A mound is a heaped pile of earth, sand, rocks, or debris. Most mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial and commemorative purposes. In the archaeology of the United States and Canada, a mound is a deliberately constructed elevated earthen structure or earthwork, intended for a range of potential uses. In European and Asian archaeology, the word "tumulus" may be used as a synonym for an artificial hill if the hill is related to particular burial customs. While the term "mound" may be applied to historic constructions, most mounds in the United States are pre-Columbian earthworks, built by Native American peoples. Native Americans built a variety of mounds, including flat-topped pyramids or cones known as platform mounds, rounded cones, ridge or loaf-shaped mounds; some mounds took such as the outline of cosmologically significant animals.
These are known as effigy mounds. Some mounds, such as a few in Wisconsin, have rock formations, or petroforms within them, on them, or near them. While these mounds are not as famous as burial mounds, like their European analogs, Native American mounds have a variety of other uses. While some prehistoric cultures, like the Adena culture, used mounds preferentially for burial, others used mounds for other ritual and sacred acts, as well as for secular functions; the platform mounds of the Mississippian culture, for example, may have supported temples, the houses of chiefs, council houses, may have acted as a platform for public speaking. Other mounds would have been part of defensive walls to protect a certain area; the Hopewell culture used mounds as markers of complex astronomical alignments related to ceremonies. Mounds and related earthworks are the only significant monumental construction in pre-Columbian Eastern and Central North America. Mounds are given different names depending on, they can be located all across the world in spots such as Asia and the Americas.
"Mound builders" have more been associated with the mounds in the Americas. They all have different meanings and sometimes are constructed as animals and can be seen from aerial views. Kankali Tila is a famous mound located at Mathura in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. A Jain stupa was excavated here in 1890-91 by Dr. Fuhrer. Mound, as a technical term in archaeology, is not in favor in the rest of the world. More specific local terminology is preferred, each of these terms has its own article. Cairn Chambered cairn Effigy mound Kofun Platform mound Subglacial mound Tell Tumulus Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow Chambered long barrow Kurgan Long barrow Oval barrow List of burial mounds in the United States Fort Ancient Kofun period Kurgan hypothesis Mississippian Period Neolithic Europe Olmec La Venta San Jose Mogote Petroform Pyramid Prehistoric Britain Stupa Woodland Period Crystal River Archaeological State Park ZigguratAnimalsMound-building termites The dictionary definition of mound at Wiktionary "Mound".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. 1911
Madison County, Tennessee
Madison County is a county located in the western part of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 98,294, its county seat is Jackson. Madison County is included in TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Madison County was formed in 1821, named for founding father and president, James Madison; the county was part of lands the United States purchased from the Chickasaw in 1818. After Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, most Chickasaw were forced out of the state and west to Indian Territory beyond the Mississippi River. Pinson Mounds, one of the largest Woodland period mound complexes in the United States, is located in Madison County, it has the second-tallest earthwork mound in the United States. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 559 square miles, of which 557 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport serves the county. Air Choice One began commercial service to St. Louis Lambert International Airport on June 28, 2015, added direct service to Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
Gibson County Carroll County Henderson County Chester County Hardeman County Haywood County Crockett County Pinson Mounds State Archaeological Park South Fork Waterfowl Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 91,837 people, 35,552 households, 24,637 families residing in the county. The population density was 165 people per square mile. There were 38,205 housing units at an average density of 69 per square mile. There were 35,552 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.80% were married couples living together, 15.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. The racial makeup of the county was 65.20% non-Hispanic White or European American, 32.46% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races.
1.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 35,552 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.80% were married couples living together, 15.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.70% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 11.00% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,982, the median income for a family was $44,595. Males had a median income of $34,253 versus $23,729 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,389.
About 10.80% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.40% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over. The county is headed by an elected county mayor and county commission of 25 members elected from 10 districts; this is the Madison County which Kenny Rogers refers to in his song "Reuben James". Humboldt Jackson Medon Three Way National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison County, Tennessee Madison County official website Madison County, TNGenWeb – free genealogy resources for the county Madison County at Curlie
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, from which the words derived and copper, first used around 1530.
The encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. Two solstices occur annually, around June 21 and December 21; the seasons of the year are determined by reference to the equinoxes. The term solstice can be used in a broader sense, as the day when this occurs; the day of a solstice in either hemisphere has either the most sunlight of the year or the least sunlight of the year for any place other than the Equator. Alternative terms, with no ambiguity as to which hemisphere is the context, are "June solstice" and "December solstice", referring to the months in which they take place every year; the word solstice is derived from the Latin sol and sistere, because at the solstices, the Sun's declination appears to "stand still". For an observer on the North Pole, the Sun reaches the highest position in the sky once a year in June; the day this occurs is called the June solstice day. For an observer on the South Pole, the Sun reaches the highest position on the December solstice day.
When it is the summer solstice at one Pole, it is the winter solstice on the other. The Sun's westerly motion never ceases. However, the Sun's motion in declination comes to a stop at the moment of solstice. In that sense, solstice means "sun-standing"; this modern scientific word descends from a Latin scientific word in use in the late Roman Republic of the 1st century BC: solstitium. Pliny uses it a number of times in his Natural History with a similar meaning, it contains two Latin-language morphemes, sol, "sun", -stitium, "stoppage". The Romans used "standing" to refer to a component of the relative velocity of the Sun as it is observed in the sky. Relative velocity is the motion of an object from the point of view of an observer in a frame of reference. From a fixed position on the ground, the Sun appears to orbit around Earth. To an observer in an inertial frame of reference, planet Earth is seen to rotate about an axis and revolve around the Sun in an elliptical path with the Sun at one focus.
Earth's axis is tilted with respect to the plane of Earth's orbit and this axis maintains a position that changes little with respect to the background of stars. An observer on Earth therefore sees a solar path, the result of both rotation and revolution; the component of the Sun's motion seen by an earthbound observer caused by the revolution of the tilted axis – which, keeping the same angle in space, is oriented toward or away from the Sun – is an observed daily increment of the elevation of the Sun at noon for six months and observed daily decrement for the remaining six months. At maximum or minimum elevation, the relative yearly motion of the Sun perpendicular to the horizon stops and reverses direction. Outside of the tropics, the maximum elevation occurs at the summer solstice and the minimum at the winter solstice; the path of the Sun, or ecliptic, sweeps north and south between the northern and southern hemispheres. The days are shorter around the winter solstice; when the Sun's path crosses the equator, the length of the nights at latitudes +L° and -L° are of equal length.
This is known as an equinox. There are two equinoxes in a tropical year; the seasons occur because the Earth's axis of rotation is not perpendicular to its orbital plane but makes an angle of about 23.44°, because the axis keeps its orientation with respect to an inertial frame of reference. As a consequence, for half the year the Northern Hemisphere is inclined toward the Sun while for the other half year the Southern Hemisphere has this distinction; the two moments when the inclination of Earth's rotational axis has maximum effect are the solstices. At the June solstice the subsolar point is further north than any other time: at latitude 23.44° north, known as the Tropic of Cancer. At the December solstice the subsolar point is further south than any other time: at latitude 23.44° south, known as the Tropic of Capricorn. The subsolar point will cross every latitude between these two extremes twice per year. During the June solstice, places on the Arctic Circle will see the Sun just on the horizon during midnight, all places north of it will see the Sun above horizon for 24 hours.
