Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn, known as Pim Fortuyn, was a Dutch politician, academic and businessman who formed his own party, Pim Fortuyn List in 2002. Fortuyn prompted controversy in the Netherlands with his views on multiculturalism and Islam in the Netherlands, he called Islam "a backward culture", was quoted as saying that if it were possible, he would close the borders for Muslim immigrants. Fortuyn supported tougher measures against crime and opposed state bureaucracy, wanting to reduce Dutch financial contribution to the European Union, he was labelled a far-right populist by his opponents and in the media, but he fiercely rejected this label. Fortuyn was homosexual and was a supporter of gay rights. Fortuyn explicitly distanced himself from "far-right" politicians such as the Belgian Filip Dewinter, the Austrian Jörg Haider, or Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Pen whenever compared to them. While he compared his own politics to centre-right politicians such as Silvio Berlusconi of Italy and Edmund Stoiber of Germany, he admired former Dutch Prime Minister Joop den Uyl, a social democrat, Democratic U.
S. president John F. Kennedy. Fortuyn criticised the polder model and the policies of the outgoing government of Wim Kok and described himself and LPF's ideology as pragmatic and not populistic. In March 2002, his newly created LPF became the largest party in Fortuyn's hometown Rotterdam during the Dutch municipal elections held that year. Fortuyn was assassinated during the 2002 Dutch national election campaign by Volkert van der Graaf, a left-wing environmentalist and animal rights activist. In court at his trial, van der Graaf said he murdered Fortuyn to stop him from exploiting Muslims as "scapegoats" and targeting "the weak members of society" in seeking political power; the LPF went into decline soon after. Fortuyn was born on 19 February 1948 in Driehuis, as the third child to a middle class Catholic family, his father worked as his mother was a housewife. In 1967 he began to study sociology at the University of Amsterdam but transferred after a few months to the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
In 1971 he ended his study with the Academic degree Doctorandus. In 1981 he received a doctorate in sociology at the University of Groningen as a Doctor of Philosophy. Fortuyn worked as a lecturer at the Nyenrode Business Universiteit and as an associate professor at the University of Groningen, where he taught Marxist sociology, he was a Marxist at the time. He joined the Labour Party. In 1989 Fortuyn became director of a government organisation administering student transport cards. In 1990 he moved to Rotterdam. From 1991 to 1995, he was an extraordinary professor at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, appointed to the Albeda-chair in "employment conditions in public service" and ran an education consultancy business; when his contract ended, he made a career of public speaking, writing books and press columns, worked as a weekly columnist for Elsevier. He became involved in politics and a more familiar public figure. Fortuyn was gay, said in a 2002 interview that he was Catholic. In 1992 Fortuyn wrote "Aan het volk van Nederland", declaring he was the successor to the charismatic but controversial 18th-century Dutch politician Joan Derk van der Capellen tot den Pol.
A one-time communist and former member of the social-democratic Labour Party, Fortuyn was elected "lijsttrekker" of the newly formed Livable Netherlands party by a large majority on 26 November 2001, prior to the Dutch general election of 2002. Although Fortuyn was sympathetic to Marxism and social democratic causes, his political beliefs began to shift to the right after witnessing what he felt were failed policies on multiculturalism and crime in Rotterdam, as well as the fact politics and the media were dominated by what he saw as a "left-wing church."On 9 February 2002, he was interviewed by the Volkskrant, a Dutch newspaper. His statements were considered so controversial that the party dismissed him as lijsttrekker the next day. Fortuyn had said that he favoured putting an end to Muslim immigration, if possible and wanted to abolish the "peculiar article" of the Dutch constitution forbidding discrimination. Having been rejected by Livable Netherlands, Fortuyn founded his own party Pim Fortuyn List on 11 February 2002.
