The True Tragedy of Richard III
The True Tragedy of Richard III is an anonymous Elizabethan history play on the subject of Richard III of England. It has attracted the attention of scholars of English Renaissance drama principally for the question of its relationship with Shakespeare's Richard III; the title spelling that appears on the cover page of the quarto is The True Tragedie of Richard the third. The play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 19 June 1594. In addition to Creede's 1594 quarto, another edition of the play was "Printed at London by W. W. for Thomas Millington and are to be sold at his shoppe under Saint Peters Church in Cornewall, 1600." This is Cornhill. No further editions are known prior to the nineteenth century. Only three copies of the play are known to have survived, all of which are now in the US. One copy can be found in the Carl Pforzheimer library at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, one is at the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D. C. and the third can be found in the Huntington Library in California.
W. W. Greg prepared a modern edition of the play for the Malone Society. "The question of date is confused and unsettled." Most scholars and critics, relying on internal clues in the text, have estimated a date of authorship within a year or two of 1590, though dates as early as c. 1585 have been posited. The title page of the 1594 quarto states; the title page of the 1600 quarto states that the play was acted "sundry" times by the "Right Honourable the Earle of Pembrooke his servantes". Any date of authorship for The True Tragedy in the mid-to-late 1580s to the early 1590s would be compatible with performance by the Queen's Men. Critics judge the author of The True Tragedy to have been influenced by Thomas Legge's Latin play Richardus Tertius — though that relationship is of little help in dating the True Tragedy. Apart from the question of Richardus Tertius, the author of The True Tragedy relied upon the standard historical sources of his generation for the story of Richard — principally Edward Hall's chronicle on the Wars of the Roses, the chronicle by John Hardyng continued by Richard Grafton.
While The True Tragedy belongs to the genre of the Elizabethan history play, some critics have pointed out its relationship with the revenge tragedy. There is no external attribution of authorship for The True Tragedy. Modern critics have tended to treat it as a bad quarto and a "reported text." Individual commentators have nominated Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Lodge, George Peele, Thomas Kyd, among other writers of their generation, as possible authors or revisers of the play. The True Tragedy bears a general resemblance to Shakespeare's Richard III, as any play on the same subject would. Critics are not unanimous on the view that Shakespeare used The True Tragedy as a source for his play, though the majority tend to favour this judgement. Geoffrey Bullough treats The True Tragedy as a "probable source" for Richard III, citing several commonalities — though Bullough admits that the nature of the plays' relationship is "not clear."The uncertainty in dating has allowed a few commentators to propose a reversed priority, to argue that the author of The True Tragedy may have borrowed from Shakespeare's play.
Shakespeare appears to have known of The True Tragedy, since he paraphrases it in Hamlet, III,ii,254, "the croaking raven doth bellow for revenge." Line 1892 in The True Tragedy reads "The screeking raven sits croking for revenge." Unlike Shakespeare, "The True Tragedy" has no scene division. The text online
Francis II, Duke of Brittany
Francis II of Brittany was Duke of Brittany from 1458 to his death. He was the grandson of Duke of Brittany. A recurring theme in Francis' life would be his quest to maintain the quasi-independence of Brittany from France; as such, his reign was characterized by conflicts with King Louis XI of France and with his daughter, Anne of France, who served as regent during the minority of her brother, King Charles VIII. The armed and unarmed conflicts between 1484–1488 have been called the Mad War and the "War of the Public Weal". Francis II was born on 23 June 1433 to Richard of Brittany, Count of Étampes and his wife, Margaret of Orléans, Countess of Vertus. Richard of Brittany was the youngest son of Duke John IV of Brittany. Richard's older brothers, John V and Arthur III, both succeeded their father as duke, but upon Arthur's death in 1458, the only legitimate male heir was his nephew Francis II. Duke Francis II unexpectedly became the protector of England's House of Lancaster in exile from 1471–1484.
During the latter half of the 15th century, civil war existed in England as the House of York and House of Lancaster fought each other for the English throne. In 1471, the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Tewkesbury; the Lancastrian king, Henry VI of England and his only son, Edward of Westminster, died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury. Their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. Subsequently, the Yorkist king, Edward IV of England, was in complete control of England, he attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry Tudor, naming them as traitors and confiscating their lands. The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds in the English Channel forced them to land at Le Conquet in Brittany, where they were taken into the custody of Duke Francis II. Henry Tudor, the only remaining Lancastrian noble with a trace of royal bloodline, had a weak claim to the throne, King Edward IV regarded him as "a nobody."
However, Francis II viewed Henry as a valuable tool to bargain for England's aid, when in conflicts with France, therefore kept the Tudors under his protection. He housed Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor, the core of their group of exiled Lancastrians at the Château de Suscinio in Sarzeau, where they remained there for 11 years. There, Francis II generously supported this group of exiled Englishmen against all the Plantagenet demands that he should surrender them. In October 1483, Henry Tudor launched a failed invasion of England from Brittany. Duke Francis II supported this invasion by providing 40,000 gold crowns, 15,000 soldiers, a fleet of transport ships. Henry's fleet of 15 chartered vessels was scattered by a storm, his ship reached the coast of England in company with only one other vessel. Henry realized that the soldiers on shore were the men of the new Yorkist king, Richard III of England, so he decided to abandon the invasion and return to Brittany; as for Henry's main conspirator in England, Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, he was convicted of treason and beheaded on 2 November 1483, way before Henry's ships landed in England.
For Henry's conspiracy against King Richard III had been unravelled, without the Duke of Buckingham or Henry Tudor, the rebellion was crushed. Survivors of the failed uprising fled to Brittany, where they supported Henry Tudor's claim to the throne. On Christmas Day in 1483 at the Rennes Cathedral, Henry swore an oath to marry King Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, thus unite the warring houses of York and Lancaster. Henry's rising prominence made him a great threat to King Richard III, the Yorkist king made several overtures to Duke Francis II to surrender the young Lancastrian. Francis II refused. In mid-1484, Francis was incapacitated by one of his periods of illness, while recuperating, his treasurer, Pierre Landais, took over the reins of government. Landais reached an agreement with King Richard III to send Henry and his uncle Jasper back to England in exchange for a pledge of 3,000 English archers to defend Brittany against a threatened French attack. John Morton, a bishop of Flanders, warned the Tudors in time.
The Tudors managed to separately escape, hours ahead of Landais' soldiers, across the nearby border into France. They were received at the court of King Charles VIII of France who allowed them to stay and provided them with resources. Shortly afterwards, when Francis II had recovered, he offered the 400 remaining Lancastrians, still at and around the Château de Suscinio, safe-conduct into France and paid for their expenses. For the French, the Tudors were useful pawns to ensure that King Richard III did not interfere with French plans to acquire Brittany. Thus, the loss of the Lancastrians played against the interests of Francis II. Circa 1136, King Stephen of England named Alan of Penthièvre of Brittany the 1st Earl of Richmond. After Alan, the title and its possessions were bestowed upon the Dukes of Brittany, with a few interruptions, through the ducal reign of John IV, which ended in 1399. After John IV, the English kings would bestow the title Earl of Richmond on nobles other than the Dukes of Brittany, including Edmund Tudor, Henry Tudor's father.
However the dukes of Brittany from John V through Francis II would continue to use the titulary Earl of Richmond. It is possible that Francis willed whatever remained of his cl
Louis XII of France
Louis XII was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498. Louis was the eighth French king from the House of Valois, the first from the Orléans branch of that dynasty. Before his accession to the throne of France, he was known as Louis of Orléans and was compelled to be married to his disabled and sterile cousin Joan by his second cousin, King Louis XI. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis of Orléans was one of the great feudal lords who opposed the French monarchy in the conflict known as the Mad War. At the royal victory in the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in 1488, Louis was captured, but Charles VIII pardoned him and released him, he subsequently took part in the Italian War of 1494–1498 as one of the French commanders. When Louis XII became king in 1498, he had his marriage with Joan annulled by Pope Alexander VI and instead married Anne of Brittany, the widow of his cousin Charles VIII.
This marriage allowed Louis to reinforce the personal Union of France. Louis persevered in the Italian Wars, initiating a second Italian campaign for the control of the Kingdom of Naples. Louis conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1500 and pushed forward to the Kingdom of Naples, which fell to him in 1501. Proclaimed King of Naples, Louis faced a new coalition gathered by Ferdinand II of Aragon and was forced to cede Naples to Spain in 1504. Louis XII did not encroach on the power of local governments or the privileges of the nobility, in opposition with the long tradition of the French kings to attempt to impose absolute monarchy in France. A popular king, Louis was proclaimed "Father of the People" in 1506 by the Estates-General of Tours for his reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, civil peace within France. Louis, who remained Duke of Milan after the second Italian War, was interested in further expansion in the Italian Peninsula and launched a third Italian War, marked by the military prowess of the Chevalier de Bayard.
Louis XII died in 1515 without a male heir. He was succeeded by his cousin and son-in-law Francis from the Angoulême cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis d'Orléans was born on 27 June 1462 in the Château de Touraine; the son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans in the year 1465. Louis XI, who had become king of France in 1461, became distrustful of the close relationship between the Orleanists and the Burgundians and began to oppose the idea of an Orleanist coming to the throne of France. However, Louis XI may have been more influenced in this opinion by his opposition to the entire Orleanist faction of the royal family than by the actual facts of this paternity case. Despite any alleged doubts that King Louis XI may have had, the King became "godfather" of the newborn. King Louis XI died on 30 August 1483, he was succeeded to the throne of France by his thirteen year-old son, Charles VIII. Nobody knew the direction. Accordingly, on 24 October 1483, a call went out for a convocation of the Estates General of the French kingdom.
In January 1484, deputies of the Estates General began to arrive in France. The deputies represented three different "estates" in society; the First Estate was the Church. The Second Estate was composed of the royalty of France; the Third Estate was composed of commoners and the class of traders and merchants in France. Louis, the current Duke of Orleans and future Louis XII, attended as part of the Second Estate; each estate brought their chief complaints to the Estates General in hopes to have some impact on the policies that the new King would pursue. The First Estate wanted a return to the "Pragmatic Sanction"; the Pragmatic Sanction had been first instituted by King Charles VII, the current King Charles VIII's grandfather. The Pragmatic Sanction eliminated the papacy from the process of appointing bishops and abbots in France. Instead, these positions would be filled by appointment made by the cathedrals and monastery chapters themselves. All church prelates within France would be appointed by the King of France without reference to the pope.
The deputies representing the Second Estate at the Estates General of 1484 wanted all foreigners to be prohibited from command positions in the military. The deputies of the Third Estate wanted taxes to be drastically reduced and that the revenue needs of the crown be met by reducing royal pensions and the number offices. All three of the estates were in agreement on the demand for an end to the sale of government offices. By 7 March 1484, the King announced. Five days the deputies were told that there was no more money to pay their salaries, the Estates General meekly concluded its business and went home; the Estates General of 1484 is called, by historians, the most important Estates General until the Estates General of 1789. Important as they were, many of the reforms suggested at the meeting of the Estates General were not adopted. Rather the reforms would only be acted on. Since Charles VIII was only thirteen years of age when he became king, his older sister Anne was to serve as regent until Charles VIII became 20 years old.
