Royal Bank of Canada
The Royal Bank of Canada is a Canadian multinational financial services company and the largest bank in Canada by market capitalization. The bank has 80,000 employees worldwide; the bank was founded in 1864 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, while its corporate headquarters are located in Toronto, in Montreal, Quebec. RBC's Institution Number is 003. In November 2017, RBC was added to the Financial Stability Board's list of global systemically important banks. In Canada, the bank's personal and commercial banking operations are branded as RBC Royal Bank in English and RBC Banque Royale in French and serves ten million clients through its network of 1,209 branches. RBC Bank is the U. S. banking subsidiary which operated 439 branches across six states in the Southeastern United States, but now only offers cross-border banking services to Canadian travellers and expats. RBC has 127 branches across seventeen countries in the Caribbean, which serve more than 16 million clients. RBC Capital Markets is RBC's worldwide investment and corporate banking subsidiary, while the investment brokerage firm is known as RBC Dominion Securities.
Investment banking services are provided through RBC Bank and the focus is on middle market clients. In 2011, RBC was the largest Canadian company by market capitalization, and was ranked at No. 50 in the 2013 Forbes Global 2000 listing, The company has operations in Canada, 40 other countries and had US$673.2 billion of assets under management in 2014. In 1864, the Merchants Bank of Halifax was founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as a commercial bank that financed the fishing and timber industries and the European and Caribbean import/export businesses. By 1869 the Merchants' Bank was incorporated and received its federal charter in the same year. During the 1870s and 1880s, the bank expanded into the other Maritime Provinces; when both the Newfoundland Commercial Bank and Union Bank of Newfoundland collapsed on 10 December 1894, the Merchants Bank expanded to Newfoundland on 31 January 1895. As the bank grew, executives changed its name to reflect its growth and western expansion. In 1901, the Merchants Bank of Halifax changed its name to the Royal Bank of Canada.
The centre of the Canadian financial industry had moved from Halifax to Montreal, so the Merchants Bank relocated its head office there. In 1910, RBC merged with the Union Bank of Halifax. In the same year it built a bank branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba—designed by Carrère and Hastings, in beaux-arts classicism proclaiming the financial dominance of Winnipeg in the prairies. To improve its position in Ontario, RBC merged with Traders Bank of Canada in 1912 and in 1917 RBC merged with Quebec Bank, founded in 1818 and chartered in 1822 in Quebec City. RBC's presence in Manitoba and Saskatchewan was strengthened through a 1918 merger with Northern Crown Bank, the result of the merger in 1908 between Northern Bank and Crown Bank of Canada, based in Ontario. RBC's presence in the Prairie Provinces grew again with the 1925 merger with the Union Bank of Canada, which had begun in Quebec City in 1865 as the Union Bank of Lower Canada, but changed its name in 1886; the Union Bank of Canada had moved its headquarters to Winnipeg in 1912, had built a strong presence in the Prairies and opened the first bank in the Northwest Territories at Fort Smith in 1921.
In 1935, RBC merged with Crown Savings and Loan Co. merged with Industrial Trust Co.. RBC installed its first computer in the first in Canadian banking. In the 1960s, RBC Insurance was created. In 1968, it merged with Debenture Company. In 1993, RBC merged with Royal Trust. In 1998, RBC acquired Security First Network Bank in Atlanta—the first pure Internet bank. In 2000, RBC merged merchant credit/debit card acquiring business with BMO Bank of Montreal's to form Moneris Solutions. In 2013, RBC completed the acquisition of the Canadian subsidiary of Ally Financial. RBC Insurance is the largest Canadian bank-owned insurance organization, with services to over five million people, it provides life, travel and auto and reinsurance products as well as creditor and business insurance services. 1882 – Merchants Bank of Halifax opened an office in Bermuda. 1899 – RBC opened an agency in New York City and a branch in Havana. 1903 – RBC bought Banco de Oriente de Santiago de Cuba. By the mid-1920s, RBC is the largest bank in the country.