Many Livable Netherlands supporters and members transferred their support to the new party. Heading the list of the Livable Rotterdam party, considered to be the local counterpart of the LPF, he achieved a major victory in the Rotterdam municipal council elections in early March 2002; the new party won about 36 % of the seats. For the first time since the Second World War, the Labour Party was out of power in Rotterdam. Fortuyn's victory made him the subject of hundreds of interviews during the next three months, he made many statements about his political ideology. In March he released his book The Mess of Eight Purple Years, which criticised the current political system in the Netherlands and was used as his political agenda for the upcoming general election. Purple is the colour to indicate a coalition government consisting of left parties and conservative-liberal parties; the Netherlands had been governed by such a coalition for eight years at that time. On 14 March
Group Captain Robert Gordon Yaxley, was a Royal Air Force pilot and commander during the Second World War. Yaxley was born in Bath, the son of Robert and Agnes Elizabeth Yaxley. After attending the Royal Air Force College Cranwell, he commissioned into the Royal Air Force on 4 September 1934, with seniority of 28 July 1934. Yaxley served with the No. 2 Armoured Car Company RAF in the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine, was awarded the Military Cross on 6 November 1936. He had been promoted to the rank of flying officer on 28 January 1936. At the beginning of the Second World War, Yaxley was serving with No. 252 Squadron RAF and by December 1940 he was the unit's Commanding Officer. On 9 September 1941 he was promoted to wing commander, took command of No. 272 Squadron RAF, a unit equipped with Bristol Beaufighters. On 17 October 1941 Yaxley was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his command of raiding detachment of fighter aircraft; the citation for the award read: This officer commanded a detachment of fighter aircraft which carried out a series of sorties with the object of assisting in the safe passage of our convoys in the Mediterranean.
Attacks were made on certain aerodromes and seaplane bases which resulted in a loss to the enemy of at least 49 aircraft and a further 42 damaged. The successes achieved undoubtedly contributed to the fact that the convoys were able to proceed without loss; the courageous leadership and determination of this officer is worthy of the highest praise, throughout he set an example which proved an inspiration to his fellow pilots. This was followed by the award of the Distinguished Service Order on 12 December 1941 for his leadership in the Western Desert Campaign; the decoration was the first awarded during the campaign in Libya, was announced with the following citation: Since the operations in the Western Desert commenced this officer has led his squadron with conspicuous success. Enemy airdromes far west of the battle area as Benghazi, have been attacked daily and other serious damage has been inflicted on the enemy. On the opening day of the operations a number of Junkers 52 aircraft carrying troops were encountered and seven of them were shot down.
In addition to a daily toll of enemy aircraft destroyed, heavy casualties have been inflicted on ground crews, while lines of communication have been harassed and petrol tankers set on fire. Altogether, within a space of six days operations, no fewer than 46 of the enemy's aircraft were destroyed. Much of the brilliant success achieved can be attributed to the courageous leadership and determination displayed by Wing Commander Yaxley. Throughout he has set a magnificent example. On 8 July 1942 became Commanding Officer of No. 117 Squadron RAF and under his leadership the squadron began to play a big part in the advance from El Alamein. On 3 June 1943, Yaxley was killed while piloting a Lockheed Hudson over the Bay of Biscay en route to North Africa, his plane, carrying several passengers including Osgood Hanbury, was shot down by a German Junkers Ju 88 C flown by Lieutenant Hans Olbrecht
The Farmers' Market Nutrition Program is a federal assistance program in the United States associated with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women and Children that provides fresh, locally grown fruits and vegetables and nutrition education to WIC participants. Women and children that have been certified to receive WIC program benefits or who are on a waiting list for WIC certification are eligible to participate in the FMNP; the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program is a related program that targets low-income seniors defined as individuals who are at least 60 years old and who have household incomes of not more than 185 percent of the federal poverty level. Eligible recipients in both programs receive coupons in addition to their regular benefits which can be used to buy eligible foods from farmers, farmers' markets or roadside fruit and vegetable stands that have been approved by the state agency to accept coupons; as such, both programs have been noted for increasing the accessibility of fresh fruits and vegetables among low-income populations.
Together, the FMNP and SFMNP inject an estimated $40 million into farmers' markets annually, have been instrumental in subsidizing the creation and operation of numerous new farmers' markets in underserved communities in New York City. National FMNP funding, has remained stagnant for several years, it is at $20 million per year, with no signs that this amount is to increase in the near future. A nascent body of academic literature has focused on various aspects of the programs including health and nutrition outcomes. Low-income consumers face inadequate food environments in which the accessibility of healthy foods including fresh fruits and vegetables is limited. Few food retail outlets combined with the high cost of healthy food options contribute to poor food selections for many low-income consumers; as such, convenience stores, which stock processed, energy-dense foods, along with fast food restaurants are the main sources of nutrition for residents of many low-income communities. Low income is associated with lower than average intakes of both fruits and vegetables.
