African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Boyle Heights, Los Angeles
Boyle Heights is a neighborhood of 100,000 residents east of Downtown Los Angeles in the City of Los Angeles, California. The district has 10 private schools. Boyle Heights was called Paredón Blanco; the area is named after Andrew Boyle, an Irishman who purchased 22 acres on the bluffs overlooking the Los Angeles River after fighting in the Mexican–American War. From 1889 through 1909 the city was divided into nine wards. In 1899 a motion was introduced at the Ninth Ward Development Association to use the name Boyle Heights to apply to all the highlands of the Ninth Ward, including Brooklyn Heights, Euclid Heights, the aforementioned Boyle Heights. In 2017, some residents were protesting gentrification of their neighborhood by the influx of new businesses, a theme found in the TV series Vida, set in the neighborhood. In the 1950s, Boyle Heights was racially and ethnically diverse, with Jews, various sectarian Spiritual Christians from Russia, Yugoslav immigrants, Portuguese people, Japanese Americans living in the neighborhood.
Bruce Phillips, a sociologist who tracked Jewish communities across the United States, said that Jewish families left Boyle Heights not because of racism, but instead because of banks redlining the neighborhood and the construction of several freeways through the community, which led to the loss of many houses. As of the 2000 census, there were 92,785 people in the neighborhood, considered "not diverse" ethnically, with the racial composition of the neighborhood at 94.0% Latino, 2.3% Asian, 2.0% White, 0.9% African American, 0.8% other races. The median household income was $33,235, low in comparison to the rest of the city; the neighborhood's population was one of the youngest in the city, with a median age of just 25. As of 2011, 95 % of the community was Latino; the community had Mexican Americans, Mexican immigrants, Central American ethnic residents. Hector Tobar of the Los Angeles Times said, "The diversity that exists in Boyle Heights today is Latino". Latino communities These were the ten cities or neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Latino residents, according to the 2000 census: The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Central Health Center in Downtown Los Angeles, serving Boyle Heights.
The United States Postal Service's Boyle Heights Post Office is located at 2016 East 1st Street. The Social Security Administration is located at 215 North Soto Street Los Angeles, CA 90033 1-800-772-1213 The emergence of Latino politics in Boyle Heights influenced the diversity in the community. First and foremost, Boyle Heights was a predominantly Jewish community with "a vibrant, pre-World War II, Yiddish-speaking community, replete with small shops along Brooklyn Avenue, union halls and hyperactive politics... shaped by the enduring influence of the Socialist and Communist parties" before Boyle Heights became predominantly associated with Mexicans/Mexican Americans. The rise of the socialist and communist parties increased the people’s involvement in politics in the community because the "liberal-left exercised great influence in the immigrant community". With an ever-growing diversity in Boyle Heights, "Jews remained culturally and politically dominant after World War II". However, as the Jewish community was moving westward into new homes, the largest growing group, were moving into Boyle Heights because to them this neighborhood was represented as upward mobility.
With Jews and Latinos both in Boyle Heights, these men part of the Jewish Community Relations Council. The combination of Jewish people and Latinos in Boyle Heights symbolized a tight unity between the two communities; the two races helped each other in order to elect Edward R. Roybal into city council against his opponent Councilman Christensen. In order for Roybal to win a landslide victory over Christensen, "the JCRC, with representation from business and labor leaders, associated with both Jewish left traditions, had become the prime financial benefactor to CSO.. Labor backed incumbents... the Cold War struggle for the hearts and minds of minority workers influenced the larger political dynamic". In the 1947 election, Roybal lost and Saul Alinsky; when Edward Roybal had just started as the city of Los Angeles' new city councilman in 1949, he experienced racism when trying to buy a home for his family. The real estate agent told him that he could not sell to Mexicans, from on Roybal's first act as councilman was to protest racial discrimination and to create a community that represented inter-racial politics in Boyle Heights.
