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Pillars of Hercules

The Pillars of Hercules was the phrase, applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. The northern Pillar, Calpe Mons, is the Rock of Gibraltar. A corresponding North African peak not being predominant, the identity of the southern Pillar, Abila Mons, has been disputed throughout history, with the two most candidates being Monte Hacho in Ceuta and Jebel Musa in Morocco. According to Greek mythology adopted by the Etruscans and Romans, when Hercules had to perform twelve labours, one of them was to fetch the Cattle of Geryon of the far West and bring them to Eurystheus. A lost passage of Pindar quoted by Strabo was the earliest traceable reference in this context: "the pillars which Pindar calls the'gates of Gades' when he asserts that they are the farthermost limits reached by Heracles." Since there has been a one-to-one association between Heracles and Melqart since Herodotus, the "Pillars of Melqart" in the temple near Gades/Gádeira have sometimes been considered to be the true Pillars of Hercules.

Plato placed the fictional island of Atlantis beyond the "Pillars of Hercules." Renaissance tradition says the pillars bore the warning Ne plus ultra, serving as a warning to sailors and navigators to go no further. According to some Roman sources, while on his way to the garden of the Hesperides on the island of Erytheia, Hercules had to cross the mountain, once Atlas. Instead of climbing the great mountain, Hercules used his superhuman strength to smash through it. By doing so, he connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and formed the Strait of Gibraltar. One part of the split mountain is Gibraltar and the other is either Monte Hacho or Jebel Musa; these two mountains taken together have since been known as the Pillars of Hercules, though other natural features have been associated with the name. Diodorus Siculus, held that instead of smashing through an isthmus to create the Straits of Gibraltar, Hercules narrowed an existing strait to prevent monsters from the Atlantic Ocean from entering the Mediterranean Sea.

In some versions, Heracles instead built the two to hold the sky away from the earth, liberating Atlas from his damnation. Beyond Gades, several important Mauretanian colonies were founded by the Phoenicians as the Phoenician merchant navy pushed through the Pillars of Hercules and began constructing a series of bases along the Atlantic coast starting with Lixus in the north Chellah and Mogador. Near the eastern shore of the island of Gades/Gadeira Strabo describes the westernmost temple of Tyrian Heracles, the god with whom Greeks associated the Phoenician and Punic Melqart, by interpretatio graeca. Strabo notes that the two bronze pillars within the temple, each eight cubits high, were proclaimed to be the true Pillars of Hercules by many who had visited the place and had sacrificed to Heracles there, but Strabo believes the account to be fraudulent, in part noting that the inscriptions on those pillars mentioned nothing about Heracles, speaking only of the expenses incurred by the Phoenicians in their making.

The columns of the Melqart temple at Tyre were of religious significance. Syriac scholars were aware of the Pillars through their efforts to translate Greek scientific works into their language as well as into Arabic; the Syriac compendium of knowledge known as Ktaba d'ellat koll'ellan. "The Cause of all Causes", is unusual in asserting that there were three, not two, columns In Inferno XXVI Dante Alighieri mentions Ulysses in the pit of the Fraudulent Counsellors and his voyage past the Pillars of Hercules. Ulysses justifies endangering his sailors by the fact that his goal is to gain knowledge of the unknown. After five months of navigation in the ocean, Ulysses sights the mountain of Purgatory but encounters a whirlwind from it that sinks his ship and all on it for their daring to approach Purgatory while alive, by their strength and wits alone; the Pillars appear as supporters of the coat of arms of Spain, originating in the impresa of Spain's sixteenth century king Charles I, the Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.

It was an idea of the Italian humanist Luigi Marliano. It bears the motto Plus Ultra, Latin for further beyond, implying; this was modified from the phrase Nec plus ultra, Nothing more beyond after the discovery of the Americas, which laid to rest the idea of the Pillars of Hercules as the westernmost extremity of the inhabitable world which had prevailed since Antiquity. The Pillars appear prominently on the engraved title page of Sir Francis Bacon's Instauratio Magna, 1620, an unfinished work of which the second part was his influential Novum Organum; the motto along the base says augebitur scientia. The image was based on the use of the pillars in Habsburg propaganda. On the Spanish coast at Los Barrios are Torres de Hercules which are twin towers that were inspired by the Pillars of Hercules; these towers were the tallest in Andalusia until Cajasol Tower was completed in Seville in 2015. In the southern wall of the National Autonomous University of Mexico's Central Library, the mural Historical Representation of Culture, created by the artist Juan O'Gorman, portrays a depiction of the Pillars of Hercules as an allusion to the colonial past of Mexico and the house of Charles V.

