Pink Palace Museum and Planetarium
The Pink Palace Museum and Planetarium in Memphis, serves as the Mid-South's major science and historical museum and features exhibits ranging from archeology to chemistry. Over 240,000 people visit the museum each year; the museum is part of the Pink Palace Family of Museums, a collection of historic and technological attractions maintained by the City of Memphis and Memphis Museums, Inc. The Lichterman Nature Center, the first accredited nature center in the United States, is part of the Pink Palace Family of Museums, as well as the Coon Creek Science Center, an education center, open to organized groups and features a fossil site; the Mallory-Neely House and Magevney House are part of the Pink Palace Family of Museums. The Mallory-Neely House is a three-story Italianate Victorian mansion built in 1852, features 25 rooms and most of its original furnishings; the Magevney House, an 1830s cottage furnished as it might have been in 1850, is one of the city's oldest remaining residences. The Sharpe Planetarium, housed at the Pink Palace, features 165-seat theater-in-the-round auditorium and offers public shows that project star fields, visual images, laser lights on a domed ceiling.
The Crew Training International 3D Giant Theater opened on January 21, 1995 and features a four-story high movable screen. The Pink Palace Museum, the Sharpe Planetarium, the Crew Training International 3D Giant Theater are accredited members of the American Alliance of Museums; the headquarters for the Pink Palace Family of Museums is covered in pink Georgian marble. The city of Memphis acquired the mansion when Clarence Saunders, the founder of Piggly Wiggly, became bankrupt, he had been building the residence in 1923, but lost a fortune, the home, due to financial reversals on Wall Street. In March 1930, after the Stock Market Crash, Memphis Museum of Natural History and Industrial Arts opened in the mansion; the original exhibits featured stuffed animals and birds, anthropological items from local wealthy collectors, as well as items related to Memphis' history Confederate military uniforms and memorabilia. The Pink Palace contains a variety of exhibits relating to Memphis history. One exhibit features a replica of the original Piggly Wiggly store, the first self-service grocery store, commemorating the invention of the supermarket by Memphian Clarence Saunders in 1916.
Other permanent exhibits include 15th century Native American pottery, pre-Columbian artifacts, Clyde Parke's Miniature Circus and dinosaurs, mounted animals. History exhibits focus on the roles of music and cotton on Memphis, World War I and II, the changing roles of women, historic black Memphians, a living room decorated from the 1920s; the museum features several special exhibits each year. The original main entrance lobby of the Pink Palace features a three-panel mural by Memphis artist Burton Callicott; the murals commemorate the discovery of the Mississippi River near the site of Memphis by the Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his men, their encounters with Native Americans. The three murals were commissioned in 1934 by the Public Works of Art Project of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's government, as part of a series of numerous art and public works projects to employ artists and others during the Great Depression. Callicott, who died in 2004, taught at the Memphis College of Art.
List of museums in Tennessee Pink Palace Family of Museums
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee
Point of sale
The point of sale or point of purchase is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the point of sale, the merchant calculates the amount owed by the customer, indicates that amount, may prepare an invoice for the customer, indicates the options for the customer to make payment, it is the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or after provision of a service. After receiving payment, the merchant may issue a receipt for the transaction, printed but is being dispensed with or sent electronically. To calculate the amount owed by a customer, the merchant may use various devices such as weighing scales, barcode scanners, cash registers. To make a payment, payment terminals, touch screens, other hardware and software options are available; the point of sale is referred to as the point of service because it is not just a point of sale but a point of return or customer order. POS terminal software may include features for additional functionality, such as inventory management, CRM, financials, or warehousing.
Businesses are adopting POS systems, one of the most obvious and compelling reasons is that a POS system does away with the need for price tags. Selling prices are linked to the product code of an item when adding stock, so the cashier needs to scan this code to process a sale. If there is a price change, this can be done through the inventory window. Other advantages include the ability to implement various types of discounts, a loyalty scheme for customers, more efficient stock control. Retailers and marketers will refer to the area around the checkout instead as the point of purchase when they are discussing it from the retailer's perspective; this is the case when planning and designing the area as well as when considering a marketing strategy and offers. Some point of sale vendors refer to their POS system as "retail management system", a more appropriate term given that this software is no longer just about processing sales but comes with many other capabilities such as inventory management, membership system, supplier record, issuing of purchase orders and stock transfers, hide barcode label creation, sale reporting and in some cases remote outlets networking or linkage, to name some major ones.
