Low-alcohol beer is beer with little or no alcohol content and aims to reproduce the taste of beer without the inebriating effects of standard alcoholic brews. Most low-alcohol beers are lagers. Low-alcohol beer is known as light beer, non-alcoholic beer, small beer, small ale, or near-beer. In the United States, beverages containing less than 0.5% alcohol by volume were called non-alcoholic, according to the now-defunct Volstead Act. Because of its low alcohol content, non-alcoholic beer may be sold to minors in many American states. In the United Kingdom, the following definitions apply by law: No alcohol or alcohol-free: not more than 0.05% ABV Dealcoholized: over 0.05% but less than 0.5% ABV Low-alcohol: not more than 1.2% ABVIn some parts of the European Union, beer must contain no more than 0.5% ABV if it is labelled "alcohol-free". In Australia, the term "light beer" refers to any beer with less than 3.5% alcohol. Spain is the main producer of low-alcohol beer in the European Union. Low-alcoholic brews such as small beer date back at least to Medieval Europe, where they served as a less risky alternative to water and were less expensive than the full strength brews used at festivals.
More the temperance movements and the need to avoid alcohol while driving, operating machinery, etc. led to the development of non-intoxicating beers. In the United States, non-alcoholic brews were promoted during Prohibition, according to John Naleszkiewicz. In 1917, President Wilson proposed limiting the alcohol content of malt beverages to 2.75% to try to appease avid prohibitionists. In 1919, Congress approved the Volstead Act, which limited the alcohol content of all beverages to 0.5%. These low alcohol beverages became known as tonics, many breweries began brewing them in order to stay in business during Prohibition. Since removing the alcohol from the beer requires just one simple extra step, many breweries saw it as an easy change. In 1933, when Prohibition was repealed, breweries removed this extra step. By the 1980s and 1990s, growing concerns about alcoholism led to the growing popularity of "light" beers. In the 2010s, breweries have focused on marketing low-alcohol beers to counter the popularity of homebrew.
Declining consumption has led to the introduction of mass-market non-alcoholic beverages, dubbed as "near beer". At the start of the 21st century, alcohol-free beer has seen a rise in popularity in the Middle East. One reason for this is that Islamic scholars issued fatawa which permitted the consumption of beer as long as large quantities could be consumed without getting drunk. Positive features of non-alcoholic brews include the ability to drive after consuming several drinks, the reduction in alcohol-related illness, less severe hangover symptoms; some common complaints about non-alcoholic brews include a loss of flavor, addition of one step in the brewing process, sugary taste, a shorter shelf life. There are legal implications; some state governments, e.g. Pennsylvania, prohibit the sale of non-alcoholic brews to persons under the age of 21. A study conducted by the department of psychology at Indiana University said, "Because non-alcoholic beer provides sensory cues that simulate alcoholic beer, this beverage may be more effective than other placebos in contributing to a credible manipulation of expectancies to receive alcohol", making people feel "drunk" when physically they are not.
Light beer is beer with reduced alcohol content and/or calories compared to regular beer. The spelling "lite beer" is commonly used. Light beers may be chosen by drinkers who wish to manage their alcohol consumption or their calorie intake. However, these beers are sometimes criticized for being less flavorful than full-strength beers, being "watered down", thus advertising campaigns for light beers advertise their retention of flavor. In Australia, regular beers have 5% ABV. In Canada, a reduced-alcohol beer contains 2.6%–4.0% ABV, an “extra-light” beer contains less than 2.5%. In the United States, most reduced-alcohol beers, including Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, have 4.2% ABV, 16% less than beer with 5% ABV. In Sweden, low alcohol beer is either 2.2%, 2.8% or 3.5%, can be purchased in an ordinary supermarket whereas normal strength beers of above 3.5% must be purchased at Systembolaget. Beer containing 2.8-3.5% ABV may be sold in any convenience store to people over 18 years of age, whereas stronger beer may only be sold in state-run liquor stores to people older than 20.
