click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pierre-Esprit Radisson

Pierre-Esprit Radisson was a French fur trader and explorer in New France. He is linked to his brother-in-law Médard des Groseilliers; the decision of Radisson and Groseilliers to enter the English service led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company. His career was notable for its repeated transitions between serving Britain and France. Pierre-Esprit Radisson's birthplace is unclear, but was in France's lower Rhône region near the town Avignon. A 1697 affidavit and a 1698 petition selfreport his ages as 61 and 62 suggesting birth in 1636, yet a 1681 census in New France, reported his age as 41, suggesting birth in 1640, which coheres with baptismal records, from Carpentras, a city near Avignon, that concern Radisson's father, Pierre-Esprit Radisson Sr. Radisson would trace his family, the Hayet-Radissons, to the town St. Malo, whereas records suggest either Paris or Avignon. According to Radisson, he emigrated from France to Canada on 24 May 1651, he may have arrived with his two sisters, Élisabeth and Françoise, with his maternal half-sister Marguerite Hayet, who would marry Radisson's eventual fur-trading partner Médard Chouat Des Groseilliers.

By sometime in 1651, all three women were living together in Trois-Rivières. In 1651 or 1652, hunting fowl near his Trois-Rivières home, a petty squabble separated Radisson from his hunting group. After discovering its several men killed by a Mohawk raiding party, he was captured by the Iroquois; because of his youth, he received mild treatment and, as he showed interest in Mohawk language and culture, was assimilated. In a Mohawk custom of adopting young captives, whether indigenous or European, to replace relatives lost to disease or warfare, Radisson joined a local Mohawk family near modernday Schenectady in New York state. Not long after Radisson's integration, which took about six weeks, while out hunting with three Iroquois, he met an Algonquin man who convinced him to defect and return to Trois-Rivières. Together, they killed Radisson's Iroquois companions, travelled 14 days, sighted the town, but were captured by patrolling Iroquois; the Mohawks killed the Algonquin and subjected Radisson, along with some 20 prisoners, to ritual torture, although his adoptive, Mohawk family advocated for him and materially compensated the bereaved families to spare him execution and temper his torture.

As the Iroquois despised cowardice and punished it with death, Radisson's adoptive parents advised him to be brave and yet not too brave, since the Iroquois sometimes ate the hearts of exceptionally brave men to acquire their courage. Radisson's fingernails were pulled out while he was forced to sing, one finger was cut to the bone, he watched ten Huron Indians get tortured to death; the next day, an old man burned Radisson, tied to a scaffold, a young man drove a red-hot dagger though his foot. After three days of similar, the Iroquois brought out Huron prisoners and, using tomahawks, bashed in the heads of some, whereas the rest were adopted by Iroquois families. Once released, the overwhelmed Radisson found that, as he would recall, "all my paines and griefs ceased, not feeling the least paine. Bids me be merry, makes me sing, to wich I consented with all my heart." He felt deep gratitude to his adoptive parents, whom he described as loving, for saving his life. By Iroquois standards, Radisson's torture had been moderate, whereas Radisson himself recounts witnessing gruesome torture: "They burned a Frenchwoman.

Sometime after his own wounds healed, Radisson spent some five months of war-party expedition. With other Mohawk warriors, Radisson traveled to a trading ship at Fort Orange controlled by the Dutch, in present-day Albany, New York. There, a governor offered to pay for his freedom. Radisson instead returned to the Iroquois village, regretting this, escaped on 29 October 1653, "at 8 of the clock in the morning". Again at Fort Orange, he met Jesuit priest Joseph Antoine Poncet, who made him "a great offer", whereby he returned to Holland in early 1654 under an agreement now unclear but involving missionary work; that year, 1654, Radisson returned to Trois-Rivières. Over the next three years, he would embark on several missionary expeditions, his writings ignoring this period, little is known about his whereabouts during it, apart from information in a deed of sale that he signed in November 1655. In 1657, Radisson accompanied a joint Franco–Huron–Iroquois expedition into Onondaga Iroquois territory to aid a local Jesuit mission and promote further fur trading.

