A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Most materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments have special properties that make them useful for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials colors, it must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint, plastic, cosmetics and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants ground into a fine powder. For use in paint, this powder is added to a binder, a neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.
A distinction is made between a pigment, insoluble in its vehicle, a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle. A colorant can act as either a dye depending on the vehicle involved. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt; the resulting pigment is called a lake pigment. The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic and special pigments were marketed worldwide. Estimated at around US$14.86 billion in 2018 and will rise at over 4.9% CAGR from 2019 to 2026. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by North America; the global demand on pigments was US$20.5 billion in 2009. Pigments appear colored because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light. White light is a equal mixture of the entire spectrum of visible light with a wavelength in a range from about 375 or 400 nanometers to about 760 or 780 nm.
When this light encounters a pigment, parts of the spectrum are absorbed by the pigment. Organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds feature conjugated systems of double bonds; some inorganic pigments, such as vermilion or cadmium yellow, absorb light by transferring an electron from the negative ion to the positive ion. The other wavelengths or parts of the spectrum are scattered; the new reflected. Pigments, unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never add new ones; the appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. Sunlight has a high color temperature and a uniform spectrum and is considered a standard for white light, while artificial light sources tend to have strong peaks in parts of their spectra. Viewed under different lights, pigments will appear different colors. Color spaces used to represent colors. Lab color measurements, unless otherwise noted, assume that the measurement was taken under a D65 light source, or "Daylight 6500 K", the color temperature of sunlight.
Other properties of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. Binders and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals have their own reflection and absorption patterns, which can affect the final spectrum. For example, in pigment/binder mixtures, individual rays of light may not encounter pigment molecules and may be reflected unchanged; these stray rays of source light make. Pure pigment allows little white light to escape, producing a saturated color, while a small quantity of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder will appear unsaturated and pale due to incident white light escaping unchanged. Occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia.
Before the Industrial Revolution, the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technologically limited. Most of the pigments in use were pigments of biological origin. Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials, animal waste and mollusks were harvested and traded over long distances; some colors were impossible to obtain, given the range of pigments that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their rarity. Biological pigments were difficult to acquire, the details of their production were kept secret by the manufacturers. Tyrian Purple is a pigment made from the mucus of one of several species of Murex snail. Production of Tyrian Purple for use as a fabric dye began as early as 1200 BCE by the Phoenicians, was continued by the Greeks and Romans until 1453 CE, with the fall of Constantinople; the pigment was expensive and complex to produce, items colored with it became associated with power and wealth. Greek historian Theopompus, writing in the 4th century BCE, reported that "purple for dyes fetched its weight in
Ricardo Cellona known as Tom Olivar born on April 26, 1963 is an actor in the Philippines. He is one of TV series since the 1980s, he appeared in the classic movie Bulaklak Sa City Jail with a star-studded cast: Nora Aunor, Gina Alajar, Celia Rodriguez, Perla Bautista, Gloria Romero, Ricky Davao, among others. He garnered a Best Supporting Actor award from the 1984 Metro Manila Film Festival for this movie, he was cast in several GMA-7 teleseryes and melodrama episodes. One of his memorable appearances was in ABS-CBN's Maalaala Mo Kaya episode Hair Clip, aired on March 2, 2013, starring Maricar Reyes, Belle Mariano and Elizabeth Oropesa, he appeared in more than 70 movies and television shows. Olivar was a Villain Roles in Action Films Liked Gawa na Ang Bala ay Papatay Sa'yo in, Markang Bungo "The Bobby Ortega Story", Alyas Pogi 2, Manong Gang, Hanggang May Buhay, Sala sa Init sala sa Lamig, Ako ang Katarungan The Lt. Napoleon Guevarra story, Iligpit na natin si Bobby Ortega Markang Bungo 2, Batas ko ang Katapat mo!, Ang Titser kong Pogi, Kung Marunong Kang Magdasal Umpisahan mo na!, Minsan ko lang Sasabihin, Kilabot at Kembot, Walang Iwanan Peksman Olivar was another villain Roles in Teleserye appearances in ABS-CBN Sana Bukas pa ang Kahapon FPJ's Ang Probinsyano The Better Half La Luna Sangre and The Promise of Forever Alyas Robin Hood FPJ's Ang Probinsyano Magpahanggang Wakas Pangako Sa'Yo Maalaala Mo Kaya - Hair Clip II Maalaala Mo Kaya - Gong Maalaala Mo Kaya - Belo Walang Hanggan Legacy Maria la del Barrio Spooky Nights Nasaan Ka Elisa?