The Community Service Organization helped Roybal win the election and to increase the multi-racial involvement in Boyle Heights. Therefore, Roybal’s involvement in City Council affected how Latino politics went further on during Bradley's term and for future political leaders coming from Boyle Heights; this Latino-Jewish relationship shaped politics because when Antonio Villaraigosa became mayor of Los Angeles in 2005, "not only did he have ties to Boyle Heights, but he was elect
Japanese Americans are Americans who are or of Japanese descent those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century. According to the 2010 census, the largest Japanese American communities were found in California with 272,528, Hawaii with 185,502, New York with 37,780, Washington with 35,008, Illinois with 17,542, Ohio with 16,995. Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America and the city of Torrance holds the densest Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states. People from Japan began migrating to the US in significant numbers following the political and social changes stemming from the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Large numbers went to Hawaii and the West Coast. In 1907, the "Gentlemen's Agreement" between the governments of Japan and the US ended immigration of Japanese unskilled workers, but permitted the immigration of businessmen and spouses of Japanese immigrants in the US.
The Immigration Act of 1924 banned the immigration of nearly all Japanese. The ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese American community. Original immigrants belonged to an immigrant generation, the Issei, their US-born children to the Nisei Japanese American generation; the Issei comprised those who had immigrated before 1924. Because no new immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans born after 1924 were—by definition—born in the US; this generation, the Nisei, became a distinct cohort from the Issei generation in terms of age and English-language ability, in addition to the usual generational differences. Institutional and interpersonal racism led many of the Nisei to marry other Nisei, resulting in a third distinct generation of Japanese Americans, the Sansei. Significant Japanese immigration did not occur again until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 ended 40 years of bans against immigration from Japan and other countries.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 restricted naturalized United States citizenship to "free white persons", which excluded the Issei from citizenship. As a result, the Issei were unable to vote and faced additional restrictions such as the inability to own land under many state laws. Japanese Americans were parties in several important Supreme Court decisions, including Ozawa v. United States and Korematsu v. United States; the Korematsu case originated the "strict scrutiny" standard, applied, with great controversy, in government considerations of race since the 1989 Adarand Constructors v. Peña decision. In recent years, immigration from Japan has been more like that from Western Europe; the numbers involve on average 5 to 10 thousand per year, is similar to the amount of immigration to the US from Germany. This is in stark contrast to the rest of Asia, where family reunification is the primary impetus for immigration. During World War II, an estimated 120,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese nationals or citizens residing on the West Coast of the United States were forcibly interned in ten different camps across the western interior of the country.
The internments were based on the ancestry rather than activities of the interned. Families, including children, were interned together. Four decades the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 acknowledged the "fundamental violations of the basic civil liberties and constitutional rights" of the internment. Many Japanese-Americans consider the term internment camp a euphemism and prefer to refer to the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans as imprisonment in concentration camps. Webster's New World Fourth College Edition defines a concentration camp as, "A prison camp in which political dissidents, members of minority ethnic groups, etc. are confined." The nomenclature for each of their generations who are citizens or long-term residents of countries other than Japan, used by Japanese Americans and other nationals of Japanese descent are explained here. The Japanese American communities have themselves distinguished their members with terms like Issei and Sansei, which describe the first and third generations of immigrants.
The fourth generation is called Yonsei, the fifth is called Gosei. The term Nikkei encompasses Japanese immigrants of all generations; the kanreki, a pre-modern Japanese rite of passage to old age at 60, is now being celebrated by increasing numbers of Japanese American Nisei. Rituals are enactments of shared meanings and values. Issei and many nisei speak Japanese in addition to English as a second language. In general generations of Japanese Americans speak English as their first language, though some do learn Japanese as a second language. In Hawaii however, where Nikkei are about one-fifth of the whole population, Japanese is a major language and studied by many of the state's residents across ethnicities, it is taught in private Japanese language schools as early as the second grade. As a courtesy to the large number of Japanese tourists, Japanese characters are provided on place signs, public transportation, civic facilities; the Hawaii media market h
Santa Monica College
Santa Monica College is a public, two-year, community college in Santa Monica, United States. Founded as a junior college in 1929, SMC enrolls over 30,000 students in more than 90 fields of study. Although serving pre-college, high school students, the College expanded its enrollment to educate college-age students and non-traditional students with the primary intention to transfer to a four-year university, it is one of the few schools which has high transfer rates to 4-year universities such as UCs or CSUs. Today, two-thirds of students at Santa Monica College are enrolled part-time. With over 2,000 employees, SMC is a major employer in the Greater Los Angeles Area and has a significant impact in the region's economy. Occupying the entire Santa Monica Community College District, SMC is the only public institution of higher education in Santa Monica; the main campus, located on Pico Boulevard, is the college's largest location. The College operates five satellite campuses across Santa Monica.