It is the term POS system rather than retail management system, in vogue among both end-users and vendors. The basic, fundamental definition of a POS System, is a system which allows the processing and recording of transactions between a company and their consumers, at the time in which goods and/or services are purchased. Early electronic cash registers were controlled with proprietary software and were limited in function and communication capability. In August 1973, IBM released the IBM 3650 and 3660 store systems that were, in essence, a mainframe computer used as a store controller that could control up to 128 IBM 3653/3663 point of sale registers; this system was the first commercial use of client-server technology, peer-to-peer communications, local area network simultaneous backup, remote initialization. By mid-1974, it was installed in Pathmark stores in New Dillard's department stores. One of the first microprocessor-controlled cash register systems was built by William Brobeck and Associates in 1974, for McDonald's Restaurants.
It used the Intel 8008, a early microprocessor. Each station in the restaurant had its own device which displayed the entire order for a customer — for example, Vanilla Shake, Large Fries, BigMac — using numeric keys and a button for every menu item. By pressing the button, a second or third order could be worked on while the first transaction was in progress; when the customer was ready to pay, the button would calculate the bill, including sales tax for any jurisdiction in the United States. This made it accurate for McDonald's and convenient for the servers and provided the restaurant owner with a check on the amount that should be in the cash drawers. Up to eight devices were connected to one of two interconnected computers so that printed reports and taxes could be handled from any desired device by putting it into Manager Mode. In addition to the error-correcting memory, accuracy was enhanced by having three copies of all important data with many numbers stored only as multiples of 3. Should one computer fail, the other could handle the entire store.
In 1986, Gene Mosher introduced the first graphical point of sale software featuring a touchscreen interface under the ViewTouch trademark on the 16-bit Atari 520ST color computer. It featured a color touchscreen widget-driven interface that allowed configuration of widgets representing menu items without low level programming; the ViewTouch point of sale software was first demonstrated in public at Fall Comdex, 1986, in Las Vegas Nevada to large crowds visiting the Atari Computer booth. This was the first commercially available POS system with a widget-driven color graphic touch screen interface and was installed in several restaurants in the US and Canada. In 1986, IBM introduced its 468x series of POS equipment based on Digital Research's Concurrent DOS 286 and FlexOS 1.xx, a modular real-time multi-tasking multi-user operating system. A wide range of POS applications have been developed on platforms such as Unix; the availability of local processing power, local data storage and graphical user interface made it possible to develop flexible and functional POS systems.
Cost of such systems has d
A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that sells food. A grocer is a bulk seller of food. Grocery stores offer non-perishable foods that are packaged in bottles and cans. Large grocery stores that stock significant amounts of non-food products, such as clothing and household items, are called supermarkets; some large supermarkets include a pharmacy, customer service and electronics sections. In Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States and convenience shops are sometimes described as grocery businesses, groceries or grocers. Small grocery stores that sell fruits and vegetables are known as greengrocers or produce markets, small grocery stores that predominantly sell prepared food, such as candy and snacks, are known as convenience shops or delicatessens; some grocery stores form the centerpiece of a larger complex that includes other facilities, such as gas stations, which will operate under the store's name. Some groceries specialize in the foods of a certain nationality or culture, such as Chinese, Middle-Eastern, or Polish.
These stores are known as ethnic markets and may serve as gathering places for immigrants. In many cases, the wide range of products carried by larger supermarkets has reduced the need for such specialty stores; the variety and availability of food is no longer restricted by the diversity of locally grown food or the limitations of the local growing season. Beginning as early as the 14th century, a grocer was a dealer in comestible dry goods such as spices, peppers and cocoa, coffee; because these items were bought in bulk, they were named after the french word for wholesaler, or "grossier". This, in turn, is derived from the Medieval Latin term "grossarius", from which the term "gross" is derived; as increasing numbers of staple food-stuffs became available in cans and other less-perishable packaging, the trade expanded its province. Today, grocers deal in a wide range of staple food-stuffs including such perishables as dairy products and produce; such goods are, called groceries. Many rural areas still contain general stores that sell goods ranging from tobacco products to imported napkins.
