A supermarket is self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".

The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.

Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers". These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive; the number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.

Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.

Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling". They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventeen King Kullen


Carter-Ruck is a British law firm founded by Peter Carter-Ruck. The firm specialises in libel, international law and commercial disputes; the leading legal directories rank Carter-Ruck in the top tier of media and privacy lawyers in the UK. The firm is described by Legal 500 as being "a force to be reckoned with" and by Chambers and Partners as "acclaimed for its depth of quality expertise" acting in "ground-breaking cases for high-flyers in the fields of business and entertainment". Carter-Ruck's public international law team is described by Chambers as "excellent knowledgeable and a flourishing sanctions practice" and as being "Renowned for its distinct expertise in sanctions against states and targeted asset freezing against individuals, for its involvement in sensitive cases." The firm's banking litigation practice is ranked by both directories. The firm offers some of their services including libel actions and high-value commercial claims on a "no win, no fee" basis; the firm was founded by Peter Carter-Ruck in 1982 after his former partners in Oswald Hickson told him to retire.

Recent or current clients include the State of Qatar, Cubby Broccoli, Tesco plc, Rached Ghannouchi, Sir Elton John, Simon Cowell, Yusuf Islam, Liam Gallagher, Jude Law, Prince Radu of Romania, Frank Bruno and Chelsea Football Club. The firm represents numerous MPs, MEPs and other political figures including a number of national governments and heads of state. Carter-Ruck acted for the late Russian businessman Boris Berezovsky in a number of libel and other actions, including in the House of Lords against Forbes magazine, The Guardian and Russian state-owned broadcaster VGTRK. Carter-Ruck acted for Richard Burgon MP who in February 2019 was awarded damages of £30,000 in the High Court for libel; the paper is expected to pay his legal costs, an injunction was issued preventing the false statements from being published again. The article in question made a false allegation that Burgon had joined a band which delighted in using Nazi symbols; the firm defended a libel action brought against Danish radiologist Henrik Thomsen, who had questioned the safety of a contrast agent used in patients undergoing MRI scans, produced by GE Healthcare.

The firm represented Thomsen on a "no win, no fee" basis. The firm has been involved in several libel cases related to the missing child Madeleine McCann. Complaints were brought on behalf of the child's parents and Gerry McCann, against the Daily Express, the Daily Star and their sister Sunday newspapers over stories that suggested that the parents may have been involved in Madeleine's disappearance; the complaints led to the publication of unprecedented front-page apologies to Kate and Gerry McCann, in addition to a payment of £550,000 in damages, donated to the fund to find Madeleine. Carter-Ruck advised the so-called'Tapas Seven', the friends who were dining with the child's parents when she went missing; the complaints again led to the publication of an apology and a payment of £375,000 in damages, donated to the fundraising group Madeleine's Fund. MailOnline and its columnist Katie Hopkins published a full apology and paid £150,000 in damages to the Mahmood family over two articles published in December 2015.

The article falsely conveyed the impression that Tariq and Zahid Mahmood were extremists linked to Al Qaeda whereas they were in fact two brothers taking their families on a trip to Disneyland. Carter-Ruck acted for Michael Martin, the former Speaker of the British House of Commons, secured the publication of an apology for Speaker Martin by The Times; the firm acted on a'no win, no fee' basis and Lord Martin recovered his legal costs from the newspaper. It was reported that over £21,000 of public funds had been spent on employing Carter-Ruck to defend him against other newspaper reports that questioned whether he acted impartially in the House of Commons, although the House administration confirmed that they had endorsed the use of Carter-Ruck for that purpose; the Mirror issued an apology and agreed to pay compensation and legal costs to Carter-Ruck client former police Commander Roy Ramm, after the newspaper published false and defamatory allegations about him on its website on 8 March 2018.

The article falsely depicted Mr Ramm as having responsibility for the police undercover operation and investigation into the murder of Rachel Nickell on Wimbledon Common in July 1992, alleged that, as a consequence, he was "disgraced". In fact Mr Ramm's role was limited to supplying a police officer for undercover work in the investigation. Shilpa Shetty consulted Carter-Ruck after the Celebrity Big Brother racism controversy. In late 2008, John Duignan, a former Scientologist, published The Complex: An Insider Exposes the Covert World of the Church of Scientology, a book critical of Scientology. Carter-Ruck, citing defamation laws, stopped Amazon from publishing the book in Britain. In 2010, Carter-Ruck represented the Church of Scientology regarding 28 September 2010 broadcast on "Secrets of Scientology" aired by BBC's Panorama, claiming the journalist involved was biased. In 2016, Carter-Ruck were again found to be representing Scientology in the UK when they sent several letters to Louis Theroux and his producers during the making of My Scientology Movie threatening, amongst other things, legal action and an injunction against its release.

