Francis Russell "Frank" O'Hara was an American writer and art critic. Because of his employment as a curator at the Museum of Modern Art, O'Hara became prominent in New York City's art world. O'Hara is regarded as a leading figure in the New York School—an informal group of artists and musicians who drew inspiration from jazz, abstract expressionism, action painting and contemporary avant-garde art movements. O'Hara's poetry is personal in tone and content, has been described as sounding "like entries in a diary". Poet and critic Mark Doty has said O'Hara's poetry is "urbane, sometimes genuinely celebratory and wildly funny" containing "material and associations alien to academic verse" such as "the camp icons of movie stars of the twenties and thirties, the daily landscape of social activity in Manhattan, jazz music, telephone calls from friends". O'Hara's writing sought to capture in his poetry the immediacy of life, feeling that poetry should be "between two persons instead of two pages."The Collected Poems of Frank O'Hara edited by Donald Allen, the first of several posthumous collections, shared the 1972 National Book Award for Poetry.
Frank O'Hara, the son of Russell Joseph O'Hara and Katherine, was born on March 27, 1926, at Maryland General Hospital and grew up in Grafton, Massachusetts. He attended St. John's High School, he grew up believing he had been born in June, but in fact had been born in March, his parents disguised his true date of birth because he was conceived out of wedlock. He studied piano at the New England Conservatory in Boston from 1941 to 1944 and served in the South Pacific and Japan as a sonarman on the destroyer USS Nicholas during World War II. With the funding made available to veterans he attended Harvard University, where artist and writer Edward Gorey was his roommate. O'Hara was influenced by visual art and by contemporary music, his first love, his favorite poets were Pierre Reverdy, Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, Boris Pasternak, Vladimir Mayakovsky. While at Harvard, O'Hara began publishing poems in the Harvard Advocate. Despite his love of music, O'Hara changed his major and graduated from Harvard in 1950 with a degree in English.
He attended graduate school at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. While at Michigan, he won a Hopwood Award and received his M. A. in English literature in 1951. That autumn O'Hara moved into an apartment in New York City with Joe LeSueur, his roommate and sometimes lover for the next 11 years, it was during this time. Known throughout his life for his extreme sociability and warmth, O'Hara had hundreds of friends and lovers throughout his life, many from the New York art and poetry worlds. Soon after arriving in New York, he was employed at the Museum of Modern Art, selling postcards at the admissions desk, began to write seriously. O'Hara was active in the art world, working as a reviewer for Artnews, in 1960 was Assistant Curator of Painting and Sculpture Exhibitions for the Museum of Modern Art, he was a friend of the artists Norman Bluhm, Mike Goldberg, Grace Hartigan, Willem de Kooning, Joan Mitchell and Larry Rivers. In the early morning hours of July 24, 1966, O'Hara was struck by a jeep on the Fire Island beach, after the beach taxi in which he had been riding with a group of friends broke down in the dark.
He died the next day of a ruptured liver. Attempts to bring negligent homicide charges against 23-year-old driver Kenneth L. Ruzicka were unsuccessful. O'Hara was buried in Green River Cemetery on Long Island; the painter Larry Rivers, a longtime friend and lover of O'Hara's, delivered one of the eulogies, along with Bill Berkson, Edwin Denby and René d'Harnoncourt. While O'Hara's poetry is autobiographical, it tends to be based on his observations of New York life rather than exploring his past. In his introduction to The Collected Poems of Frank O'Hara, Donald Allen says "that Frank O'Hara tended to think of his poems as a record of his life is apparent in much of his work." O'Hara discussed this aspect of his poetry in a statement for Donald Allen's New American Poetry: What is happening to me, allowing for lies and exaggerations which I try to avoid, goes into my poems. I don't think my experiences are clarified or made beautiful for myself or anyone else, they are just there in whatever form I can find them...
