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Pietermaritzburg

Pietermaritzburg is the capital and second-largest city in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It was founded in 1838 and is governed by the Msunduzi Local Municipality, its Zulu name umGungundlovu is the name used for the district municipality. Pietermaritzburg is popularly called Maritzburg in Afrikaans and Zulu alike, informally abbreviated to PMB, it is a regionally important industrial hub, producing aluminium and dairy products, as well as the main economic hub of Umgungundlovu District Municipality. The public sector is a major employer in the city due to the local and provincial governments being located here, it is home to many schools and tertiary education institutions, including a campus of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. It had a population of 228,549 in 1991; the city was founded by the Voortrekkers, following the defeat of Dingane at the Battle of Blood River, was the capital of the short-lived Boer republic, Natalia. Britain took over Pietermaritzburg in 1843 and it became the seat of the Natal Colony's administration with the first lieutenant-governor, Martin West, making it his home.

Fort Napier, named after the governor of the Cape Colony, Sir George Thomas Napier, was built to house a garrison. In 1893, Natal received responsibility for their own government and an assembly building was built along with the city hall. On 7 June 1893, while the young Mahatma Gandhi was on his way to Pretoria, a white man objected to Gandhi's presence in a first-class carriage. Despite Gandhi having a first-class ticket, he was ordered by the conductor to move to the van compartment at the end of the train: he refused, he was removed from the train at Pietermaritzburg. Shivering through the winter night in the waiting room of the station, Gandhi made the momentous decision to stay on in South Africa and fight the racial discrimination against Indians there. Out of that struggle emerged his unique version of Satyagraha. Today, a bronze statue of Gandhi stands in the city centre. In 1910, when the Union of South Africa was formed, Natal became a province of the Union, Pietermaritzburg remained the capital.

During apartheid, the city was segregated into various sections. 90% of the Indian population was moved to the suburb of Northdale while most of its Zulu inhabitants were moved to the neighbouring township of Edendale and white inhabitants were moved out of those areas. There exist two interpretations about the origin of the city's name. One is that it was named after Piet Gert Maritz, two Voortrekker leaders; the other is that it was named after Piet Retief alone, since his full name was Pieter Maurits Retief. In this interpretation the original name was "Pieter Maurits Burg" transliterated to the current name. Retief in fact never reached Pietermaritzburg and was killed by Dingane, successor to Shaka, king of the Zulus. Maritz died of illness on 23 September 1838 near the present-day town of Estcourt, some hundreds of kilometres northwest of Pietermaritzburg; this was after the battle with the Zulus at Bloukranz, Maritz did not reach the Pietermaritzburg area. In 1938, the city announced that the second element Maritz should honour Gert Maritz.

At the time of the rise of the Zulu Empire, the site, to become Pietermaritzburg was called Umgungundlovu. This is popularly translated from the Zulu as "Place of the Elephant", although it could be translated to mean "The elephant wins". Umgungundlovu is thus thought to be the site of some Zulu king's victory since "Elephant" is a name traditionally taken by the Zulu monarch. Legend has it that Shaka had his warriors hunt elephant there to sell the ivory to English traders at Durban. Today, the town is still called by its Voortrekker name, although the municipality of which it is part bears the Zulu name; the University of Natal was founded in 1910 as the Natal University College and extended to Durban in 1922. The two campuses were incorporated into the University of Natal in March 1949, it became a major voice in the struggle against apartheid and was one of the first universities in the country to provide education to black students. It became the University of KwaZulu-Natal on 1 January 2004.