1904 – RBC bought Banco del Commercio de Havana. 1907 – RBC opened a branch in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1909 – RBC established a branch in Nassau, Bahamas. 1910 – RBC opened a branch in London and acquired branches in Puerto Rico and Port of Spain, Trinidad as a result of its acquisition of Union Bank of Halifax. 1911 – RBC opened an agency in New York City, branches in Bridgetown and Kingston, Jamaica. 1912 – RBC bought Bank of British Honduras in British Honduras, which it converted to a branch. RBC opened a branch in the Dominican Republic. 1914 – RBC bought out Bank of British Guiana, in British Guiana, converted it to a branch. 1915 – RBC opened branches in Costa Rica, Dominica, St. Kitts. 1916 – RBC opened a branch in Venezuela. 1917 – RBC opened branches in Antigua, Dominica, St. Kitts, Montserrat and Tobago. 1918 – RBC opened a branch in Barcelona, another in Vladivostok that lasted less than a year. 1919 – RBC opened branches in Brazil, Uruguay, Martinique and Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 1920
Stéphane Bédard is a Canadian lawyer and politician. Bédard was interim leader of the Parti Québécois from 2014 to 2015, he was the Member of the National Assembly of Quebec for the provincial riding of Chicoutimi. He was chosen interim parliamentary leader by the PQ caucus on April 10, 2014, following the PQ government's defeat in the 2014 general election and the resignation of Pauline Marois and became Leader of the Opposition when the legislature resumed on April 23, 2014, he became acting leader of the party on June 7, 2014 when Marois' resignation took effect at Parti Québécois Council of Presidents. He held the position until Pierre Karl Péladeau was elected party leader in the Parti Québécois leadership election held on May 15, 2015, he resigned from the legislature and the Parti Québécois on October 22, 2015. Born in Chicoutimi, Quebec, Stéphane Bédard is the son of Marc-André Bédard. After studying administration at HEC Montréal, he received a bachelor's degree in law at the Université de Montréal in 1991 and was admitted in 1992 at the Barreau du Québec.
He was a lawyer from 1992 to 1998 in Chicoutimi. He was involved in politics during this period being the President of the Parti Québécois in Chicoutimi from 1994 to 1998 and was a member of the Yes Committee for the 1995 referendum. Bédard was elected. While he was not named in a Ministry position, he was the Parliamentary assistant to the Minister of State for Education and Youth from March 21, 2001 to December 5, 2001, Parliamentary assistant to the Minister of State for Education and Employment from December 5, 2001 to January 30, 2002 and Parliamentary assistant to the Minister of State for Administration and the Public Service and Chair of the Conseil du trésor from January 30, 2002 to April 29, 2003, he was Secretary of State for the Renewal of the Public Service from January 30, 2002 to April 29, 2003. Bédard was re-elected in 2003 but the Parti Québécois lost to the Quebec Liberal Party, he was named the Assistant Deputy Leader of the Opposition and after being re-elected for a third term in 2007, he was named the PQ's chief Whip.
After the 2008, he was named the House leader of the opposition while being replaced by Pointe-aux-Trembles MNA Nicole Léger as Chief Whip of the PQ. He was elected for a fifth term in the 2012 general election. On September 19, 2012 he became Minister responsible for Government Administration, Chair of the Conseil du trésor, Government House Leader and Minister responsible for the Saguenay–Lac‑Saint-Jean region in the government of Premier Pauline Marois. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec
Quebecor Inc. is a communications company based in Montreal, Canada. It was spelled Quebecor in both English and French until May 2012, when shareholders voted to add the acute accent, Québecor, in French only; the company remains run by his family. Quebecor Inc. owns Quebecor Media and owned the printing company Quebecor World. Quebecor Media Inc. is a broadcasting and publishing company which operates various subsidiaries: TVA Group Vidéotron Canoe Inc. TVA Publishing Inc. Quebecor Media Book Group Distribution Select Le SuperClub Vidéotron QUB Radio internet radio The company began a push towards sports: it acquired the naming rights and a management contract for the Videotron Centre owns the Quebec Remparts of the QMJHL, has backed a proposed National Hockey League expansion franchise in Quebec City, launched a TVA-branded sports network in 2011. On July 20, 2015, Quebecor submitted its application for an NHL expansion team in Quebec City; the application has since passed two phases of league scrutiny, with a final decision expected in early 2016.