Fewer than one in five WIC children consume the recommended quantity of vegetables each day, while fewer than half consume the recommended quantity of fruits. The elderly suffer from insufficient fruit and vegetable intake. Negative health outcomes among low-income consumers including rising obesity rates have been linked to unequal access to fresh and healthy food; the FMNP and SFMNP represent attempts at increasing the accessibility and consumption of healthy, fresh foods among low-income populations through a comprehensive approach including the distribution of coupons to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables, nutrition education for program participants. The programs are designed to create incentives for participants to seek out fresh produce in venues that highlight its appeal; the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Act of 1992 that established the FMNP was introduced to the House of Representatives on November 5, 1991, by Democratic Representative Dale Kildee, was co-sponsored by Democratic Representative William D.
Ford and Republican Representative William F. Goodling; the purpose of the act was to authorize grants for state programs designed to: provide nutritious unprepared foods from farmers' markets to women and children who are nutritionally at risk. The bill passed in the House on June 22, 1992, in the Senate on June 23, 1992, it became Public Law No. 102-314 on July 2, 1992. The act amended the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 to make the special supplemental food farmers' market program permanent and open to all states. Three nondiscretionary provisions were mandated in the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 regarding the FMNP including the option to authorize roadside stands, a reduction in the required amount of state matching funds, an increase in the maximum Federal benefit level; these changes were intended to increase state agency flexibility in managing the FMNP Program. The first two provisions became effective on October 1, 2004, while the increased maximum Federal FMNP benefit level was effective as of June 30, 2004.
The program was reauthorized through 2015 by Congress in the passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, signed by President Barack Obama on December 13, 2010 and became Public Law 111-296. Most FMNP is funded at $22.3 million for Fiscal Year 2018. In 2001, the United States Department of Agriculture began the Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program as a pilot program to improve the diets of low-income seniors; the SFMNP has three purposes: to provide fresh, nutritious and vegetables from farmers' markets, roadside stands and community supported agriculture. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 known as the 2002 Farm Bill, established the use of $5 million for fiscal year 2002, $15 million for each of fiscal years 2003 through 2007, of the funds available to the Commodity Credit Corporation to carry out and expand the senior farmers' market nutrition program; the Food and Energy Act of 2008, known as the 2008 F
The B-52s are an American new wave band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1976. The original line-up consisted of Fred Schneider, Kate Pierson, Cindy Wilson, Ricky Wilson, Keith Strickland. Ricky Wilson died from AIDS-related illness in 1985, Strickland switched from drums to lead guitar; the band added touring members for albums and live performances. The group evoked a "thrift shop aesthetic", in the words of Bernard Gendron, by drawing from 1950s and 1960s pop sources, trash culture, rock and roll. Schneider and Wilson sometimes use call-and-response-style vocals, their guitar- and keyboard-driven instrumentation composes their trademark sound, set apart from their contemporaries by the unusual guitar tunings used by Ricky Wilson on their earlier albums; the band has had many hits, including "Rock Lobster", "Planet Claire", "Private Idaho", "Whammy Kiss", "Party Out of Bounds", "Wig", "Love Shack" and "Roam". The B-52's were formed in 1976 when vocalist Cindy Wilson, guitarist Ricky Wilson and vocalist Kate Pierson and percussionist Keith Strickland, cowbell player and lead vocalist Fred Schneider held an impromptu jam session after sharing a flaming volcano drink at a Chinese restaurant in Athens, Georgia.
When they first jammed, Strickland played Ricky Wilson played congas. They played their first concert in 1977 at a Valentine's Day party for their friends; the name B-52's comes from a particular beehive hairdo resembling the nose cone of the aircraft, which Pierson and Cindy Wilson wore in performances throughout the band's first decade. Other names the band considered were the "Tina-Trons" and "Fellini's Children". Strickland suggested the name after a dream he had had one night, of a band performing in a hotel lounge. In the dream he heard someone whisper in his ear that the name of the band was "the B-52s"; the band's quirky take on the new wave sound of their era was a combination of dance and surf music set apart from their contemporaries by the unusual guitar tunings used by Ricky Wilson and thrift-store chic. Their first single, "Rock Lobster", recorded for DB Records in 1978, was an underground success, selling over 2,000 copies in total, that led to the B-52's performing at CBGB and Max's Kansas City in New York City.
Both this version of "Rock Lobster" and its B-side "52 Girls" are different recordings from those on their first album, the early version of "52 Girls" is in a different key. The re-recorded version of "Rock Lobster" was released as a single. In the UK and Germany it was backed with an instrumental version of "Running Around", a non-album track; the buzz created by the record in the UK meant their first show in London at the Electric Ballroom was packed, attended by UK pop stars including Sandie Shaw, Green Gartside from Scritti Politti, Joe Jackson. In Canada, released on the Warner Bros. label, the single went from cult hit to reach the No. 1 position in the RPM-compiled national chart on May 24, 1980. In 1979, the B-52's signed contracts as they flew over to Compass Point Studios in Nassau, Bahamas to record their debut studio album, with Island founder Chris Blackwell producing; the band were surprised by Blackwell's recording methods. Released on July 6, 1979, The B-52's contained re-recorded versions of "Rock Lobster" and "52 Girls", six originals recorded for the album, a cover of the Petula Clark single "Downtown".
The album was a major success in Australia, where it reached number three on the charts alongside its three singles "Planet Claire", "Rock Lobster", "Dance This Mess Around". In the US, the single "Rock Lobster" reached the Billboard Hot 100 chart, while the album itself was certified platinum by the RIAA. In 1980, John Lennon called the B-52's his favorite band, cited "Rock Lobster" as an inspiration for his comeback with Double Fantasy. In April 1980, The B-52's returned to Compass Point Studios to record their follow-up album. Several of the songs for the new album had been concert staples since 1978. Rhett Davies co-produced the album, with more emphasis put on slick production. Released on August 27, 1980, Wild Planet was well received by critics, most of whom regarded it as a strong second album following the success of their first; the album was certified gold. On January 26, 1980, The B-52's performed on Saturday Night Live. In July 1981, Party Mix! was released, a six-song collection containing songs from their first two albums remixed and sequenced to form two long tracks, one on each side.
German submarine U-1305 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was ordered on 1 August 1942, was laid down on 30 July 1943, at Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, Flensburg, as yard number 498, she was launched on 11 July 1944, commissioned under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Helmuth Christiansen on 13 September 1944. German Type VIIC/41 submarines were preceded by the heavier Type VIIC submarines. U-1305 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, an overall beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8-276 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres.
The submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-1305 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, one 3.7 cm Flak M42 and two 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between fifty-two. On 10 May 1945, U-1305 surrendered at Scotland, she was transferred to Loch Ryan, Scotland on 30 May 1945. The TNC allocated U-1305 to the Soviet Union. On 4 December 1945, she arrived in Libau, Latvia, as British N-class N25. On 13 February 1946, the Soviet Navy allocated her to the Baltic Fleet, she was renamed S-84 on 9 June 1949 sent to the reserve fleet on 30 December 1955. S-84 went to the Northern Fleet as a test hulk and was sunk in the Barents Sea on 10 October 1957, during an atomic bomb test off of Novaja Zemlja; the wreck now lies at 70.703°N 54.6°E / 70.703. Battle of the Atlantic
The following is a list of non-Gaelic games played at Croke Park. The Gaelic Athletic Association prohibited the playing of foreign sports at GAA-owned stadiums under Rule 42 of its rule book. Grounds controlled by Association units shall not be used or permitted to be used, for horse racing, greyhound racing, or for field games other than those sanctioned by Central Council. While this wording remains as the current Rule 5.1, a footnote now reads: In practice the rule was only applied to the sports of soccer and rugby, which were perceived to be rivals to the playing of Gaelic games. Cricket was banned, but Croke Park is too small for a cricket field; as such, several games of American football have been played with rule 42 in force, as well as a boxing match and a baseball game. The rule was relaxed in 2005 for the duration of the reconstruction of Lansdowne Road, to allow for the playing of Republic of Ireland soccer and Irish rugby internationals; the Republic of Ireland soccer and Ireland rugby internationals moved into the new Aviva Stadium on the former Lansdowne Road site upon its opening in May 2010.