From 1485 through 1488, there
Château de Suscinio
The Château de Suscinio or de Susinio is a breton castle, built in the late Middle Ages, to be the residence of the Dukes of Brittany. It is located in the commune of Sarzeau in the département of Morbihan, near the coast of the Atlantic ocean; the spectacular site comprises the moated castle, a ruined chapel, a dovecote, a few ruined outbuildings. Designed to be a place of leisure, between the seaside and a forest full of game for hunting, the castle's first logis seigneurial dates from the beginning of the 13th century; the castle was fortified and enlarged, at the end of the 14th century, when the heirs of the duchy had to fight to keep their assets, after the castle was taken by Bertrand du Guesclin, the infamous Constable of France. John V and John VI constructed a new seigniorial residence block with a large, new corner tower known as the Tour Neuve. A casemate was added at the end of 15th century to protect artillery pieces. From 1471 to 1484, the castle housed Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor, the core of their group of exiled Lancastrians, numbering about 500 by 1483.
Since the castle could only house some 100 persons, the rest must have been billeted close about, in Kermoizin and other villages nearby. Francis II, Duke of Brittany, generously supported this group of exiled Englishmen against all the Plantagenet demands that he should surrender them. For 11 years, Suscinio was an armed camp, alert against any attempt to kidnap Jasper and Henry and return them to England where they were under attainder and would have been promptly executed as threats to the Yorkist rule. Duke Francis II supported the failed Lancastrian rebellion and invasion of England in 1483 with 40,000 gold crowns, 15,000 soldiers, a fleet of transport ships; when the Duke suffered from one of his periods of incapacitating illness, his treasurer, Pierre Landais, agreed to surrender Henry Tudor to the representatives of the Yorkist King Richard III of England, in return for a pledge of 3,000 English archers to defend Brittany against a threatened French attack. News of this plot by Landais reached the exiled Lancastrians just in time for both the Tudors to separately escape, hours ahead of Landais' soldiers, across the nearby border into France, where they were received at the court of King Charles VIII of France.
Shortly thereafter, when Duke Francis II regained his faculties, he offered the 400 remaining Lancastrians, still at and around Suscinio, safe-conduct into France and paid for their expenses. This may have been the last official use of the castle by the Breton Dukes. Duke Francis II died in 1488, was succeeded by his 11-year-old daughter, Anne of Brittany, last ruling Duchess of Brittany, twice Queen of France, she died in 1514 and Brittany lost its autonomy, becoming part of France. The castle was slowly abandoned by the aristocracy. In the early sixteenth century, the former great hall of the 14th century, along the northern curtain-wall, was destroyed; the castle was confiscated by the French crown under King Francis I of France who offered it to one of his mistresses. In 1795, Suscinio was temporarily occupied by the royalists coming from Quiberon and heading to the north of Morbihan. Written off in the 17th and 18th centuries, the castle was used off-and-on as a stone quarry until the French Revolution.
During the Revolution, it was sold to a merchant who continued to sell the stones, it soon after fell into greater ruin. The Département of Morbihan bought it in 1965, from the family of Jules de Francheville who attempted to preserve and restore the castle, began the restoration in earnest; the remains of a ducal chapel was found in the vicinity outside of the moats. Nowadays, Suscinio Castle has again regained its allure of an intact medieval fortress, but major restoration work continues; the castle may be unique in Western Europe because of its restoration to its presumed late-15th century condition. Today, few other medieval fortresses remain, structurally, as they were at the height of their late-medieval strength and power. Exhibitions and summer events attract many people. Since 1840, the castle has been listed as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. List of castles in France Ministry of Culture database entry for Château de Suscinio Ministry of Culture photos Visiting information
Battle of Bosworth Field
The Battle of Bosworth Field was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians, their leader Henry Tudor, by his victory became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty. His opponent, Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it a defining moment of English and Welsh history. Richard's reign began in 1483. At the request of his brother Edward IV, Richard was acting as Lord Protector for his twelve-year-old son Edward V. Richard had Parliament declare Edward V illegitimate and ineligible for the throne, took it for himself. Richard lost popularity when the boy and his younger brother disappeared after he incarcerated them in the Tower of London, his support was further eroded by the popular belief that he was implicated in the death of his wife.
