 instances of'Jew' from the text. This occurred after Dickens sold his London home in 1860 to a Jewish banker, James Davis, who objected to the emphasis on Fagin's Jewishness in the novel; when he sold the house, Dickens told a friend: "The purchaser of Tavistock House will be a Jew Money-Lender" before saying: "I must say that in all things the purchaser has behaved well, that I cannot call to mind any occasion when I have had moneydealings with anyone, so satisfactory and trusting."Dickens became friendly with Eliza, who told him in a letter in 1863 that Jews regarded his portrayal of Fagin a "great wrong" to their people. Dickens started to revise Oliver Twist, removing all mention of "the Jew" from the last 15 chapters. In one of his final public readings in 1869, a year before his death, Dickens cleansed Fagin of all stereotypical caricature.
A contemporary report observed: "There is no nasal intonation. One of the two heroines, Lizzie Hexam, defends her Jewish employers: "The gentleman is a Jew, the lady, his wife, is a Jewess, I was brought to their notice by a Jew, but I think there cannot be kinder people in the world."The comic book creator Will Eisner, disturbed by the antisemitism in the typical depiction of the character, created a graphic novel in 2003 titled Fagin the Jew. In this book, the back story of the character and events of Oliver Twist are depicted from his point
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed