Slough is a large town in Berkshire, within the Greater London Urban Area, 20 miles west of Charing Cross, central London and 17 miles north-east of the county town of Reading. It is at the intersection of the M4, M40 and M25 motorways; the A4 and the Great Western Main Line pass through the town, part of neighbouring Buckinghamshire. From 2019 the Elizabeth line is expected to allow faster journeys to central London; as of 2011 Slough's population was one of the most ethnically diverse in the United Kingdom, with the highest proportion of religious adherents in England. The town has attracted people from across the country and the world for labour since the 1920s, which has helped shape it into a major trading centre; as of 2017 unemployment stood at 1.4%, circa one-third the UK average of 4.5%. Slough has the highest concentration of global corporate HQs outside London; the Slough Trading Estate is the largest industrial estate in single private ownership in Europe. Blackberry, McAfee, Burger King and Lego have head offices in the town.
The Slough Trading Estate provides over 17,000 jobs in 400 businesses. Slough has the second highest gross value added per worker of cities in UK; the name, which means "soil", was first recorded in 1195 as Slo. It first seems to have applied to a hamlet between Upton to the east and Chalvey to the west around the "Crown Crossroads" where the road to Windsor met the Great West Road; the Domesday Survey of 1086 refers to Upton, a wood for 200 pigs, worth £15. During the 13th century, King Henry III had a palace at Cippenham. Parts of Upton Court were built in 1325, while St Mary the Virgin Church in Langley was built in the late 11th or early 12th century, though it has been rebuilt and enlarged several times. From the mid-17th century, stagecoaches began to pass through Slough and Salt Hill, which became locations for the second stage to change horses on the journey out from London. By 1838 and the opening of the Great Western Railway, Upton-cum-Chalvey's parish population had reached 1,502. In 1849, a branch line was completed from Slough to Windsor & Eton Central, opposite Windsor Castle, for the Queen Victoria's convenience.
Slough has 96 listed buildings. There are Four Grade I: St Laurence's Church, St Mary the Virgin Church, Baylis House and Godolphin Court Seven Grade II: St Mary's Church, Upton Court, the Kederminster and Seymour Almshouses in Langley, St Peter's Church, Ostrich Inn and King John's Palace Grade II listed structures include four milestones: Beech and Linden Houses at Upton Hospital and Slough railway station1918 saw a large area of agricultural land to the west of Slough developed as an army motor repair depot, used to store and repair huge numbers of motor vehicles coming back from the battlefields of the First World War in Flanders. In April 1920, the Government sold its contents to the Slough Trading Co. Ltd.. Repair of ex-army vehicles continued until 1925, when the Slough Trading Company Act was passed allowing the company to establish an industrial estate. Spectacular growth and employment ensued, with Slough attracting workers from many parts of the UK and abroad. During the Second World War, Slough experienced a series of air raids in October 1940, an emergency hospital treating casualties from London was set up in Slough.
Local air raid deaths and deaths at the hospital account for the 23 civilian lives recorded lost in the borough area. After the war, several further large housing developments arose to take large numbers of people migrating from war-damaged London. In the 21st century, Slough has seen major redevelopment of the town centre. Old buildings are being replaced with new offices and shopping complexes. Tesco has replaced an existing superstore with a larger Tesco Extra; the Heart of Slough Project is a plan for the large-scale redevelopment of the town centre as a focus and cultural quarter for the creative media and communications industries. It will create a mixed-use complex, multi-functional buildings, visual landmarks and a public space in the Thames Valley. Recommendations for the £400 million project have been approved, planning approval was given by Slough Borough Council's planning committee on 9 July 2009. Work began in 2010 for completion in 2018. In December 2009, two key components of the project were signed: the Homes and Communities Agency signed its agreement to provide £11m of funding for infrastructure and Thames Valley University courses which are due to remain in the town have found a new home at the Centre in Farnham Road, Slough.
In parallel to the town centre redevelopment plan, Segro plans to spend £600 million over the next 20 years on the trading estate. This is intended to create environmentally sustainable buildings, open green spaces, two hotels, a conference centre, cafés, restaurants and better transport facilities to improve links to Slough town centre and the surrounding residential areas, it is claimed that the plan will create more than 4,100 new jobs and contribute around £100m a year to Slough's economy. If both plans go ahead in their current forms, nearly £1 billion will be spent on redeveloping Slough over the next 20 years. Herschel Park, named for astronomer William Herschel, is being relandscaped in a multimillion-pound effort to bring it back to its former Victorian era glory; the park was featured in an episode of the documentary programme Who Do You Think You Are? Focusing on the TV presenter Davina McCall. In 2010, £2 milli
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
A supernova remnant is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova. The supernova remnant is bounded by an expanding shock wave, consists of ejected material expanding from the explosion, the interstellar material it sweeps up and shocks along the way. There are two common routes to a supernova: either a massive star may run out of fuel, ceasing to generate fusion energy in its core, collapsing inward under the force of its own gravity to form a neutron star or a black hole. In either case, the resulting supernova explosion expels much or all of the stellar material with velocities as much as 10% the speed of light; these ejecta are supersonic: assuming a typical temperature of the interstellar medium of 10,000 K, the Mach number can be > 1000. Therefore, a strong shock wave forms ahead of the ejecta, that heats the upstream plasma up to temperatures well above millions of K; the shock continuously slows down over time as it sweeps up the ambient medium, but it can expand over hundreds or thousands of years and over tens of parsecs before its speed falls below the local sound speed.
One of the best observed young supernova remnants was formed by SN 1987A, a supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, observed in February 1987. Other well-known supernova remnants include the Crab Nebula; the youngest known remnant in our galaxy is G1.9+0.3, discovered in the galactic center. An SNR passes through the following stages as it expands: Free expansion of the ejecta, until they sweep up their own weight in circumstellar or interstellar medium; this can last tens to a few hundred years depending on the density of the surrounding gas. Sweeping up of a shell of shocked circumstellar and interstellar gas; this begins the Sedov-Taylor phase. Strong X-ray emission traces the strong shock waves and hot shocked gas. Cooling of the shell, to form a thin, dense shell surrounding the hot interior; this is the pressure-driven snowplow phase. The shell can be seen in optical emission from recombining ionized hydrogen and ionized oxygen atoms. Cooling of the interior; the dense shell continues to expand from its own momentum.
This stage is best seen in the radio emission from neutral hydrogen atoms. Merging with the surrounding interstellar medium; when the supernova remnant slows to the speed of the random velocities in the surrounding medium, after 30,000 years, it will merge into the general turbulent flow, contributing its remaining kinetic energy to the turbulence. There are three types of supernova remnant: Shell-like, such as Cassiopeia A Composite, in which a shell contains a central pulsar wind nebula, such as G11.2-0.3 or G21.5-0.9. Mixed-morphology remnants, in which central thermal X-ray emission is seen, enclosed by a radio shell; the thermal X-rays are from swept-up interstellar material, rather than supernova ejecta. Examples of this class include the SNRs W28 and W44. Supernova remnants are considered the major source of galactic cosmic rays; the connection between cosmic rays and supernovas was first suggested by Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky in 1934. Vitaly Ginzburg and Sergei Syrovatskii in 1964 remarked that if the efficiency of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants is about 10 percent, the cosmic ray losses of the Milky Way are compensated.
This hypothesis is supported by a specific mechanism called "shock wave acceleration" based on Enrico Fermi's ideas, still under development. Indeed, Enrico Fermi proposed in 1949 a model for the acceleration of cosmic rays through particle collisions with magnetic clouds in the interstellar medium; this process, known as the "Second Order Fermi Mechanism", increases particle energy during head-on collisions, resulting in a steady gain in energy. A model to produce Fermi Acceleration was generated by a powerful shock front moving through space. Particles that cross the front of the shock can gain significant increases in energy; this became known as the "First Order Fermi Mechanism". Supernova remnants can provide the energetic shock fronts required to generate ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Observation of the SN 1006 remnant in the X-ray has shown synchrotron emission consistent with it being a source of cosmic rays. However, for energies higher than about 1018 eV a different mechanism is required as supernova remnants cannot provide sufficient energy.
It is still unclear. The future telescope CTA will help to answer this question. List of All Known Galactic and Extragalactic Supernovae on the Open Supernova Catalog Galactic SNR Catalogue Chandra observations of supernova remnants: catalog, photo album, selected picks 2MASS images of Supernova Remnants NASA: Introduction to Supernova Remnants NASA's Imagine: Supernova Remnants Afterlife of a Supernova on UniverseToday.com Supernova remnant on arxiv.org Supernova Remnants, SEDS
Aquarius is a constellation of the zodiac, situated between Capricornus and Pisces. Its name is Latin for "water-carrier" or "cup-carrier", its symbol is, a representation of water. Aquarius is one of the oldest of the recognized constellations along the zodiac, it was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. It is found in a region called the Sea due to its profusion of constellations with watery associations such as Cetus the whale, Pisces the fish, Eridanus the river. At apparent magnitude 2.9, Beta Aquarii is the brightest star in the constellation. Aquarius is identified as GU. LA "The Great One" in the Babylonian star catalogues and represents the god Ea himself, depicted holding an overflowing vase; the Babylonian star-figure appears on entitlement stones and cylinder seals from the second millennium. It contained the winter solstice in the Early Bronze Age. In Old Babylonian astronomy, Ea was the ruler of the southernmost quarter of the Sun's path, the "Way of Ea", corresponding to the period of 45 days on either side of winter solstice.
Aquarius was associated with the destructive floods that the Babylonians experienced, thus was negatively connoted. In Ancient Egypt astronomy, Aquarius was associated with the annual flood of the Nile. In the Greek tradition, the constellation came to be represented as a single vase from which a stream poured down to Piscis Austrinus; the name in the Hindu zodiac is kumbha "water-pitcher". In Greek mythology, Aquarius is sometimes associated with Deucalion, the son of Prometheus who built a ship with his wife Pyrrha to survive an imminent flood, they sailed for nine days before washing ashore on Mount Parnassus. Aquarius is sometimes identified with beautiful Ganymede, a youth in Greek mythology and the son of Trojan king Tros, taken to Mount Olympus by Zeus to act as cup-carrier to the gods. Neighboring Aquila represents the eagle, under Zeus' command. An alternative version of the tale recounts Ganymede's kidnapping by the goddess of the dawn, motivated by her affection for young men, yet another figure associated with the water bearer is Cecrops I, a king of Athens who sacrificed water instead of wine to the gods.
In the first century, Ptolemy's Almagest established the common Western depiction of Aquarius. His water jar, an asterism itself, consists of Gamma, Pi, Zeta Aquarii; the water bearer's head is represented by 5th magnitude 25 Aquarii while his left shoulder is Beta Aquarii. In Chinese astronomy, the stream of water flowing from the Water Jar was depicted as the "Army of Yu-Lin"; the name "Yu-lin" means "feathers and forests", referring to the numerous light-footed soldiers from the northern reaches of the empire represented by these faint stars. The constellation's stars were the most numerous of any Chinese constellation, numbering 45, the majority of which were located in modern Aquarius; the celestial army was protected by the wall Leibizhen, which counted Iota, Lambda and Sigma Aquarii among its 12 stars. 88, 89, 98 Aquarii represent Fou-youe, the axes used as weapons and for hostage executions. In Aquarius is Loui-pi-tchin, the ramparts that stretch from 29 and 27 Piscium and 33 and 30 Aquarii through Phi, Lambda and Iota Aquarii to Delta, Gamma and Epsilon Capricorni.
Near the border with Cetus, the axe Fuyue was represented by three stars. Tienliecheng has a disputed position; the Water Jar asterism was seen to the ancient Chinese as Fenmu. Nearby, the emperors' mausoleum Xiuliang stood, demarcated by Kappa Aquarii and three other collinear stars. Ku and Qi, each composed of two stars, were located in the same region. Three of the Chinese lunar mansions shared their name with constellations. Nu the name for the 10th lunar mansion, was a handmaiden represented by Epsilon, Mu, 3, 4 Aquarii; the 11th lunar mansion shared its name with the constellation Xu, formed by Beta Aquarii and Alpha Equulei. Wei, the rooftop and 12th lunar mansion, was a V-shaped constellation formed by Alpha Aquarii, Theta Pegasi, Epsilon Pegasi. Despite both its prominent position on the zodiac and its large size, Aquarius has no bright stars, its four brightest stars being less than magnitude 2. However, recent research has shown that there are several stars lying within its borders that possess planetary systems.
The two brightest stars and Beta Aquarii, are luminous yellow supergiants, of spectral types G0Ib and G2Ib that were once hot blue-white B-class main sequence stars 5 to 9 times as massive as the Sun. The two are moving through space perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way. Just shading Alpha, Beta Aquarii is the brightest star in Aquarius with an apparent magnitude of 2.91. It has the proper name of Sadalsuud. Having cooled and swollen to around 50 times the Sun
A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen and other ionized gases. The term was used to describe any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way; the Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was once referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before the true nature of galaxies was confirmed in the early 20th century by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and others. Most nebulae are of vast size. A nebula, visible to the human eye from Earth would appear larger, but no brighter, from close by; the Orion Nebula, the brightest nebula in the sky and occupying an area twice the diameter of the full Moon, can be viewed with the naked eye but was missed by early astronomers. Although denser than the space surrounding them, most nebulae are far less dense than any vacuum created on Earth – a nebular cloud the size of the Earth would have a total mass of only a few kilograms. Many nebulae are visible due to fluorescence caused by embedded hot stars, while others are so diffuse they can only be detected with long exposures and special filters.
Some nebulae are variably illuminated by T Tauri variable stars. Nebulae are star-forming regions, such as in the "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula. In these regions the formations of gas and other materials "clump" together to form denser regions, which attract further matter, will become dense enough to form stars; the remaining material is believed to form planets and other planetary system objects. Around 150 AD, Claudius Ptolemaeus recorded, in books VII–VIII of his Almagest, five stars that appeared nebulous, he noted a region of nebulosity between the constellations Ursa Major and Leo, not associated with any star. The first true nebula, as distinct from a star cluster, was mentioned by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, in his Book of Fixed Stars, he noted "a little cloud". He cataloged the Omicron Velorum star cluster as a "nebulous star" and other nebulous objects, such as Brocchi's Cluster; the supernova that created the Crab Nebula, the SN 1054, was observed by Arabic and Chinese astronomers in 1054.
In 1610, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc discovered the Orion Nebula using a telescope. This nebula was observed by Johann Baptist Cysat in 1618. However, the first detailed study of the Orion Nebula was not performed until 1659, by Christiaan Huygens, who believed he was the first person to discover this nebulosity. In 1715, Edmund Halley published a list of six nebulae; this number increased during the century, with Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux compiling a list of 20 in 1746. From 1751 to 1753, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille cataloged 42 nebulae from the Cape of Good Hope, most of which were unknown. Charles Messier compiled a catalog of 103 "nebulae" by 1781; the number of nebulae was greatly increased by the efforts of William Herschel and his sister Caroline Herschel. Their Catalogue of One Thousand New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars was published in 1786. A second catalog of a thousand was published in 1789 and the third and final catalog of 510 appeared in 1802. During much of their work, William Herschel believed that these nebulae were unresolved clusters of stars.
In 1790, however, he discovered a star surrounded by nebulosity and concluded that this was a true nebulosity, rather than a more distant cluster. Beginning in 1864, William Huggins examined the spectra of about 70 nebulae, he found that a third of them had the emission spectrum of a gas. The rest thus were thought to consist of a mass of stars. A third category was added in 1912 when Vesto Slipher showed that the spectrum of the nebula that surrounded the star Merope matched the spectra of the Pleiades open cluster, thus the nebula radiates by reflected star light. About 1923, following the Great Debate, it had become clear that many "nebulae" were in fact galaxies far from our own. Slipher and Edwin Hubble continued to collect the spectra from many different nebulae, finding 29 that showed emission spectra and 33 that had the continuous spectra of star light. In 1932, Hubble announced that nearly all nebula are associated with stars, their illumination comes from star light, he discovered that the emission spectrum nebulae are nearly always associated with stars having spectral classifications of B or hotter, while nebulae with continuous spectra appear with cooler stars.
Both Hubble and Henry Norris Russell concluded that the nebulae surrounding the hotter stars are transfomed in some manner. There are a variety of formation mechanisms for the different types of nebulae; some nebulae form from gas, in the interstellar medium while others are produced by stars. Examples of the former case are giant molecular clouds, the coldest, densest phase of interstellar gas, which can form by the cooling and condensation of more diffuse gas. Examples of the latter case are planetary nebulae formed from material shed by a star in late stages of its stellar evolution. Star-forming regions are a class of emission nebula associated with giant molecular clouds; these form as a molecular cloud collapses under its own weight. Massive stars may form in the center, their ultraviolet radiation ionizes the surrounding gas, making it visible at optical wavelengths; the region of ionized hydrogen surrounding th
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, moons and galaxies – in either observational or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology. Astronomers fall under either of two main types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed; because it takes millions to billions of years for a system of stars or a galaxy to complete a life cycle, astronomers must observe snapshots of different systems at unique points in their evolution to determine how they form and die. They use these data to create models or simulations to theorize how different celestial objects work.
Further subcategories under these two main branches of astronomy include planetary astronomy, galactic astronomy, or physical cosmology. Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using physical laws. Today, that distinction has disappeared and the terms "astronomer" and "astrophysicist" are interchangeable. Professional astronomers are educated individuals who have a Ph. D. in physics or astronomy and are employed by research institutions or universities. They spend the majority of their time working on research, although they quite have other duties such as teaching, building instruments, or aiding in the operation of an observatory; the number of professional astronomers in the United States is quite small. The American Astronomical Society, the major organization of professional astronomers in North America, has 7,000 members; this number includes scientists from other fields such as physics and engineering, whose research interests are related to astronomy.
The International Astronomical Union comprises 10,145 members from 70 different countries who are involved in astronomical research at the Ph. D. beyond. Contrary to the classical image of an old astronomer peering through a telescope through the dark hours of the night, it is far more common to use a charge-coupled device camera to record a long, deep exposure, allowing a more sensitive image to be created because the light is added over time. Before CCDs, photographic plates were a common method of observation. Modern astronomers spend little time at telescopes just a few weeks per year. Analysis of observed phenomena, along with making predictions as to the causes of what they observe, takes the majority of observational astronomers' time. Astronomers who serve as faculty spend much of their time teaching undergraduate and graduate classes. Most universities have outreach programs including public telescope time and sometimes planetariums as a public service to encourage interest in the field.
Those who become astronomers have a broad background in maths and computing in high school. Taking courses that teach how to research and present papers are invaluable. In college/university most astronomers get a Ph. D. in astronomy or physics. While there is a low number of professional astronomers, the field is popular among amateurs. Most cities have amateur astronomy clubs that meet on a regular basis and host star parties; the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is the largest general astronomical society in the world, comprising both professional and amateur astronomers as well as educators from 70 different nations. Like any hobby, most people who think of themselves as amateur astronomers may devote a few hours a month to stargazing and reading the latest developments in research. However, amateurs span the range from so-called "armchair astronomers" to the ambitious, who own science-grade telescopes and instruments with which they are able to make their own discoveries and assist professional astronomers in research.
List of astronomers List of women astronomers List of Muslim astronomers List of French astronomers List of Hungarian astronomers List of Russian astronomers and astrophysicists List of Slovenian astronomers Dallal, Ahmad. "Science and Technology". In Esposito, John; the Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0-300-15911-0. Kennedy, E. S.. "A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. 46. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. Toomer, Gerald. "Al-Khwārizmī, Abu Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-16962-2. American Astronomical Society European Astronomical Society International Astronomical Union Astronomical Society of the Pacific Space's astronomy news