Former Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney serves as chair of the board. Current members of the board of directors of Quebecor Inc. are: Françoise Bertrand, Jean La Couture, Sylvie Lalande, Pierre Laurin, A. Michel Lavigne, Geneviève Marcon, Brian Mulroney, Normand Provost. Media ownership in Canada Charles-Albert Poissant Official website Assets as of 2010
Hydro-Québec is a public utility that manages the generation and distribution of electricity in Quebec. It was formed by the Government of Quebec in 1944 from the expropriation of private firms; this was followed by massive investment in hydro-electric projects like Churchill Falls and the James Bay Project. Today, with 63 hydroelectric power stations, the combined output capacity is 36,912 megawatts. Extra power is exported from the province and Hydro-Québec supplies 10 per cent of New England's power requirements. Hydro-Québec is a state-owned enterprise based in Montreal. In 2015, it paid CAD$2.36 billion in dividends to its sole shareholder, the Government of Québec. Its residential power rates are among the lowest in North America. More than 40 percent of Canada’s water resources are in Québec and Hydro-Québec is the fourth largest hydropower producer in the world; the company logo, a stylized "Q" fashioned out of a circle and a lightning bolt, was designed by Montreal-based design agency Gagnon/Valkus in 1960.
In Quebec, advocates for the creation of a public hydroelectric utility protested against high costs, poor rural electrification, the lack of French speakers in management positions in hydroelectricity companies. In 1944, Montreal Light, Heat & Power company was nationalised, along with its subsidiary, Beauharnois Power, Hydro-Québec was created to manage the companies. Quebec Premier Adélard Godbout adopted a policy of investing 10 million dollars per year in rural electrification. However, in 1944 the government changed, the new premier Maurice Duplessis was opposed to any form of government intervention in the economy. Local cooperatives were created to bring power to rural areas. Duplessis remained in power until 1960, during that time there were no further nationalisations of companies, Hydro-Québec served the Montreal area. Major projects included: Bersimis-1 generating station completed in 1956, 1,125 MW Bersimis-2 generating station completed in 1959, 845 MW Beauharnois Hydroelectric Generating Station completed in 1961, 1,903 MW.
Carillon Generating Station built 1959-1964, 752 MWBetween 1944 and 1962, Hydro-Québec's installed capacity increased from 616 to 3,661 MW while lowering residential power rates by half in the Montreal area. Duplessis's conservative reign, now known as the Grande Noirceur, ended when he died in office in 1959; the subsequent election of the Quebec Liberal Party, led by Jean Lesage, marked the beginning of the Quiet Revolution, a period of reform and modernization. The new government gave Hydro-Québec an exclusive mandate to develop new sites. In 1963 the government authorized it to acquire private electricity distributors, including the Gatineau Power Company and the Shawinigan Water & Power Company Hydro-Québec achieved province-wide scope. All of the 46 rural coops accepted Hydro-Québec’s 1963 buyout offer, except Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-Rouville which still exists. Major projects during this period included: Manicougan-Outardes Project, a 7-dam hydroelectric complex including the Jean-Lesage generating station, René-Lévesque generating station, the Daniel-Johnson Dam named Manic-2, Manic-3, Manic-5 respectively.
Because these stations were 700 kilometres away from the urban centres in southern Quebec, through transmission line voltage was stepped up to 735 kV for the first time anywhere, led by engineer Jean-Jacques Archambault. Churchill Falls Generating Station, 5,428 MW; the station is in Labrador and the government of Quebec negotiated a contract where Hydro-Québec buys power from the project at 1969 prices until the year 2041. That contract has been a source of conflict between the two provinces. Phase I of the James Bay Project. Hydro-Québec worked with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to build the CANDU reactor equipped Gentilly Nuclear Generating Station, which closed in 2012; because of the economic climate, demand for electricity dropped in the early 1980s, which led to structural changes at Hydro-Québec. It became a joint stock company whose sole shareholder is Government of Québec, to which it pays an annual dividend, it was given the mandate to export power and to work in any energy-related field.
In 1986 the Quebec – New England Transmission began bringing power from the James Bay Project 1,100 kilometers south to the Boston area. Phase II of the James Bay Project took nine years to complete. Construction of the Denis-Perron Dam began in 1994. Like its counterparts in the North American utility industry, Hydro-Québec was reorganized in the late 1990s to comply with electricity deregulation in the United States; the transmission division, TransÉnergie, was the first to be spun off in 1997, in response to the U. S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's publication of Order 888. In the same year, the U. S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission granted Hydro-Québec a licence to sell wholesale electricity at market prices, enabling Hydro-Québec to expand its market. Hydro-Québec acquired a substantial share of Noverco, controller of natural gas distributor Gaz Métro, to participate in that market in northeastern North America. In 2002 the Agreement Respecting a New Relationship Between the Cree Nation and the Government of Quebec between the Grand Council of the Crees and the Quebec government made possible the development of the Eastmain Reservoir.