In 1658, under rising tensions with local Iroquois, the French left. Radisson soon returned to Québec. Radisson's biggest impact in Canadian history came from 1658 to 1684, when he was an active coureur-des-bois, fur trader and explorer. In August of 1659, Radisson persuaded his brother-in-law, Médard Chouart des Groseilliers, to hire him for his journey around Lake Superior; the reason for the year-long trip was to collect furs, in order to participate in the ever-lucrative fur trade. In the winter of 1659–1660, Radisson and Des Groseilliers lived just south of Lake Superior in what is now Wisconsin, associating with groups of Huron, Ottawa and Sioux Indians; when Radisson arrived at an Ojibwa village on the shores of Lake Superior, where he spent much of the winter, he gave three types of presents to the men and children of the village. Radisson wrote that to the men he gave "...a kettle, two hatchets, six knives and a blade for a sword", to the women "...2 and 20 awls

Wangerooge Island Railway

The single track Wangerooge Island Railway is an unelectrified narrow gauge railway with a rail gauge of 1,000 mm located on the East Frisian island of Wangerooge off the northwestern coast of Germany. It is the most important means of transport on the island and is the only narrow gauge railway operated today by the Deutsche Bahn; the Wangerooge Island Railway was opened in 1897 with its present-day rail gauge of 1,000 mm. Its operator was the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg State Railways, it was worked from the outset by steam locomotives, not as a horse-drawn railway as on several neighbouring islands. The line led from the newly built pier in the southwest of the island to the middle of the island village, or Inseldorf, in the centre of the island. A train needed about 20 minutes to negotiate the 3.5 kilometre long route at a top speed of 30 km/h. These timings are still valid today though the route has been changed several times. In 1901 a 1.9 kilometre long stub line was built from the Saline, the half-way point on the route towards the western part of the island in order to link the military base there.

In 1905 a second pier, the East Pier or Ostanleger, was erected and a 5.4 kilometre long rail link built from there to the Inseldorf. In order to handle the growing stream of traffic, in 1906 a new, large station was built on the southern edge of the village and a station hall built over the two tracks. In 1912 a new West Pier, a little to the east of the old one, was opened, it was connected to the junction at Saline by a new track running parallel to the old one. The old pier was taken out of service and its associated track was lifted; the purpose of this measure was the development of Wangerooge as a military fortification served by a capable railway network. During the course of World War I numerous branches were laid to military installations; as a result, on this small island there were four sections of the island railway with as many as 24 branches. In 1920 the island railway transferred to the ownership of the Deutsche Reichsbahn as the state railways were merged into the new national railway administration.

The DRG grouped the steam locomotives into Class 99, a collective class for all narrow gauge steam engines. In the mid-1920s a wye was built at Saline that again was for military reasons such as the rapid movement of guns; this triangular track was relaid several times and lifted in 1969. In the middle of the 1920s, the first eight-wheeled passenger coaches were bought and a "coffee train" ran twice weekly from the village station to Westen station and back; the number of holidaymakers fell to a low level around 1930, but had risen again by 1939 sixfold to 65,500, of which two thirds arrived at the East Pier. From 1939 to 1952 a tramway or'box' locomotive, number 99 081, ran on Wangerooge, was nicknamed Treibhaus by the crews due to the amount of heat generated in the driver's cab. During the Second World War Wangerooge was again of great strategic importance, because the island was located near the estuary of the river Weser and the militarily strategic town of Wilhelmshaven. On 25 April 1945 there was a major air attack on Wangerooge with heavy bombing which destroyed the line between Saline and the village, the station hall and many passenger and goods wagons.