The film was released in 2015. Carter Ruck were reported as aiding'scammers' Tullett Brown enabling them to continue trading for 3 years whilst netting £3.2 million from investors. They threatened to sue journalists including Tony Levene if they re

Cuba under Fidel Castro

Under the rule of Fidel Castro, the nation of Cuba underwent significant economic and social changes. In the Cuban Revolution, Castro and an associated group of revolutionaries toppled the ruling government of Fulgencio Batista, forcing Batista out of power on 1 January 1959. Castro, an important figure in Cuban society, went on to serve as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976, he was the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state from 1961 to 2011. In 1976, Castro became President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers, he retained the title until 2008, when the presidency was transferred to his brother, Raúl Castro, but retained his position of Party First Secretary until 2011. Fidel Castro's staunch belief in a communist ideology and his criticisms of other international figures elevated the prominence of his rule, he launched a wide range of social changes. Castro's Cuba became a key element within the Cold War struggle between the United States and its allies versus the Soviet Union and its allies.

Events such as the Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, in which American-connected forces failed to topple Castro's administration, continue to attract attention from historians as well as laypeople worldwide. Castro died of natural causes in late 2016 in Havana, he had dealt with severe health problems for the past decade, remarking publicly about struggles with mobility and other issues. After his death, Castro's ideas continue to be the foundation of Cuban government. On February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba, accepted the position on the condition that the Prime Minister's powers be increased. Between 15 and 26 April Castro visited the U. S. with a delegation of representatives, hired a public relations firm for a charm offensive, presented himself as a "man of the people". U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower avoided meeting Castro. Proceeding to Canada, Brazil and Argentina, Castro attended an economic conference in Buenos Aires, he unsuccessfully proposed a $30 billion U.

S.-funded "Marshall Plan" for the whole region of Latin America. After appointing himself president of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform, on 17 May 1959, Castro signed into law the First Agrarian Reform, limiting landholdings to 993 acres per owner, he additionally forbade further foreign land-ownership. Large land-holdings were redistributed. To Castro, this was an important step that broke the control of the well-off landowning class over Cuba's agriculture. Though popular among the working class, it alienated many middle-class supporters. Castro appointed himself president of the National Tourist Industry as well, he introduced unsuccessful measures to encourage African-American tourists to visit, advertising it as a tropical paradise free of racial discrimination. Changes to state wages were implemented. In March 1959, Castro ordered rents for those who paid less than $100 a month halved, with measures implemented to increase the Cuban people's purchasing powers. Productivity decreased, the country's financial reserves were drained within only two years.

Although he refused to categorize his regime as'socialist' and denied being a'communist', Castro appointed advocates of Marxism-Leninism to senior government and military positions. Most notably, Che Guevara became Governor of the Central Bank and Minister of Industries. Appalled, Air Force commander Pedro Luis Díaz Lanz defected to the U. S. Although President Urrutia denounced the defection, he publicly expressed concern with the rising influence of Marxism. Angered, Castro announced his resignation as prime minister, blaming Urrutia for complicating government with his "fevered anti-Communism". Over 500,000 Castro-supporters surrounded the Presidential Palace demanding Urrutia's resignation, duly received. On July 23, Castro resumed his Premiership and appointed the Marxist Osvaldo Dorticós as the new President. Castro used radio and television to develop a "dialogue with the people", posing questions and making provocative statements, his regime remained popular with workers and students, who constituted the majority of the country's population, while opposition came from the middle class.

Thousands of doctors and other professionals emigrated to Florida in the U. S. causing an economic brain drain. Castro's government cracked down on opponents of his government, arrested hundreds of counter-revolutionaries. Castro's government was characterized by the use of psychological torture, subjecting prisoners to solitary confinement, rough treatment, threatening behavior. Militant anti-Castro groups, funded by exiles, the Central Intelligence Agency, Trujillo's Dominican government, undertook armed attacks and set up guerrilla bases in Cuba's mountainous regions; this led to a six-year Escambray Rebellion that lasted longer and involved more soldiers than the revolution. The government executed those who surrendered. After conservative editors and journalists expressed hostility towards the government, the pro-Castro printers' trade union disrupted editorial staff. In January 1960, the government proclaimed that each newspaper would be obliged to publish a "clarification" written by the printers' union at the end of any articles critical of the government.

By 1960, the Cold War raged between tw