My formal "stance" is found at the crossroads where what I know and can't get meets what is left of that I know and can bear without hatred... It may be that poetry restores their detail. Or each on specific occasions, or both all the time, his initial time in the Navy, during his basic training at Sampson Naval Training Center in upstate New York, along with earlier years spent at St. John's High School began to shape a distinguished style of solitary observation that would inform his poems. Immersed in regimented daily routine, first Catholic school the Navy, he was able to separate himself from the situation and make witty and singular studies. Sometimes these were cataloged for use in writing, or more put into letters; this skill of scrutinizing and recording during the bustle and churn of daily life would be one of the important aspects that shaped O'Hara as an u
Louis Aragon was a French poet, one of the leading voices of the surrealist movement in France, who co-founded with André Breton and Philippe Soupault the surrealist review Littérature. He was a novelist and editor, a long-time member of the Communist Party and a member of the Académie Goncourt. Louis Aragon was born in Paris, he was raised by his mother and maternal grandmother, believing them to be his sister and foster mother, respectively. His biological father, Louis Andrieux, a former senator for Forcalquier, was married and thirty years older than Aragon's mother, whom he seduced when she was seventeen. Aragon's mother passed Andrieux off to her son as his godfather. Aragon was only told the truth at the age of 19, as he was leaving to serve in the First World War, from which neither he nor his parents believed he would return. Andrieux's refusal or inability to recognize his son would influence Aragon's poetry on. Having been involved in Dadaism from 1919 to 1924, he became a founding member of Surrealism in 1924, with André Breton and Philippe Soupault under the pen-name "Aragon".
In the 1920s, Aragon became a fellow traveller of the French Communist Party along with several other surrealists, joined the Party in January 1927. In 1933 he began to write for the party's newspaper, L'Humanité, in the "news in brief" section, he would remain a member for the rest of his life, writing several political poems including one to Maurice Thorez, the general secretary of the PCF. During the World Congress of Writers for the Defence of Culture, Aragon opposed his former friend André Breton, who wanted to use the opportunity as a tribune to defend the writer Victor Serge, associated with Leon Trotsky's Left Opposition. Aragon was critical of the USSR after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during which Joseph Stalin's personality cult was denounced by Nikita Khrushchev; the French surrealists had long claimed Lewis Carroll as one of their own, Aragon published his translation of The Hunting of the Snark in 1929, "shortly before he completed his transition from Snarxism to Marxism", as Martin Gardner puts it.
Witness the key stanza of the poem in Aragon's translation: Gardner, who calls the translation "pedestrian" and deems the rest of Aragon's writings on Carroll's nonsense poetry full of factual errors, says that there is no evidence that Aragon intended any of it as a joke. Apart from working as a journalist for L'Humanité, Louis Aragon became, along with Paul Nizan, editor secretary of the journal Commune, published by the Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires, which aimed at gathering intellectuals and artists in a common front against fascism. Aragon became a member of the directing committee of the Commune journal in January 1937, along with André Gide, Romain Rolland and Paul Vaillant-Couturier; the journal took the name of "French literary review for the defence of culture". With Gide's withdrawal in August 1937, Vaillant-Couturier's death in autumn 1937 and Romain Rolland's old age, Aragon became its effective director. In December 1938, he called as chief editor the young writer Jacques Decour.
The Commune journal was involved in the mobilization of French intellectuals in favor of the Spanish Republic. In March 1937, Aragon was called on by the PCF to head the new evening daily, Ce soir, which he was charged with launching, along with the writer Jean-Richard Bloch. Ce soir attempted to compete with Paris-Soir. Outlawed in August 1939, Ce soir was re-opened after the Liberation, Aragon again became its lead, first with Bloch alone after Bloch's death in 1947; the newspaper, which counted Emile Danoën among its collaborators, closed in March 1953. In 1939 he married Russian-born author Elsa Triolet, the sister of Lilya Brik, a mistress and partner of Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, he had met her in 1928, she became his muse starting in the 1940s. Aragon and Triolet collaborated in the left-wing French media before and during World War II, going underground for most of the German occupation. Aragon was mobilized in 1939, awarded the Croix de guerre and the military medal for acts of bravery.