The Eastmain-1-A and Sarcelle powerhouses and Rupert River diversion project were completed at a cost of $5,000 million CAD. This will provide water power to the turbines at Eastmain-1, Eastmain-1-A and Sarcelle powerhouses and will provide increased flow at the existing La Grande-1 generating station as well as Robert-Bourassa and the La Grande-2-A generator stations. Output will be 918 MW. Other stations commissioned since 1997 are: Sainte-Marguerite-3 in
World Color Press Inc. was a company which provided high-value and comprehensive print and related services to businesses worldwide. World Color and its subsidiaries printed various commercial products, including comic books, brochures, direct mail and newspaper inserts, directories, while providing clients a broad range of pre-press services, such as desktop production and assembly. World Color was the first printer to make comic book printing a major part of its business plan, throughout most of its history was the dominant North American printer of comics and associated publications. During its history, World Color was at the forefront of many new technologies and printing innovations, including use of web offset presses, "pool shipping," rotogravure printing, computer technology, digital registration systems, flexography. World Color merged with Quebecor Printing in 1999. Worldcolor was acquired by Quad/Graphics in early 2010. World Color Press was founded in 1903 by the owners of the St. Louis Star under the name World's Fair Color Printing.
The wholly owned subsidiary was created to handle color printing for the upcoming 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, was expected to disband at the World Fair's conclusion. Instead, the company name was shortened to World Color Printing and continued as a commercial printer, focusing on a new business: the color "funnies" section of the Sunday newspaper. World Color's first foray into comics was syndicating George Herriman's Major Ozone's Fresh Air Crusade from January 2, 1904, to November 19, 1906. During this period, World Color distributed the Herriman strips Grandma's Girl—Likewise Bud Smith, which he combined from two earlier strips, a two-tiered children's strip, Rosy Posy—Mama's Girl. Robert Grable and Roswell Messing, Sr. two St. Louis Star senior employees, purchased the company in 1922; as the popularity of the Sunday color comic section increased, the funnies evolved into an American institution, metropolitan papers began featuring comic supplements. As the first major printer of color sections, World Color Press was the first choice for printing these sections, by the early 1930s, the company had printing contracts with newspapers nationwide.
In the early 1930s, realizing the sales potential of the comics medium, company management attempted to maximize profits by reprinting the funnies in magazine format, thereby creating one of the first prototypes of the comic book. While the initial comic books were collections of published editions of the Sunday comic strips, by 1936 they contained original material. World Color made the most of the idea and emerged as the leading printer in this new field. To keep up with ever-increasing demand, the company began construction of a satellite printing plant in Sparta, Illinois. Opened in 1948, the Sparta plant was the most technologically advanced plant in the industry devoted to the printing of comic magazines. Within five years World Color Press became the largest producer of comic magazines in the industry. Comic book sales boomed during World War II and the postwar period, throughout this period, World Color was the nation's leading comic book printer. In 1956, the company installed one of the first web-offset presses in its Sparta plant.
This innovative printing process, in which rolls or "webs" of paper are fed through rubber-blanketed cylinders, producing tens of thousands of impressions an hour, helped lead the industry into the modern era of print technology. By the early 1970s, World Color purchased more equipment and expanded their plants, becoming the largest player in the comic and newsstand special-interest publication market. By the early 1980s World Color Press printed most American comic books, including those of the industry giants Marvel and DC. World Color's dominance in the field led to a 1984 lawsuit by Illinois-based First Comics, accusing them of anti-competitive practices; the suit was resolved in the spring of 1988. In 1985, DC Comics named World Color Press as one of the honorees in the company's 50th anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great; the development of the web-press in the 1950s enabled World Color to further diversify into the new product lines of web-printed newsstand and special interest magazines.
Important to the company's growth during the 1950s was its development of the "pool shipping" concept, a distribution method in which publications from different customers going to the same destination were shipped together, reducing freight costs and increasing the timeliness of deliveries. By establishing the first major pool shipping network to newsstands, the company was able to expand its customer base by offering the lowest distribution costs in the industry. World Color computerized many aspects of its business in the 1960s, providing the company with more efficient production and distribution capabilities, as well as the ability to perform more complicated printing procedures and reproduce more complex data. In 1969, World Color started construction of a web-offset facility in Effingham, Illinois 120 miles northeast of Sparta; the new plant was designed to produce magazines printed on coated paper with extensive use of four-color printing. Success in this arena led to a 1971 expansion of the Effingham plant that nearly doubled its original size.
The 1971 addition increased the company's ability to produce large-circulation monthly magazines printed on letter-press equipment. Responding to a need to increase the c
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a