After the end of the war the destroyed section was rebuilt. In 1952 the Deutsche Bundesbahn, now in charge of railway operations, introduced diesel locomotives, the first one being a Gmeinder locomotive, by 1957 the change of traction was completed. In 1955 a small, bus-like draisine had been procured. After the Second World War, the number of passengers arriving at the East Pier and using the eastern section of the island railway was high; the reason for this was that the popular holiday island of Heligoland was still occupied by the British. After 1952 Heligoland became accessible to Germans again, with the result that traffic at the East Pier fell sharply. In 1958 it was dismantled along with the eastern section of the railway. Today there are still about 200m of tracks heading eastwards. In 1959 eight-wheeled passenger coaches were delivered to Wangerooge as the result of the post-war coach-rebuilding programme, they sported a dark green livery, but in 1972 were painted with advertising. Between 1952 and 1971 four DB Class 329 diesel locomotives were procured and, in 1977, the draisine was replaced by a newer model.

In 1981 a Class 699 railbus and several wagons were added. In 1990 two more diesel locomotives were bought, this time from the former Mansfeld-Kombinat in East Germany. In the years that followed 14 new passenger coaches from Reichsbahn repair shop Wittenberge were added, which were painted in light blue and white, similar to the colour scheme of Interregio trains, the existing coaches were replaced. On 1 January 1992, two years before the formation of the Deutsche Bahn, the Class 329 locomotives were regrouped into Class 399.1. In 1995/96 the tracks were renewed. From 1997 for several years there were museum steam trips on Wangerooge every summer hauled by a Franzburg locomotive from the DEV, brought across from the mainland for that purpose. In 1999 the DB AG procured two new diesels from the firm of Schöma that have been used since to haul passenger trains; as a result, the four oldest diesel locomotives (399

Williams F112

The Williams F112 is a small turbofan engine made by Williams International designed to power cruise missiles. It has been used as the powerplant for the AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missile and the AGM-86B advanced cruise missile, as well as the experimental X-36 and X-50. Although Williams designed these small turbofans to power target drones while aiming for a contract in the Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy program, it became apparent that these were valuable tools to be used in the future to power advanced cruise missiles. Designated the F107-WR-14A6 designated the F107-WR-103 by Williams designated the F112-WR-100 by the USAF. Though the true benefits that the F112 brought to the AGM-129 are classified, it has been said that the F112 increased the range of the AGM-129 to four times that of the AGM-86B. Another benefit is that the infrared heat signature has been reduced or nearly eliminated, aiding the stealthiness of the AGM-129; this was accomplished with the use of high tech coatings. AGM-129 ACM Boeing X-50 McDonnell Douglas X-36 Type: Twin-spool counter rotating turbofan Length: 29.5 in Diameter: 12 in Dry weight: 161 lb Compressor: Two-spool, counter-rotating Combustors: annular Turbine: axial Fuel type: heavy fuel Boron-Slurry Oil system: self contained 1.3 pints Maximum thrust: 732Ib Overall pressure ratio: 30:1 Bypass ratio: 1:1 Turbine inlet temperature: TIT 2000 deg F without turbine blade cooling.

The History of North American Small Gas Turbine Aircraft Engines. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 1-56347-332-1. National Museum of the USAF F112 fact sheet Archived "Aviation Gas Turbine Forecast" sample, 2009 by Forecast International F112 on LeteckeMotory.cz

Thomas McNaughton

Thomas McNaughton is an American chef and cookbook writer. He is the owner of flour + water, central kitchen and salumeria in San Francisco, California. Thomas involvement with local farmers’ markets for the last 10 years has enabled him to develop close relationships with various producers in the Bay area; these relationships are important to him and allow him to be involved in the production of the meat and produce that he uses in all of his restaurants. He has been dedicated to CUESA and Outstanding in the Field. Thomas has been nominated three years in a row by the James Beard Foundation for the Rising Star Chef of the Year Award. In 2011, Forbes featured Thomas as one of 30 under 30 most influential personalities in the food and beverage world. In 2012, Thomas represented the 1920s in Wine's ` American Icons at Every Age feature; that same year, Food & Wine Magazine named him one of the 10 ‘Empire Builders’. Born in Tabernacle Township, New Jersey to Noble, a nursery owner, Dorothy McNaughton, a proprietor of Heather Fine Furnishings, Thomas was the youngest of four kids.