I Heart You, Pare! Maalaala Mo Kaya - Itak Noah Magkano Ang Iyong Dangal? May Bukas Pa Daisy Siete Marimar Ikaw Lang Ang Mamahalin Agila Jack Em Popoy: The Puliscredibles Layang Bilanggo Bala Bala: Maniwala Ka Tiyanaks Happy Hearts Zsa Zsa Zaturnnah Ze Moveeh Shake, Rattle & Roll 8 Aishite Imasu 1941 Sabel Lastikman Mano Po Mama San Kilabot At Kembot The Life Of Rosa Mila Minsan Ko Lang Sasabihin Mapagbigay Higit Pa Sa Buhay Ko Curacha: Ang Babaeng Walang Pahinga Ang Probinsyano Kung Marunong Kang Magdasal Umpisahan mo na! Pag-ibig Ko Sa Yo'y Totoo SPO4 Santiago: Sharpshooter Kristo iligpit na Natin si Bobby Ortega: Markang Bungo 2 Costales Walang Matigas Na Pulis Sa Matinik Na Misis Lt. Napoleon Guevarra: Ako Ang Katarungan Sala Sa Init, Sala Sa Lamig Hanggang May Buhay Manong Gang Pangako Sa Yo Alyas Pogi 2 Capt. Jaylo: Batas Sa Batas Lumaban ka sagot Kita sa Diyos Sa Diyos Lang Ako Susuko Sa Likod Ng Kasalanan Gawa na ng Bala Ang Papatay sa'yo Anak Ng Cabron Gabi Na Kumander Super Islaw Kapitan Pablo Napakasakit, Kuya Eddie The Moises Padilla Story Ulo Ng Gang-Ho Escort Girls Bulaklak Sa City Jail Tom Olivar on IMDb
Earth Awakens is a science fiction novel by Orson Scott Card and Aaron Johnston, the third book of the First Formic Wars trilogy of novels in the Ender's Game series. It was released on June 10, 2014, it was nominated for the Goodreads Choice Award for science fiction. With an alien invasion in progress in China, humanity is divided on; the Chinese government is determined to go it alone, despite suffering catastrophic losses. Captain Wit O'Toole of the Mobile Operations Police and Mazer Rackham have managed to destroy one of the three alien landers, but because they achieved the first significant human victory of the war without official approval and using a nuclear warhead obtained without authorization, they are in the custody of Chinese General Sima. During the invasion, Mazer Rackham saves Bingwen, a intelligent eight-year-old Chinese boy who now comes up with a clever ploy to get them released: he spreads word over the internet that they were acting under Sima's orders and gives Sima full credit.
Meanwhile, Victor Delgado and Imala Bootstamp drift to the alien mothership in a ship disguised to avoid being destroyed. Victor manages to explore the vessel, they survive a failed drone attack on the alien ship and, after getting away again, confront Lem Jukes, whom they suspect of involvement in the attack. It was launched by Lem's father, Ukko. Lem tried to delay it. Based on what he has learned, Victor devises a plan to capture it, reluctantly accepts Lem's help in carrying it out; the MOPs, including Wit and Mazer, are recruited to become the rest of Victor's boarding party. Despite Victor's objections, Imala volunteers as well; when the Formics detect the intruders, all of their forces on Earth leave to go to their ship's defense. Lem leads a force to hold them off. Aboard the Mothership, Wit has to sacrifice his life, exposing himself to lethal levels of radiation, but Victor's plan succeeds, the ship is captured intact. However, Victor's cousin, backtracks the path of the alien ship and discovers that it was only a scout ship.
The Formic Wars: Silent Strike List of Ender's Game characters List of works by Orson Scott Card Rising Shadow: Earth Awakens Earth Awakens title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database