Caves of Hercules Dollar sign

Jay Nolly

Jay Nolly is an American soccer player who last played as a goalkeeper for Chicago Fire in Major League Soccer during their 2012 season. Nolly played college soccer at Indiana University, where he backstopped the Hoosiers to the College Cup in 2003 and 2004 and was named All-Big Ten in his last three seasons. Real Salt Lake drafted Nolly in the second round of the 2005 MLS SuperDraft and he saw limited action with the team in his rookie season. After the 2006 season, he was dealt to D. C. United in a deal that involved Freddy Adu and Nick Rimando, he had trials at Celtic FC of Scotland and Dinamo Bucharest of Romania, but signed with United in February 2007. He was waived by D. C. United in January 2008 to make room for incoming transfers from South America, he signed with the Vancouver Whitecaps on January 23, 2008. On October 12, 2008, he helped the Whitecaps capture their second USL First Division Championship beating the Puerto Rico Islanders 2–1 in Vancouver On December 16, 2008, the Vancouver Whitecaps announced the re-signing of Nolly for the 2009 season.

On December 5, 2011, Chicago Fire announced they acquired Nolly in exchange for their first round selection in the 2013 MLS Supplemental Draft. After the conclusion of the 2012 season, Chicago declined the 2013 option on Nolly's contract and he entered the 2012 MLS Re-Entry Draft. Nolly became a free agent. USL First Division Championship: 2008 NCAA Men's Division I Soccer Championship: 2003 2004 USSF D-2 Pro League Goalkeeper of the Year: 2010 USSF D-2 Pro League Best XI: 2010 Chicago Fire biography Jay Nolly at Major League Soccer

SS Crown Arun

Crown Arun was a 2,372 GRT cargo ship, built by Actien-Gesellschaft „Neptun“ Schiffswerft und Maschinenfabrik, Rostock as Hannah Böge. She declared a war prize. Taken into service by the British Government, Crown Arun was torpedoed and sunk by U-99 on 17 September 1940. Hannah Böge was built for Hamburg, she was yard number 477, was completed in March 1938. Her port of registry was Hamburg. On 26 August 1939, Hannah Böge departed New Brunswick, bound for Germany. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland; as a result, on 3 September, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. That same day, Hannah Böge was intercepted by HMS Somali, becoming the first British war prize taken at sea, her location was 63°20′N 16°35′W. She was carrying a cargo of wood pulp. At the time of her capture, the crew were trying to disguise Hannah Böge although she was still flying the German flag, she was escorted to Orkney Islands, where she arrived on 5 September. After she was declared a prize of war, Hannah Böge was taken into service.

Ownership was assigned to the Ministry of Shipping and she was placed under the management of Christian Salvesen Ltd, of Leith. Her port of registry was changed to London. Crown Arun was a member of a number of convoys. ON 14Convoy ON 14 departed the Methil Roads on 17 February 1940 bound for Norway, it diverted to Kirkwall on 18 February owing to a lack of cover. This was to be supplied by HMS Rodney and HMS Warspite; the convoy arrived in Norway on 22 February. OB 151Convoy OB 151 dispersed at sea on 22 May. Crown Arun was carrying a cargo of coal from Glasgow to Montreal. SHX 71 / HX 71Convoy HX 71 departed Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 5 September and arrived at Liverpool on 20 September. Convoy SHX 71 was to join HX 71 at sea. Crown Arun was part of this convoy. SHX 71 joined with HX 71 by midday on 8 September, although Crown Arun was straggling behind by this time. Crown Arun was carrying a cargo of 2,800 tons of pit props from Gaspé, destined for Hull. At 08:32 German time on 17 September, Crown Arun was torpedoed north of Rockall by U-99 under the command of Otto Kretschmer.

She was finished off by gunfire. The 25 crew were landed at Liverpool; the ship was a 2,372 GRT cargo ship. She was 292 feet long, with a beam of a depth of 17 feet 6 inches, she was powered by a 4-cylinder compound steam engine which had two cylinders of 14​9⁄16 inches and two cylinders of 31 inches diameter by 31 inches stroke, giving her a speed of 10 knots. Official Numbers were a forerunner to IMO Numbers. Hannah Böge used the Code Letters DJVX. Crown Arun had the UK Official Number 167367 and used the Code Letters GBJK. Empire ship