Traditionally, general stores have offered credit to their customers, a system of payment that works on trust rather than modern credit cards. This allowed farm families to buy staples; the first self-service grocery store, Piggly Wiggly, was opened in 1916 in Memphis, Tennessee, by Clarence Saunders, an inventor and entrepreneur. Prior to this innovation, grocery stores operated "over the counter," with customers asking a grocer to retrieve items from inventory. Saunders' invention allowed a much smaller number of clerks to service the customers, proving successful "partly because of its novelty because neat packages and large advertising appropriations have made retail grocery selling an automatic procedure." The early supermarkets began as chains of grocer's shops. The development of supermarkets and other large grocery stores has meant that smaller grocery stores must create a niche market by selling unique, premium quality, or ethnic foods that are not found in supermarkets. A small grocery store may compete by locating in a mixed commercial-residential area close to, convenient for, its customers.
Organic foods are becoming a more popular niche market for the smaller stores. Grocery stores operate in many different styles ranging from rural family-owned operations, such as IGAs, to boutique chains, such as Whole Foods Market and Trader Joe's, to larger supermarket chain stores. In some places, food cooperatives, or "co-op" markets, owned by their own shoppers, have been popular. However, there has been a trend towards larger stores serving larger geographic areas. Large "all-in-one" hypermarkets such as Walmart and Meijer have forced consolidation of the grocery businesses in some areas, the entry of variety stores such as Dollar General into rural areas has undercut many traditional grocery stores; the global buying power of such efficient companies has put an increased financial burden on traditional local grocery stores as well as the national supermarket chains, many have been caught up in the retail apocalypse of the 2010s. However, many European cities are so dense in population and buildings, large supermarkets, in the American sense, may not replace the neighbourhood grocer's shop.
However, "Metro" shops have been appearing in town and city centres in many countries, leading to the decline of independent smaller shops. Large out-of-town supermarkets and hypermarkets, such as Tesco and Sainsbury's in the United Kingdom, have been weakening trade from smaller shops. Many grocery chains like Spar or Mace are taking over the regular family business model. Larger grocer complexes that include other facilities, such as petrol stations, is common in the United Kingdom, where major chains such as Sainsbury's and Tesco have many locations operating under this format. Traditional shops throughout Europe have been preserved because of their history and their classic appearance, they are sometimes still found in rural areas, although they are disappearing. Grocery stores in Latin America have been growing fast since the early 1980s. A large percentage of food sales and other articles take place in grocery stores today; some examples are the Chilean chains Cencosud, Walmart (Lid
Modern Marvels is an American worldwide television series that aired on the History Channel. The program focuses on how technologies are used in modern society, it is among History's first, longest-running programs, having first aired on History's first day of broadcasting on January 1, 1995, its last episode aired on April 11, 2015. Modern Marvels has produced over 650 one-hour episodes covering various topics involving science, electronics, engineering, industry, mass production and agriculture; each episode discusses the history and production of several related items. To fit the network's format, Modern Marvels focuses a significant portion of the episode on the history of the subject; the show began to premiere new episodes in January 2010, not having done so through all of 2009. In August 2010, History Channel began to air older episodes, edited to fit a 30-minute time slot, under the title Modern Marvels: Essentials. In October 2011, Modern Marvels began airing first-run episodes on History 2 in addition to its main run on History Channel.
Reruns of the series air on the digital broadcast network Quest. Modern Marvels aired a special spin-off called Engineering Disasters; these periodic episodes describe the circumstances of situations in which technology does not work such as building collapses and airplane crashes, resulting in spectacular failures. Including an episode on New Orleans and another on the 1970s, 24 original Engineering Disasters episodes have been on Modern Marvels; the packaging on the box set of Engineering Disasters 4-20 plus New Orleans describes the series as such: "Dark clouds with silver linings, Modern Marvels: Engineering Disasters presents the tragic, yet invaluable, handmaidens of technological progress." Distinct from other History Channel series, the introduction of Modern Marvels features visuals and sounds of a bolt being turned by a ratchet wrench, followed by a computer-generated sequence involving construction workers building and hanging the title. Several narrators were used in the history of the series.
The last and longest-running is Max Raphael, who has narrated other History Channel series, such as Command Decisions. The History Channel has repackaged some episodes that aired in other series and stand-alone specials into episodes of Modern Marvels, such as Ice Road Truckers, which aired in 2000 as part of the series Suicide Missions; these episodes are not narrated by Raphael. Bruce Nash is credited with creating the series. Don Cambou has acted as executive producer on over 350 episodes for Actuality Productions, the production company behind the series. Mega Builders How It's Made How Do They Do It? HowStuffWorks Official website Modern Marvels on IMDb Modern Marvels at TV.com
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st