In addition, businesses selling food for on-premises consumption do not need an alcohol license to serve 3.5% beer. All major Swedish brewers, several international ones, in addition to their full-strength beer, make 3.5% folköl versions as well. Beer below or equaling 2.25% ABV is not subject to age restrictions. Low-point beer, known in the United States as "three-two beer" or "3 point 2 brew", is beer that contains 3.2% alcohol by weight. The term "low-point beer" is unique to the United States, where some states limit the sale of beer, but beers of this type are available in countries that tax or otherwise regulate beer according to its alcohol content. In the United States, 3.2 beer was the highest alcohol content beer allowed to be produced for nine months in 1933. As part of his New Deal, President Franklin D. Roosev
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer, or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies; the basic ingredients of beer are a fermentable starch source such as malted barley. Most beer is flavoured with hops. Less used starch sources include millet and cassava. Secondary sources, such as maize, rice, or sugar, may be used, sometimes to reduce cost, or to add a feature, such as adding wheat to aid in retaining the foamy head of the beer; the proportion of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.
Steps in the brewing process include malting, mashing, boiling, conditioning and packaging. There are three main fermentation methods, warm and spontaneous. Fermentation may take place in an closed fermenting vessel. There are several additional brewing methods, such as barrel aging, double dropping, Yorkshire Square. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, archaeological evidence suggests emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Descriptions of various beer recipes can be found in cuneiform from ancient Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia the brewer's craft was the only profession which derived social sanction and divine protection from female deities/goddesses, specifically: Ninkasi, who covered the production of beer, used in a metonymic way to refer to beer, Siduri, who covered the enjoyment of beer. In pre-industrial times, in developing countries, women are the main brewers; as any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like beverages were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal.
Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran. This discovery reveals one of the earliest known uses of fermentation and is the earliest evidence of brewing to date. In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl. A 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honouring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread; the invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. The earliest chemically confirmed barley beer to date was discovered at Godin Tepe in the central Zagros Mountains of Iran, where fragments of a jug, at least 5,000 years old was found to be coated with beerstone, a by-product of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 5,000 years ago, was brewed on a domestic scale.
Ale produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century; the development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. More than 133 billion litres are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion in 2006. The basic ingredients of beer are water. A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary saccharide, such as maize, rice, or sugar being termed an adjunct when used as a lower-cost substitute for malted barley.
Less used starch sources include millet and cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, agave in Mexico, among others. The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. WaterBeer is composed of water. Regions have water with different mineral components. For example, Dublin has hard water well suited to making stout, such as Guinness; the waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation. Starch source The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer; the most common starch source used in bee
Velkopopovický Kozel is a Czech lager produced since 1874. The brewery was founded by František Ringhoffer in a town 25 km southeast of Prague, their symbol is a goat. The company was bought by SABMiller in 2002 and sold to Asahi Breweries in 2016; the first historical mention of the brewery dates back to the 14th century. The brewery in Velke Popovice, as we know it today, has its origins in the 19th century. After years of disagreements and the gradual decline of the brewery, it was bought by a rich industrial tycoon, František Ringhoffer, the Mayor of Smíchov and one of the most successful entrepreneurs in Czech history; the brewery was built in 1875. The brewery, thanks to its owner, introduced new technologies. At the turn of the 20th century the brewery passed through its second major reconstruction and its production capacity was increased to 90,000 hectoliters per year from the original 18,000 in the beginning; the First World War brewery survived, operating without much innovation. It grew again in the period between the wars.
Kozel became famous for its dark 14° beer "Bock". However the Second World War brought restrictions again in the production of beer for all breweries; the protectorate brewery had problems in requiring the raw materials needed for the production of beer. After the war, the brewery was faced a lack of workers. In 1951, the management company solved this problem by employing the first-ever women in the brewery; the ratio of women and men remained the same until 1962 and bottling was in female hands. In 1965 Kozel delivered the world's first beer in tank trucks and gave rise to the tradition of the tank brasseries. After thirty years of socialism the brewery achieved independence in 1991 and in 1992 became a public limited company. In 2002, Kozel merged with the brewery Radegast and the Pilsner Urquell brewery conglomerate SABMiller. In 2016 it was one of the brands sold by SABMiller to Asahi Breweries as a result of the acquisition of the former by ABInBev. In 2012, Kozel canned beer was in the context of viral advertising in Russia launched into space, beer dropped by parachute and everything was transmitted by online camera.