After the May 1940 defeat, he took refuge in the Southern Zone. He was one of several poets, along with René Char, Francis Ponge, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Jean Prévost, Jean-Pierre Rosnay, etc. to join the Resistance, both through literary activities and as an actual organiser of Resistance acts. Otto Abetz was the German governor, produced a series of "black lists" of authors forbidden to be read, circulated or sold in Nazi Occupied France; these included anything written by a Jew, a communist, an Anglo-Saxon or anyone else, anti-Germanic or anti-fascist. Aragon and André Malraux were both on these "Otto Lists" of forbidden authors. During the war, Aragon wrote for the underground press Les Éditions de Minuit and was a member of the National Front Resistance movement, his poetry was published along texts by Vercors, Pierre Seghers or Paul Eluard in Switzerland in 1943 after being smuggled out of occupied France by his friend and publisher François Lachenal. He participated with his wife in the setting-up of the National Front of Writers in the Southern Zone.
This activism led him to break his friendly relationship with Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, who had chosen Collaborationism. Along with Paul Éluard, Pierre Seghers and René Char, Aragon would maintain the memory of the Resistance in his post-war poems, he thus wrote, in 1954, Strophes pour se souvenir in commemoration of the role of foreigners in the Resistance, which cel
John Lawrence Ashbery was an American poet. He published more than twenty volumes of poetry and won nearly every major American award for poetry, including a Pulitzer Prize in 1976 for his collection Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror. Renowned for its postmodern complexity and opacity, Ashbery's work still proves controversial. Ashbery stated that he wished his work to be accessible to as many people as possible, not to be a private dialogue with himself. At the same time, he once joked that some critics still view him as "a harebrained, homegrown surrealist whose poetry defies the rules and logic of Surrealism."Langdon Hammer, chairman of the English Department at Yale University, wrote in 2008, "No figure looms so large in American poetry over the past 50 years as John Ashbery" and "No American poet has had a larger, more diverse vocabulary, not Whitman, not Pound." Stephanie Burt, a poet and Harvard professor of English, has compared Ashbery to T. S. Eliot, calling Ashbery "the last figure whom half the English-language poets alive thought a great model, the other half thought incomprehensible".
Ashbery was born in Rochester, New York, the son of Helen, a biology teacher, Chester Frederick Ashbery, a farmer. He was raised on a farm near Lake Ontario. Ashbery was educated at Deerfield Academy, an all-boys school, where he read such poets as W. H. Auden and Dylan Thomas and began writing poetry. Two of his poems were published in Poetry magazine by a classmate who had submitted them under his own name, without Ashbery's knowledge or permission. Ashbery published a piece of short fiction and a handful of poems—including a sonnet about his frustrated love for a fellow student—in the school newspaper, the Deerfield Scroll, his first ambition was to be a painter: from the age of 11 until he was 15, Ashbery took weekly classes at the art museum in Rochester. Ashbery graduated in 1949 with an A. B. cum laude, from Harvard College, where he was a member of the Harvard Advocate, the university's literary magazine, the Signet Society. He wrote his senior thesis on the poetry of W. H. Auden. At Harvard he befriended fellow writers Kenneth Koch, Barbara Epstein, V. R. Lang, Frank O'Hara and Edward Gorey, was a classmate of Robert Creeley, Robert Bly and Peter Davison.