During his teenage summers, he worked at the Medford Lakes Country Club as a dishwasher and moved up to cook. It was here where he found his passion for cooking; the energetic and dynamic atmosphere of the kitchen first fascinated him, but as he got older, at around 17 years old, he realized that cooking was what he wanted to pursue. Thomas started attending the Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park, New York in 2001. In 2002, he started working under chef Roland Passot at La Folie. During this year, he cooked classic French food, learned the fundamentals of French cooking and got exposed to the San Francisco restaurant scene for the first time. In 2002, he returned to the Culinary Institute of America and graduated in 2003, he returned to San Francisco and went on to become sous chef at two of the city's most respected restaurants: Gary Danko and Quince. In addition to his time in San Francisco, Thomas traveled throughout Europe to work and stage at Michel Rostang in France, Tantrise in Germany, Sassege in Italy.

It was during his travels. He went on to apprenticing at Bruno e Franco. In Bologna where he mastered the art of curing meat and pasta making. At the end of his stay in Bologna, Thomas started looking for cooking positions in San Francisco, it is during this time that he embarked in the opening of a new Italian restaurant in the Mission district of San Francisco with partners David White and David Steele. Most of the beginning conceptualization of the restaurant happened over the phone, with White and Steele in San Francisco while Thomas was still in Bologna; the restaurant opened in May 2009. Thomas describes the inspiration behind it as a combination of old-world technique. Although, the partners were expecting a small opening, flour + water was a success from the beginning; the James Beard Foundation nominated flour+water for the Best New Restaurant Award on 2010. In 2011, GQ Magazine named flour+water one of the 10 best restaurants of the year. Since its opening, the restaurant has received multiple accolades in a number of publications, both local and national, including 7x7, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Washington Post, The New York Times and Wine, Travel + Leisure and others.

After the success of flour+water and his partners, David White and David Steele, opened central kitchen on May 2012. Located down the street from flour+water it serves new Californian cuisine focusing on local and sustainable produce. Central kitchen serves an always evolving menu of refined food in a casual setting. Central kitchen allowed Thomas to highlight his fine dining background with the sensibility for local and sustainable produce of flour+water. Central kitchen has been acclaimed by the public alike. In 2013, GQ Magazine named central kitchen one of the 12 most outstanding restaurants of the year; the restaurant has received multiple mentions in local and national press, including Conde Nast Traveler, The San Francisco Chronicle, Zagat, SF Weekly and others. In June 2012, Salumeria opened next door to central kitchen. A long time dream of Thomas, he describes the space as ‘the larder of flour+water’. Salumeria offers house-cured meats, pasta by the pound from flour+water, olive oils, etc.

The sandwich selection at salumeria received praise from critics and public alike since its opening, including The Wall Street Journal, San Francisco Magazine, Refinery 29, Tasting Table and others. Thomas is working on a 4-season pasta cookbook to be published on Fall 2014. Best New Restaurant nominee, James Beard Foundation, 2010 San Francisco's Best Pizza, Sunset Magazine, 2010 Rising Star Chef of the Year nominee, James Beard Foundation, 2011 10 Best New Restaurants in America, GQ, 2011 30 under 30 Most Influential Personalities in the Food and Beverage World, Forbes, 2011 Rising Star Chef of the Year nominee, James Beard Foundation, 2012 Best Italian Restaurants in the US, Travel+Leisure, 2012 Empire Builder, Food&Wine Magazine, 2012 Rising Star Chef of the Year nominee, James Beard Foundation, 2013 Top 100 Restaurants in San Francisco, San Francisco Chronicle, 2013 Best New Restaurant in San Francisco, Conde Nast Traveler, 2013 12 Most Outstanding Restaurants, GQ, 2013 Interview for Life&Thyme: April 2013 Tortellini en Brodo: June 2011 interview for Grub Street: January 2011 Interview for SF Chefs: June, 2012 Think Blue, Buy Local: May, 2012 "Sean Quigley Design: flou + water": July, 2009 Int