The first newspaper in Natal, the Natal Witness, was published in 1846. The 46 hectare; the city hall, the largest red-brick building in the Southern Hemisphere, was destroyed by fire in 1895, but was rebuilt in 1901. It houses the largest pipe organ built by Brindley & Foster; the British built a concentration camp here during the Second Boer War to house Boer women and children. During the Second World War, Italian prisoners of war were housed in Pietermaritzburg. During their stay, they built a church. In 1962, Nelson Mandela was arrested in the nearby town of Howick to the north of Pietermaritzburg; the arrest marked the beginning of Nelson Mandela's 27 years of imprisonment. A small monument has been erected at the location of his arrest. After his arrest Mandela was taken to the Old Prison in Pietermaritzburg. After a night in the prison, he was taken to Magistrate J. Buys's office in the old Magistrates Court Building in Commercial Road, was remanded for trial in Johannesburg. Pietermaritzburg was the capital of the Colony of Natal until 1910, when the Union of South Africa was form

Hugh and Matilda Boyle House and Cemetery Historic District

The Hugh and Matilda Boyle House and Cemetery Historic District known as Boyleston Cemetery, is a nationally recognized historic district located west of Lowell, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. At the time of its nomination it consisted of three resources, which included one contributing building, one contributing site, one non-contributing building. Hugh Boyle established a mill along the Skunk River in the mid- to late-1840s, he built this vernacular stone house to the south for his family's residence. Though there were significant stone resources along the river, this is one of the few stone houses in this part of the county. Boyle is buried in the small cemetery to the west of the house. Three of his children were buried there; the mill continued to operate and the area became known as Boyleston. A post office was established in the lower level of the house in 1868 and it operated there until 1871. There is an indication that a store was located on the lower level of the house.

Boyleston continued to flourish until the mill was destroyed by ice and flooding in the late 1880s when it was owned and operated by Adam Tempel. Tempel's daughter and son-in-law and Elizabeth Chaney, bought the property and operated a farm here from 1889 to 1950; the last marked burial in the cemetery was that of Adam Tempel in 1893

Metroblogging

Metroblogging was an online local media project founded by Jason Defillippo and Sean Bonner, subsequently owned by Sean Bonner, Jason DeFillippo and Richard Ault, collectively Bode Media, Inc. Started in Los Angeles in November 2003, the project included 57 city-specific blogs around the world, with close to 700 contributors. Notable contributors have included Xeni Jardin and Wil Wheaton, Violet Blue, Johannes Grenzfurthner, Aaron Proctor and Joi Ito; the first post on blogging.la was on November 30, 2003. When it started, it was intended as a group blog where a number of bloggers from Los Angeles could talk about the city as they saw it. Following the success of blogging.la, Bonner and DeFillippo considered expanding to Orange County, but in the end decided to start an international network, which would be known as Metroblogging. Bonner and DeFillippo enlisted a team of bloggers for each of the four initial Metroblogging sites. Over the next year, Metroblogging added another thirty city sites to its network.

As weblogs started to become an popular source of first person accounts for news events circa 2005, Metroblogging was able to provide such content for cities in which it had blogs. During both bombings upon the London mass-transit system Metroblogging London became a hub for sharing news and first person accounts of the bombings; the writers for Metroblogging London were able to write about what it was like in the city during the bombings and their aftermath. When Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005 Metroblogging New Orleans sprang to action providing first hand accounts of the destruction. Since some of the Metroblogging New Orleans writers did not leave the city prior to the Hurricane making landfall, they were there on-scene, able to provide coverage that mainstream media could not; the writers for Metroblogging New Orleans were able to report on the anarchy that had befallen the city days before any of the major news outlets did. They were able to report on the dire needs and the terrible conditions that people were in the city, started questioning the lack of reaction to the disaster by city and federal officials before others were aware of the extent of the crisis.

In addition, they were able to correct the mainstream media in some of its reporting. While the media was reporting that the French Quarter of New Orleans was under 10 to 12 feet of water, Metroblogging New Orleans was able to report that the French Quarter was not flooded and had remained dry; the members of Metroblogging Karachi and Metroblogging Lahore contributed to the relief efforts by extensively networking with NGOs and other working groups following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Shying away from the rumor mill, the writers of Metroblogging Montreal succeeded in blogging about the latest facts as they were made available; the Dawson College Shooting affected many people wrote about it. But one of their writers, who happens to work for Dawson College, wrote about his experience of what happened on September 13, 2006 helping make the blog the "go to" place for accurate information, considering the amount of confusion throughout the day. Metroblogging