Across the English Channel in Brittany, Henry Tudor, a descendant of the diminished House of Lancaster, seized on Richard's difficulties so that he could challenge his claim to the throne. Henry's first attempt to invade England was frustrated by a storm in 1483, but on his second attempt he arrived unopposed on 7 August 1485 on the southwest coast of Wales. Marching inland, Henry gathered support. Richard intercepted Henry's army south of Market Bosworth in Leicestershire. Thomas, Lord Stanley, Sir William Stanley brought a force to the battlefield, but held back while they decided which side it would be more advantageous to support. Richard divided his army. One was assigned to the Duke of another to the Earl of Northumberland. Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford. Richard's vanguard, commanded by Norfolk, attacked but struggled against Oxford's men, some of Norfolk's troops fled the field. Northumberland took no action when signalled to assist his king, so Richard gambled everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry and end the fight.
Seeing the King's knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened. After the battle Henry was crowned king below an oak tree in nearby Stoke Golding, now a residential garden. Henry hired chroniclers to portray his reign favourably. From the 15th to the 18th centuries the battle was glamorised as a victory of good over evil; the climax of William Shakespeare's play Richard III provides a focal point for critics in film adaptations. The exact site of the battle is disputed because of the lack of conclusive data, memorials have been erected at different locations. In 1974 the Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre was built on a site that has since been challenged by several scholars and historians. In October 2009 a team of researchers, who had performed geological surveys and archaeological digs in the area from 2003, suggested a location two miles southwest of Ambion Hill. During the 15th century civil war raged across England as the Houses of York and Lancaster fought each other for the English throne.
In 1471 the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Tewkesbury. The Lancastrian King Henry VI and his only son, Edward of Lancaster, died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury, their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. The Yorkist king, Edward IV, was in complete control of England, he attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry, naming them traitors and confiscating their lands. The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds forced them to land in Brittany, a semi-independent duchy, where they were taken into the custody of Duke Francis II. Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, uncle of King Richard II and father of King Henry IV; the Beauforts were bastards, but Henry IV legitimised them on the condition that their descendants were not eligible to inherit the throne. Henry Tudor, the only remaining Lancastrian noble with a trace of the royal bloodline, had a weak claim to the throne, Edward regarded him as "a nobody".
The Duke of Brittany, viewed Henry as a valuable tool to bargain for England's aid in conflicts with France and kept the Tudors under his protection. Edward IV died 12 years after Tewkesbury on 9 April 1483, his 12-year-old elder son succeeded him as King Edward V. Edward V was too young to rule and a Royal Council was established to rule the country until the king's coming of age; some among the council were worried when it became apparent that the Woodvilles, relatives of Edward IV's widow Elizabeth, were plotting to use their control of the young king to dominate the council. Having offended many in their quest for wealth and power, the Woodville family was not popular. To frustrate the Woodvilles' ambitions, Lord Hastings and other members of the council turned to the new king's uncle—Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV; the courtiers urged Gloucester to assume the role of Protector as had been requested by his now dead brother. On 29 April Gloucester, accompanied by a contingent of guards and Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, took Edward V into custody and arrested several prominent members of the Woodville family.
Vitré is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France. Vitré, a sub-prefecture until 1926, is the seat of a canton of 17,798 inhabitants, it lies on the edge of Brittany, near Normandy and Anjou. The town has been designated a ville d'art et d'histoire, a town of artistic and historic significance, by the Ministry of Culture in recognition of its rich cultural inheritance. Vitré is the 37th French city with the most historic buildings and has 14% of the historical monuments of the department. "If I was not King of France, I want to be bourgeois from Vitré!" Henry IV, King of France, surprised by the richness of the city in 1598. "The good fortune to see a Gothic city entire, homogeneous, a few of which still remain, Nuremberg in Bavaria and Vittoria in Spain, can form an idea. Victor Hugo in The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Book third, Chapter 2, A bird's eye view of Paris, 1831 The city is located on the slopes of the Vilaine river, along an east-west geographic depression which the national railway on the Paris-Rennes route follows.