Gmina Jaświły

Gmina Jaświły is a rural gmina in Mońki County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland. Its seat is the village of Jaświły, which lies 12 kilometres north-east of Mońki and 42 km north of the regional capital Białystok; the gmina covers an area of 175.41 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 5,427. Gmina Jaświły contains the villages and settlements of Bagno, Bobrówka, Dzięciołowo, Jadeszki, Jaświłki, Jaświły, Mociesze, Nowe Dolistowo, Romejki, Rutkowskie Duże, Rutkowskie Małe, Stare Dolistowo, Stożnowo, Szaciły, Szpakowo and Zabiele. Gmina Jaświły is bordered by the gminas of Goniądz, Jasionówka, Korycin, Mońki, Suchowola and Sztabin. Polish official population figures 2006

Francesca Ciceri

Francesca Ciceri known under her nom de guerre Vera, was an Italian anti-fascist partisan and feminist. Born in Lecco in 1904, she began working in a factory at the age of ten, she began to frequent unions and participating in the occupation of factories during the strikes of 1919-1920. It was at this time that she met Gaetano "Nino" Invernizzi, who soon became her companion in political activism as well as in private life. In 1922 Nino was soon forced to emigrate to Paris. Francesca managed to join him there in 1924, they married the next year. In 1929, Francesca joined the Communist Party, starting a long period of political commitment in the Italian-speaking group of the French Communist Party and, because of political persecution, she was forced to move with her husband to Belgium and to Luxembourg. In 1932 they returned to Paris and were given the task of making clandestine trips to Italy to introduce the party press and reorganize the communist apparatus, while in the following two years they were invited to Moscow at the School of the Communist International.

On their return in 1935 they resumed their journeys to Italy until their arrest, which took place in Milan on 13 June 1936. On May 22, 1937 the Special Court for the Defense of the State sentenced Nino to 14 years and Francesca to 8, on charges of conspiracy against the State and the re-establishment of the Communist Party. Francesca was imprisoned at the women's penitentiary in Perugia, where she served four years and left, following an amnesty, in 1941, she returned to Lecco where she found a job and resumed political activity. After the fall of Mussolini on 25 July 1943, Nino was released from prison and resumed his political activities in Lecco, alternating his work underground with the partisan struggle in the mountains. On September 9, 1943 Francesca participated in the partisan band "Carlo Pisacane", commanded by Renato Carenini and of which Nino was political commissary, thus began the Resistance in the mountains of Lecco. On 17 October 1943, at the Piani d'Erna, was the eponymous battle, one of the first of the Italian Resistance, attended by Francesca Ciceri.

Here the Fascists managed to break through the lines of the Resistance and the partisans, were forced to retreat in Valsassina and in the Bergamo area. After the battle the two were called by the Party to Milan. In 1944 Francesca lost her brother Pietro, deported to Mauthausen-Gusen, her 21-year-old nephew Lino, arrested in Lecco and shot during the Cibeno massacre, while her husband Nino was ill due to the eight hard years he spent in prison. After the Liberation, Nino took on important union duties and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the Italian Communist Party. Francesca continued her activity directing the network of Gruppi di Difesa della Donna and entering the Committee of the Milanese Federation of the Party, activities that she had to subsequently reduce for health reasons and to attend to her ill husband. After Nino's death in 1959, Francesca returned to settle in Lecco becoming president of the provincial section of the National Association of Italian Partisans between 1980 and 1988.

In 1977 the city of Lecco awarded her the gold medal for civil merits. She was buried at the cemetery of Acquate, next to her husband. In January 2019, two memorial blocks were placed for her brother Pietro and her nephew Lino in front of their home in Via Resegone, 16