SMC is the leader in California's 113 community college system in transfers to the University of California system. Since 1929, SMC has provided job training, educational opportunities and cultural enrichment through its radio station KCRW, the Broad Stage at the SMC Performing Arts Center and lifelong learning through distinctive programs such as its Emeritus College for older adults. Santa Monica Junior College was established in September 1929 with 7 faculty members and 153 students in classes held on the second floor of Santa Monica High School. Attended by high school students, it was part of the Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District. Despite the ensuing Wall Street Crash of 1929 and Great Depression, the school's enrollment increased to 355 in 1930 and 600 in 1931. In 1932, the College moved to the vacant brick Garfield Elementary School building on Michigan Avenue; the building was declared unsafe following the 1933 Long Beach earthquake and classes moved to tents and bungalows on the Garfield site, which students nicknamed Splinterville.
In 1940, following a number of failed attempts to relocate to a larger property, the school purchased 6.18 acres on Pico Boulevard for $10,197. In 1945, the junior college changed its name to Santa Monica City College; the Pico Boulevard and 17th Street campus opened on January 1952 to 1,200 students. The college's first bond measure was passed in 1946 for the construction of Corsair Stadium, which began in 1946 and was completed in 1948. In 1969, the college secured its own governing board under the creation of the Santa Monica Junior College District. In 1970, the school changed its name from Santa Monica City College to Santa Monica College. Santa Monica College experienced a financial crisis in 1972 when the state of California changed the age of majority from 21 to 18. Since the state paid $40 more per unit of attendance of minors than adults, the change cut SMC's budget in half. Additionally, state funding for community college students in California went to the student's home district and not the college's district.
SMC had a contract with the City of Los Angeles to finance students from Los Angeles but since one-third of SMC students were from districts outside of Los Angeles the city would lose more funding. As a result, Los Angeles planned to cancel its financial compensation contract with SMC; the college sent termination letters to all faculty and staff, effective September 1972. The crisis was halted on March 8, 1972, when the California State Senate passed a bill temporarily exempting community colleges from the financial effects of the change in the age of adulthood. On March 21, 1972, the college renegotiated its contract with the City of Los Angeles and rehired its faculty and staff. In 1980, the college built a new library and transformed the previous library building into the Letters and Science Building. In 2012 Santa Monica College received national attention due to a controversial plan to create a two-tier system of education in which more "popular" courses would be offered at higher costs.
Protests at a board meeting following the plan's proposal led to several students being pepper sprayed. A report on the event resulted in an officer's dismissal; the report faulted several members of the protest for provoking officers. Some people exclaimed "We got pepper sprayed! We won" after the incident. On April 23, 2013, a bomb threat caused the College Fair on campus to be evacuated; the culprit was not discovered. On May 4, 2013, an SMC student, Tian Lu, committed suicide by jumping off the parking structure; this was the first time in the college's 84-year history. On May 16, 2013, an SMC student threatened to shoot up the school; the threat turned out to be harmless, the student was apprehended at the psychological services department. 2013 shooting On June 7, 2013, a killing spree occurred in Santa Monica that left a total of five people dead, including the gunman and injured five others. The incident started several miles off-campus before the gunman traveled to SMC and entered the College's library, where he was fatally shot by police.