Ashbery went on to study at New York University before receiving an M. A. from Columbia University in 1951. After working as a copywriter in New York from 1951 to 1955, from the mid-1950s, when he received a Fulbright Fellowship, through 1965, Ashbery lived in France, he was an editor of the 12 issues of Art and Literature and the New Poetry issue of Harry Mathews' Locus Solus. To make ends meet he translated French murder mysteries, served as the art editor for the European edition of the New York Herald Tribune and was an art critic for Art International and a Paris correspondent for ARTnews, when Thomas Hess took over as editor. During this period he lived with the French poet Pierre Martory, whose books Every Question but One, The Landscape is behind the Door and The Landscapist he translated, as he did Arthur Rimbaud, Max Jacob, Pierre Reverdy, many titles by Raymond Roussel. After returning to the United States, he continued his career as an art critic for New York and Newsweek magazines while serving on the editorial board of ARTnews until 1972.
Several years he began a stint as an editor at Partisan Review, serving from 1976 to 1980. During the fall of 1963, Ashbery became acquainted with Andy Warhol at a scheduled poetry reading at the Literary Theatre in New York, he had written favorable reviews of Warhol's art. That same year he reviewed Warhol's Flowers exhibition at Galerie Ileana Sonnabend in Paris, describing Warhol's visit to Paris as "the biggest transatlantic fuss since Oscar Wilde brought culture to Buffalo in the nineties". Ashbery returned to New York near the end of 1965 and was welcomed with a large party at the Factory, he became close friends with poet Gerard Malanga, Warhol's assistant, on whom he had an important influence as a poet. In 1967 his poem Europe was used as the central text in Eric Salzman's Foxes and Hedgehogs as part of the New Image of Sound series at Hunter College, conducted by Dennis Russell Davies; when the poet sent Salzman Three Madrigals in 1968, the composer featured them in the seminal Nude Paper Sermon, released by Nonesuch Records in 1989.
In the early 1970s, Ashbery began teaching at Brooklyn College, where his students included poet John Yau. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1983. In the 1980s, he moved to Bard College, where he was Jr.. Professor of Languages and Literature, until 2008, when he retired but continued to win awards, present readings, work with graduate and undergraduates at many other institutions, he was the poet laureate of New York State from 2001 to 2003, served for many years as a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets. He served on the contributing editorial board of the literary journal Conjunctions. In 2008 Ashbery was named the first poet laureate of MtvU, a division of MTV broadcast to U. S. college campuses, with excerpts from his poems featured in 18 promotional spots and the works in their entirety on the broadcaster's website. Ashbery was a Millet Writing Fellow at Wesleyan University in 2010, participated in Wesleyan's Distinguished Writers Series, he was a founding member of The Raymond Roussel Society, with Miquel Barceló, Joan Bofill-Amargós, Michel Butor, Thor Halvorssen and Hermes Salceda.
Ashbery lived in New York, with his husband, David Kermani. He died of natural caus
Kenneth Charles Marion Rexroth was an American poet and critical essayist. He is regarded as a central figure in the San Francisco Renaissance, paved the groundwork for the movement. Although he did not consider himself to be a Beat poet, disliked the association, he was dubbed the "Father of the Beats" by Time Magazine, he was a prolific reader of Chinese literature. Rexroth was born Kenneth Charles Marion Rexroth in South Bend, the son of Charles Rexroth, a pharmaceuticals salesman, Delia Reed, his childhood was troubled by his mother's chronic illness. His mother died in 1916 and his father in 1919, after which he went to live with his aunt in Chicago and enrolled in the Art Institute of Chicago, he spent his teenage years as an art soda jerk, along with other odd jobs. In 1923 -- 1924 he was imprisoned during a raid on a Near North Side bar, he lived in a decrepit jail cell under the care of four black cellmates until his legal guardian could bail him out. While in Chicago, he frequented the homes and meeting places of political radicals identifying with the concerns of an agitated proletarian class and reciting poetry from a soapbox to crowds on street corners downtown.
An aborted attempt at a trip around the world with a friend piqued his interest in the American Southwest, he began a tour through Kansas and New Mexico, moving up and down the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains. He moved to Greenwich Village and attended The New School before dropping out to live as a postulant in Holy Cross Monastery; the lifestyle of meditation and artistic creation suited him, he recalled it as the happiest time of his life. However, he felt that he did not have a vocation there, left with a solidified admiration for the communal rites and values of monasticism. At age nineteen, he hitchhiked across the country, taking odd jobs and working a stint as a Forest Service trail crew hand and packer in the Pacific Northwest, at the Marblemount Ranger Station, he was able to board a steamship in Hoboken, exploring Mexico and South America before spending a week in Paris to meet many notable avant-garde figures, notably Tristan Tzara and the Surrealists. He considered staying on in Paris, but an American friend urged him not to become just another expatriate and he returned home.
After meeting his first wife, he moved to San Francisco. Rexroth viewed love for another person as a sacramental act that could connect one with a transcendent, universal awareness. In his introduction to his poem The Phoenix and the Tortoise, Rexroth articulated his understanding of love and marriage: "The process as I see it goes something like this: from abandon to erotic mysticism, from erotic mysticism to the ethical mysticism of sacramental marriage, thence to the realization of the ethical mysticism of universal responsibility."Rexroth married Andrée Dutcher in 1927, a commercial artist and painter from Chicago. He claimed to have fallen in love with her at first sight when he saw her in the doorway of the apartment building he was renting, he encouraged Dutcher to pursue non-commercial painting, she gave him feedback on his writing. The two shared many interests and what Rexroth described as a perfect relationship, their marriage deteriorated and the couple was divorced near Rexroth's 35th birthday.
Andrée died of complications from epilepsy shortly after, in 1940. Her death triggered great sadness in Rexroth. Within a year of Andrée's death, Rexroth married poet Marie Kass, they opened up their home to weekly literary discussions, anti-war protesters, Japanese-American convalescents avoiding internment. The two separated in 1948. In 1949, Rexroth traveled to Europe with Marthe Larsen; the two were married in Aix-en-Provence despite Rexroth still being married to Marie. When the couple returned to the US, Marthe was pregnant, they had had two daughters and Katherine, by 1955, when Rexroth's divorce from Marie came through. In 1956, Marthe fell in love with the poet, Robert Creeley, she left Kenneth despite his desperate pleas for her to stay. Rexroth removed all instances of her name from his poetry. After living in San Francisco for 41 years, Rexroth moved to Santa Barbara in 1968, he taught two courses at UCSB. After a few years, he married his longtime assistant, they remained married until Rexroth's death in 1982.
Rexroth was the central figure in San Francisco Bay Area poetry from the 30s through the 60s and exercised a major and early influence over the evolution of the area's local artistic culture and social counterculture. Bay Area poetry in the 40s and 50s was the creation of Rexroth, along with Robert Duncan, William Everson, Philip Lamantia, Jack Spicer, Bob Kaufman, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, others, Rexroth's centrality was acknowledged, his prose on social subjects was an incitement, a participant, a witness and a history of the emergence of this counterculture. His weekly column for the San Francisco Chronicle was, while it survived, a lodestar of this movement. Much of Rexroth's work can be classified as "erotic" or "love poetry," given his deep fascination with transcendent love. According to Hamill and Kleiner, "nowhere is Rexroth's verse more realized than in his erotic poetry", his poetry is marked by a sensitivity to Asian forms as well as an appreciation of Ancient Greek lyric poetry that of Sappho.
Rexroth's poetic voice is similar to that of Tu Fu, express
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
André Breton was a French writer and anti-fascist. He is known best as the co-founder, principal theorist and chief apologist of Surrealism, his writings include the first Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as "pure psychic automatism". Born to a family of modest means in Tinchebray in Normandy, Breton attended medical school, where he developed a particular interest in mental illness, his education was interrupted when he was drafted for World War I. During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes, where he met the devotee of Alfred Jarry, Jacques Vaché, whose anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition influenced Breton considerably. Vaché committed suicide when aged 24, his war-time letters to Breton and others were published in a volume entitled Lettres de guerre, for which Breton wrote four introductory essays. Breton married his first wife, Simone Kahn, on 15 September 1921; the couple relocated to rue Fontaine No. 42 in Paris on 1 January 1922.