Vitré commune is home to around 28,000 inhabitants spread throughout three cantons: Vitré, La Guerche-de-Bretagne and Châteaugiron. The land area of Vitré: 37.19 km2. The average altitude of Vitré is 89 m; the highest point, 127 m, is found at Pierre and Marie Curie Street. The lowest point, 67 m, is close to the firm S. V. A.'s location under the viaduct of the ring-road. Since 1 October 2010, Vitré has withdrawn from the arrondissement of Rennes and joined the arrondissement of Fougères-Vitré. Vitré has an oceanic climate degraded; the city is located in climate zone Breton "South East", which includes the portion south and east of the Vilaine. The winters are wet and mild on average, but the annual minimum temperature can be negative with some severe frosts; the days without thawing remain infrequent. The summers are dry, moderately warm and sunny; the annual maximum temperatures exceed several times a year over 30 °C and few years when this threshold is not reached. The city has about 1,750 hours of sunshine each year.
It is located in a region with high relief, well exposed to winds from SW more humid with annual rainfall heights between 800 and 1000 mm. At temperatures, it is little differentiated from Rennes basin in the valleys of about 12.5 °C. It becomes rather on the hills with an average annual temperature lowered to 10 °C and a certain rigor in winter with high wind exposure. On average, there are 130 rainy days per year, 70 days of fog, 15 stormy days, 9 days and 6 days of snow and hail; some continentality that the amplitude of temperature is greater than on the west coast of Brittany, with greater extremes. Summer thunderstorms can be violent as that of July 16, 2003 where 76 mm of water per square meter were found, which caused flooding and significant damage due to hail and gusty winds. For the most part, these storms from the south of Brittany and in particular the Loire-Atlantique and took charge of Vitre. In the past, notorious storms have devastated parts of the city with the storm Lothar on 26 December 1999 or when the storm 15 October 1987 where a cow had the same flight.
At the end of the 14th century the city had between 4-5,000 inhabitants, at a time when Rennes and Nantes had some around 13-14,000. In 1560, Vitré's population is estimated by Arthur de Borderie at 7,800 inhabitants, matching that of the towns of Vannes and Quimper. At the time of the birth of Madame de Sévigné, about 1620, the city counted 10,000 inhabitants; the population reached 14,000 inhabitants in 1762. This population was contained within the medieval boundaries of the city, a third the size of the modern Vitré. In the 18th century, Vitré was the 5th most important city in Brittany after Nantes, Rennes and Lorient. In 1789, on the eve of the French Revolution, Vitré's population reached 10,850 inhabitants. In the post-revolution period there was a significant drop in population, to 8,904 inhabitants by 1861. By 1911 a moderate increase brought the figure to 10,613; the First World War and its subsequent economic trials would reduce the population to 8,506. By 1999 the population again had reached 18th century levels, with 15,313 inhabitants and 17,798 in 2015.
The canton of Vitré counted 39,115 inhabitants in 2015 on 382 km2. The greater Vitré-Community counts 80,000 inhabitants on 868 km2. Inhabitants of Vitré are called vitréennes. In 2016, 3.9% of children attended bilingual schools in primary education. The site of Vitré was occupied in Gallo-Roman times; the name Vitré comes from the Gallo-Roman name "Victor" or "Victrix", after the owner of a farm in the region. The year 1000 marked the formal birth of Vitré, when the duke of Brittany Geoffrey I bestowed feudal powers upon Riwallon Le Vicaire, charged with keeping this strategic area as a buffer zone known as the "Marches of Brittany". A parallel can be drawn with the "Welsh Marches". A small wooden motte-and-bailey castle, on a feudal mound, was built on the Sainte-Croix hill; the castle was burned down on several occasions, was bequeathed to the Benedictine monks of Marmoutiers. A stone castle was built in 1070 by Robert Ier on the current site, on a rocky outcrop dominating the Vilaine's river valley.
Certain parts of the original stone castle are still visible today. In the 13th ce