School officials put the campus on lockdown as Los Angeles Police Department officers, including SWAT, cleared the campus. Local law enforcement stated that they did not view the incident as a "school shooting" because the incident started off-campus. Santa Monica College is the one and only college of the Santa Monica Community College District, a constituent community college district of the California Community Colleges System; the district is governed by its seven-member Board of Trustees and its various officers including the Superintendent/President. The district territory includes Malibu; the trustees ar
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Westside Pavilion is a former shopping malls located in West Los Angeles, being renamed One Westside as it is transformed into office. It is owned and operated by Hudson Pacific Properties, acting as landlord and developer in a joint venture with previous owner The Macerich Company to transform the mall from retail to media and technology company offices; the three-story urban-style shopping mall once had 70 shops but was down to 54 retailers when Hudson Pacific announced plans to convert most of the site to offices. A 12-screen movie theater owned by the Landmark Theatres company opened at the mall in 2007, serving as the flagship location for the company; the Interior area of the mall closed in 2019. Landmark Cinemas and Westside Tavern remains open for business. Before the Westside Pavilion was opened in 1985, the site was occupied by a mini mall known as Westland and a free-standing May Company building, incorporated into the mall. Part of the current mall occupies the site of the Pico Drive-in movie theater -, located there from 1934 to 1950 - and is considered only the fourth drive-in in the United States, the first in California.
The first Aéropostale clothing store opened at the mall in 1987. The plans to build the mall caused an uproar from the surrounding community over concerns of increased traffic and parking on the street; the community responded by banning street parking to non-residents and the developers agreed to provide adequate parking within the mall, as well as retain the Vons supermarket that existed in the previous shopping center. The mall was designed by the same architect who designed structures for the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles and had a look, a cross between 1980s kitsch, a "palace" of geometrical shapes of different bright colors, a Parisian shop-lined street; the mall became a Westside landmark. There was a plan to build a massive movie theater complex on the opposite side of Westwood Boulevard from the mall in 1986; that plan evolved into an expansion of the mall, designed by the mall's original architect, Jon Jerde, which included new shops and al fresco restaurants all connected to the rest of the mall by a bridge over Westwood.
The addition to the Westside Pavilion opened in 1991 despite criticism from many, including Los Angeles mayor Tom Bradley, The addition known as "Westside Too", opened up with great fanfare and was popular for the first couple of years, but its popularity soon began to decline as clients favored the original part of the mall. One problem was that the mall's designers had failed to reserve a route linking the mall's central atrium to the bridge to Westside Too. Instead, the bridge was coupled directly to the third floor of the mall's western anchor store meaning that people wishing to transit between the two halves of the mall had to walk through the store. By the late 1990s only a few shops and restaurants remained open in Westside Too, the only major features remaining were the Barnes & Noble bookstore and the 1,000 parking spaces it had added. Most of Westside Too still had the dated early-1990s decor on the abandoned storefronts. Agencies serving the community, such as the West L. A. Chamber of Commerce and an infant and toddler gym, soon took over some of these spaces.
The original part of the mall was renovated in 2000 with the installation of carpeted seating areas and German limestone flooring to give it a more contemporary and upscale look. Westside Too remained open until January 2006, when it was closed to make way for a 12-screen Landmark movie theater and new restaurants; the new addition opened in June 2007. The new addition complex, designed by the architectural firms F+A Architects and PleskowRael, features the largest movie theater in the U. S. showing independent films - with 12-screens and 2,000 total seats. The theater features Landmark's new "Living Room" brand auditoriums; the "Living Room" concept features smaller capacity theaters with sofas, side-tables and other home-like amenities. The theater features reserved seating and a wine bar. In late 2008, a group of animal rights activists began peaceful protests in Westside Pavilion against a pet store called BarkWorks, which they alleged was a retailer for puppy mills. Macerich restricted the protesters to the pedestrian bridge over Westwood Boulevard and prohibited them from protesting on certain blackout days.
The protesters conformed their conduct to Macerich's restrictions, but filed a lawsuit to enjoin Macerich from enforcing them. On March 2, 2011, the California Court of Appeal for the Second Appellate District ruled that the trial court had erred in denying the protesters' motion for a preliminary injunction; the appellate court held that Macerich's restrictions were unreasonable as a matter of law, reversed and remanded for further proceedings. The lawsuit was settled in November 2011. In 2009, Westside Tavern, a full service restaurant and bar opened adjacent to the movie theater and has been well received by many visitors who frequent both the restaurant and the theater. In 2010, the exterior of the main portion of the mall received a facelift to "tone down" the dated look of its exterior; the bright 1980s pastels were replaced with a conservative dark gray and tan color scheme. In December 2011, the Barnes and Noble store in Westside Too closed, after negotiations over renewal of its lease were unsuccessful