The name Kozel and its emblem have their origins in the period after the First World War. At that time there was a lot of competition in brewing. Brewery founder Emanuel Ringhoffer realized, he started to brew in Velke Popovice a strong, dark beer according to local tradition, known locally as Kozel. At that time a French painter passed through Velke Popovice, he was moved by the hospitality of the local people, out of gratitude decided to create for them an emblem for the brewery. The painter was inspired by the figure of the goat, put it in the form of an emblem. Since each beer from Velke Popovice was known as Kozel and the animal mascot has decorated the label for a hundred years. In the 1930s the owners tried to firm and consolidate the position of the brewery and to give it a more attractive image, so they brought a live goat to the brewery as an attraction; the Kozel brewery still has other attractions for visitors today. From the 1970s, after a few generations all the goats have been named after the original caregiver Olda and this name has been passed down from goat to goat for over 40 years.
The brewery in Velké Popovice can be visited throughout the year, it is only needed to check opening time or book a tour Brewery tours offer you unprecedented access to all important areas of the brewery. From enjoying a beer in the old brewhouse to exploring the cellars, you will end the day with a much richer knowledge of both Czech history and how a traditional beer is made; the company brews these different types of beer: Kozel Světlý – a 10° pale draught beer, with 4% ABV. Kozel 11 – an 11° pale lager, with 4.6% ABV. It has been on the market since 2005. Kozel Premium – a typical 12° pale lager, with 4.8% ABV. Kozel Černý – a dark dunkel with 3.8% ABV, made of 4 different types of malts including a dark caramelised malt. This beer has an unusual dark foam. Kozel Řezaný – a mixture of light and dark lagers, with 4.6% ABV. Kozel Florián – a semi-dark special edition beer, with 4.8% ABVKozel has won many different awards including the Australian Beer Award, the Czech Beer of the Year, the World Beer Cup and more.
Kozel Premium won awards at the World Beer Championships in Chicago in 1995, 1996 and 1997. Kozel became the best-selling Czech beer brand in the world, it is now sold in about thirty countries worldwide. Licensed production continued into the east. Kozel progressed over Ulyanovsk to Vladivostok. In Hungary Kozel settled in the Ukraine in Donetsk. Kozel has entered new markets in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Israel and Kazakhstan. Efes Moldova, Efes Georgia and Efes Turkey have started Kozel Production. Czech premium beer Kozel Dark is showing steep growth in the Korean beer market. Kozel Dark's sales in the first to three months of this year increased about 271% compared to the same period last year; the main reason for Kozel Dark's increase in sales volume is diversification of consumer tastes. In addition, Kozel Dark's stores have increased more than 30 times in the last two years; the average monthly sales of stores in Itaewon and Gangnam, which are Seoul's major commercial areas, have averaged more than 1.6 million pieces per month.
Awards which has Kozel received in Czech and International beer competitions.2012 1st place Velkopopovický Kozel 11
Warsteiner beer is brewed in the Arnsberg Forest Nature Park outside of Warstein, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Warsteiner has been owned by the Cramer family since 1753. Warsteiner is Germany's largest owned brewery. Warsteiner ranks fifth among Germany's best selling breweries; the history of the brewing family begins in 1753, when farmer Antonius Cramer had to pay a tax of 1 thaler, 19 guilders on beer he brewed and sold himself. His son Johannes Vitus followed in his footsteps and brought the selling of home-brewed beer into his house, in the heart of Warstein, his company benefited from its central location. However, in 1802 a devastating fire left Warstein in ruins and ashes - the business of the Cramers fell victim to the flames. At the same time, they rebuilt their house as a guest accommodation and became through the establishment of the St. Pancras Church the centre of the town; the headquarters of the Warsteiner Brewery, the Domschänke, still stands today in the historic core of Warstein.
Breweries in the Rhine valley were bombed during World War II, the Warstein brewery sustained some damage. The newly remodelled brewery can package 5,000 bottles per hour. To appeal to German young adults, Warsteiner began a beer-mix drink campaign that includes a Premium Cola, which contains caffeine, as well as Premium Lemon and Premium Orange drinks. Furthermore, Warsteiner has created a long-neck beer bottle and a "limited club edition" clear-glass bottle to target club-goers. All beers are brewed in strict accordance with the Germany Purity Law of 1516. Premium Verum, a pilsener style beer, is Warsteiner's most popular beer, is exported to over 60 countries; the ingredients are two-row malted summer barley and all German hops. The alcohol content is 4.8%. Premium Dunkel is Warsteiner's second most popular beer. Dunkel is a traditional style, dark beer with an alcohol content of 4.8%. Warsteiner's only non-alcoholic beer, brewed like the Premium Verum and having the alcohol extracted; the beer contains 80 calories per 12 oz. bottle.
Royal Bavarian is a golden hefeweizen style beer. It is brewed with natural yeast and Bavarian ingredients, has an alcohol content of 5.5%. Warsteiner has been exporting its beers internationally since the 1980s. Furthermore, Warsteiner founded and acquired shares in other international breweries like Isenbeck brewery in Argentina and breweries in Africa. Warsteiner in the United States is friendly to homebrewers in that its bottles are pry-offs, the labels come off with ease after a short soak, rendering the bottles re-usable. All North American Warsteiner products are brewed, bottled and canned at the brewery in Warstein, Germany. Warsteiner makes a seasonal beer entitled "Oktoberfest" for the Bavarian celebrations each year. Warsteiner Owner Albert Cramer has been a staunch advocate of competitive ballooning and Warsteiner is the sponsor of the German Hot Air Balloon National Team. Cramer and Warsteiner received the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Air Sports Federation Award in 2001 and continue to be involved in Air Sports sponsorships and activities.
Warsteiner participated in the popular Newton Beerfest in October 2006, in which the company showcased its lemon-flavored Hefeweizen beer, as well as other popular beers. In the past, the company has sponsored Austrian racing driver Harald Ertl; the Warsteiner slogan, found on each bottle reads, "Eine Königin unter den Bieren" which translates into English as "A Queen amongst Beers", referring to the queen's crown on each beer bottle. Warsteiner served on all flights. List of brewing companies in Germany Warsteiner International Warsteiner USA
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant; the commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC. Brewing was a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe and was brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption but to use as payment.
This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising, Bavaria, it can trace its history back to 1040 AD. The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD; the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. Early breweries were always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors used earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next; this layout is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design. Early breweries used large copper vats in the brewhouse, fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers; such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process.
Today all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently; the steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. It gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating the mash, to prevent scorching, a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. All breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps; the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, always at the same temperature.
Yeast is sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, store it in underground cellars, or caves, to protect it from summer's heat; the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability; some breweries in Belgium, still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look.
Stainless steel has many favourable characteristics that make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavour in beer, it reacts with few chemicals, which means any cleaning solution can be used on it and it is sturdy. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning. Heating in the brewhouse is achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Cooling in other areas of the brewery is done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is common. Today, modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed to correct for variations. Samples are pulled at every step and tested for content, unwanted microbial infections
Gambrinus is a beer brewed in the Czech Republic at the Pilsner Urquell Brewery. It is one of the most popular beers in the Czech Republic; the beer is named after Gambrinus, a legendary king of Flanders known for his mythical brewing abilities. The company was founded in 1869; the Gambrinus brews these different types of beer, which are supplied by Plzeňský Prazdroj: Gambrinus Original 10 – the most popular brew of Gambrinus in the Czech Republic, 4,3% ABV. Gambrinus Plná 12 – a typical 12° pale lager, 5% ABV. Gambrinus Unpasteurized 10/12 – an unpasteurized pale lager with 4.2/5.2% ABV. Gambrinus Unfiltered Lager – an unfiltered, unpasteurized yeast pale lager with 4.8% ABV. Gambrinus Polotmavá 12 – a semi-dark 12° lager with 5.2% ABV. Gambrinus Dry – a special brew with lowered amounts of sugar with 4.0% ABV. Gambrinus Flavoured – a canned flavored pale beer, Lime&Elderberry/Lemon/Grapefruit; this brand is used by many other breweries in Germany and Denmark and has been used in the United States.