The apartment on rue Fontaine became home to Breton's collection of more than 5,300 items: modern paintings, sculptures, books, art catalogs, journals and works of popular and Oceanic art. He was an atheist. Breton launched the review Littérature with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault, he associated with Dadaist Tristan Tzara. In 1924, he was instrumental in the founding of the Bureau of Surrealist Research. In Les Champs Magnétiques, a collaboration with Soupault, he implemented the principle of automatic writing, he published the Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, was editor of the magazine La Révolution surréaliste from that year on. A group of writers became associated with him: Soupault, Louis Aragon, Paul Éluard, René Crevel, Michel Leiris, Benjamin Péret, Antonin Artaud and Robert Desnos. Anxious to combine the themes of personal transformation found in the works of Arthur Rimbaud with the politics of Karl Marx, Breton joined the French Communist Party in 1927, from which he was expelled in 1933.
Nadja, a novel about his encounter with an imaginative woman who became mentally ill, was published in 1928. Breton celebrated the concept of Mad Love, many women joined the surrealist group over the years. Toyen was a good friend. During this time, he survived by the sale of paintings from his art gallery. In 1930, Un Cadavre, a pamphlet, was written and released by several members of the surrealist movement who were insulted by Breton or had otherwise disbelieved in his leadership; the pamphlet criticized Breton's influence over the movement. It marked. In 1935, there was a conflict between Breton and the Soviet writer and journalist Ilya Ehrenburg during the first International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture, which opened in Paris in June. Breton had been insulted by Ehrenburg—along with all fellow surrealists—in a pamphlet which said, among other things, that surrealists were "pederasts". Breton slapped Ehrenburg several times on the street, which resulted in surrealists being expelled from the Congress.
René Crevel, who according to Salvador Dalí was "the only serious communist among surrealists", was isolated from Breton and other surrealists, who were unhappy with Crevel because of his bisexuality and annoyed with communists in general. In 1938, Breton accepted a cultural commission from the French government to travel to Mexico. After a conference at the National Autonomous University of Mexico about surrealism, Breton stated after getting lost in Mexico City "I don't know why I came here. Mexico is the most surrealist country in the world". However, visiting Mexico provided the opportunity to meet Leon Trotsky. Breton and other surrealists traveled via a long boat ride from Patzcuaro to the town of Erongarícuaro. Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo were among the visitors to the hidden community of intellectuals and artists. Together and Trotsky wrote the Manifesto for an Independent Revolutionary Art calling for "complete freedom of art", becoming difficult with the world situation of the time.
In 1942, Breton collaborated with artist Wifredo Lam on the publication of Breton's poem "Fata Morgana", illustrated by Lam. Breton was again in the medical corps of the French Army at the start of World War II; the Vichy government banned his writings as "the negation of the national revolution" and Breton escaped, with the help of the American Varian Fry and Harry Bingham, to the United States and the Caribbean during 1941. Breton got to know Martinican writer Aimé Césaire, composed the introduction to the 1947 edition of Césaire's Cahier d'un retour au pays natal. During his exile in New York City he met Elisa Bindhoff, the Chilean woman who would become his third wife. In 1944, he and Elisa traveled to the Gaspé Peninsula in Québec, where he wrote Arcane 17, a book which expresses his fears of World War II, describes the marvels of the Rocher Percé and the extreme northeastern part of North America, celebrates his new romance with Elisa. During André Breton's visit to Haiti in 1945-46, the French surrealist leader sought to connect surrealist politics and automatist practices with the legacies of the Haitian Revolution and the ritual practices of Vodou possession.
Recent developments in Haitian painting were central to his efforts, as can be seen from a comment that Breton left in the visitors' book at the Centre d'Art in Port-au-Prince: "Haitian painting will drink the blood of the phoenix. And, with the epaulets of [J