In Mendig the Gambrinusfest beer festival is held every two years. Gambrinus Brewery in Weiden in der Oberpfalz, Germany Gambrinus Brewery in Oberhaid, Germany Gambrinus Brewery in Nagold, Germany Gambrinus Brewery in Naila, Germany Mohrenbrauerei August Huber Brewery has the black beer Gambrinus, Austria Hancock Brewery has the beer Old Gambrinus, Denmark Brauerei Ottakringer has the beer Gambrinus, Austria Grivita Brewery has the beer Gambrinus, Romania August Wagner Breweries in Columbus, United States Beer in the Czech Republic Gambrinus, patron saint of beer. Gambrinus Official Site
Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative center of the South Moravian Region in which it forms a separate district; the city has about 400,000 inhabitants. Brno is the seat of judicial authority of the Czech Republic – it is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office; the city is a significant administrative centre. It is the seat of a number of state authorities, including the Ombudsman, the Office for the Protection of Competition. Brno is an important centre of higher education, with 33 faculties belonging to 13 institutes of higher learning and about 89,000 students. Brno Exhibition Centre ranks among the largest exhibition centres in Europe; the complex opened in 1928 and established the tradition of large exhibitions and trade fairs held in Brno. Brno hosts motorbike and other races on the Masaryk Circuit, a tradition established in 1930, in which the Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is one of the most prestigious races.
Another cultural tradition is an international fireworks competition, Ignis Brunensis, that attracts tens of thousands of daily visitors. The most visited sights of the city include the Špilberk castle and fortress and the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul on Petrov hill, two medieval buildings that dominate the cityscape and are depicted as its traditional symbols; the other large preserved castle near the city is Veveří Castle by Brno Reservoir. This castle is the site of a number of legends. Another architectural monument of Brno is the functionalist Villa Tugendhat, included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. One of the natural sights nearby is the Moravian Karst; the city is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and has been designated as a "City of Music" in 2017. The etymology of the name Brno is disputed, it might be derived from the Old Czech brnie'muddy, swampy.' Alternative derivations are from a Slavic verb brniti or a Celtic language spoken in the area before it was overrun by Germanic peoples and Slavic peoples.
Throughout its history, Brno's locals referred to the town in other languages, including Brünn in German, ברין in Yiddish and Bruna in Latin. The city was referred to as Brunn in English, but this usage is not common today; the Asteroid 2889 Brno was named after the city, as well as the Bren light machine gun, one of the most famous weapons of World War II. The Brno basin has been inhabited since prehistoric times, but the town's direct predecessor was a fortified settlement of the Great Moravia Empire known as Staré Zámky, inhabited from the Neolithic Age to the early 11th century. In the early 11th century Brno was established as a castle of a non-ruling prince from the House of Přemyslid, Brno became one of the centres of Moravia along with Olomouc and Znojmo. Brno was first mentioned in Cosmas' Chronica Boëmorum dated to year 1091, when Bohemian king Vratislav II besieged his brother Conrad at Brno castle. In the mid 11th century, Moravia was divided into three separate territories. Seats of these rulers and thus "capitals" of these territories were castles and towns of Brno and Znojmo.
In the late 12th century, Moravia began forming the Margraviate of Moravia. Since until the mid of the 17th century, it was not clear which town should be the capital of Moravia. Political power was therefore "evenly" divided between Brno and Olomouc, but Znojmo played an important role; the Moravian Diet, the Moravian Land Tables, the Moravian Land Court were all seated in both cities at once. However, Brno was the official seat of the Moravian Margraves, its geographical position closer to Vienna became important. Otherwise, until 1642 Olomouc was larger than Brno by population, it was the seat of the only Roman Catholic diocese in Moravia. In 1243 Brno was granted the large and small city privileges by the King, thus it was recognized as a royal city. In 1324 Queen Elisabeth Richeza of Poland founded the current Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady, now her final resting place. In the 14th century, Brno became one of the centres for the Moravian regional assemblies, whose meetings alternated between Brno and Olomouc.
These assemblies made political and financial decisions. Brno and Olomouc were the seats of the Land Court and the Land Tables, thus they were the two most important cities in Moravia. From the mid 14th century to the early 15th century the Špilberk Castle had served as the permanent seat of the Margraves of Moravia. In the 15th century Brno was besieged in 1428 and again in 1430 by the Hussites during the Hussite Wars. Both attempts to conquer the city failed. In 1641, in the midst of the Thirty Years' War, the Holy Roman Emperor and Margrave of Moravia Ferdinand III commanded permanent relocation of the diet and the land