That is the midnight midsummer-night sun or polar day. On the other hand, places on the Antarctic Circle will see the Sun just on the horizon during midday, all places south of it will not see the Sun above horizon at any time of the day; that is the polar night. During the December Solstice, the effects on both hemispheres are just the opposite; this allows the polar sea ice to increase its annual growth and temporary extent at a greater level due to lack of direct sunlight. The concept of the solstices was embedded in ancient Greek celestial navigation; as soon as they discovered that the Earth is spherical they devised the concept of the celestial sphere, an imaginary spherical surface rotating with the heavenly bodies fixed in it. As long as no assumptions are made concerning the distances of those bodies from Earth or from each other, the sphere can be accepted as real and is in fact still in use; the Ancient Greeks use meaning stand of the Sun. The stars move across the inner surf
Tennessee Division of Archaeology
The Tennessee Division of Archaeology is a division of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation responsible for managing prehistoric archaeological sites on lands owned by the U. S. state of Tennessee, conducting archaeological excavations and research, informing the public about Tennessee’s prehistoric past, coordinating with other state agencies regarding archaeological preservation issues. The TDOA has two main divisions; the Technical Assistance Group is responsible for the protection of archaeological sites and artifacts on all lands owned or controlled by the state. This group provides technical assistance for state agencies, law enforcement, development communities, the general public. Assistance is offered to public and private entities on legal and technical aspects of prehistoric Native American cemetery relocation and related concerns; this group conducts research and publishes reports on archaeological subjects, some of which are available for free download via the Division of Archaeology website.
The Site File and Review Group maintains accurate records on all known archaeological sites in the state, coordinates with state agencies to assess impacts of proposed activities on known or suspected sites. This group provides expertise to the State Historic Preservation Office by reviewing all federally funded projects within Tennessee to determine their impact on archaeological resources; the TDOA presently employs eight archaeologists, a site files coordinator, an administrative secretary at the Nashville location. An auxiliary storage facility is located at Pinson Mounds State Park near Tennessee; each January, the TDOA, in conjunction with the Middle Tennessee State University Department of Sociology and Anthropology, co-sponsors the Current Research in Tennessee Archaeology meeting. The meeting is open to the public and features presentations by both professional and avocational archaeologists. Prior to the creation of the Tennessee Division of Archaeology in 1970, there had been State Archaeologists, but no state organization, tasked with watching over Tennessee's archaeology sites.
The first official State Archaeologist was Parmenio E. Cox, appointed to the role by Governor Austin Peay in 1924 after the death of William Edward Myer, who had served as the unofficial state archaeologist. Cox held the role until he died in 1932; the TDOA was established in 1970 under the Department of Conservation through the "Tennessee Antiquities Act", the first staff members were hired in 1972, with Mack S. Prichard being appointed to the role of State Archaeologist in 1971; the TDOA had a small budget when it was first created, which only allowed for the hiring of an assistant, Patti Coats. Prichard was able to secure additional funds and hired three regional archaeologists and a Historical Archaeologist in 1972; these included Brian Butler John Broster, Carl Kuttruff, Joe Benthall. Benthall became the state archaeologist after Mack Prichard retired in 1973 and Sam Smith was hired to take over as the Historical Archaeologist. Patti Coats was moved into the new position of Site Files Curator during this time.
The Division experienced some structural changes during the late 1970's, which merged them with the TN State Parks Department. The position of State Archaeologist was eliminated at this time and Joseph Benthall was moved to a regional archaeologist position. Historical Archaeologist Sam Smith served as the acting State Archaeologist during this period; this merger was short-lived, with the TDOA again becoming its own Division in 1983 with the appointment of a new State Archaeologist, Nick Fielder, by Commissioner Charles A. Howell. Fielder had been serving as the first State Historic Preservation Office Archaeologist since 1976, he served as State Archaeologist until 2007. Mike Moore became the State Archaeologist in 2007 and still holds the position today. In 1991, the Department of Conservation merged with the Environment side of the former Department of Health and Environment to become the Department of Environment and Conservation; the TDOA is still a Division of TDEC. State-wide field projects have comprised an important Division mandate since the beginning.
Significant investigations on state-owned properties include Mound Bottom, Sellars Farm, Pinson Mounds, Fort Loudoun, Ft. Pillow, Riverbend Prison, SR-42, Hiwassee Old Town, Sandbar Village, Carter House, Spencer Youth Center, Special Needs Prision, Middle TN Veterans Cemetery, Bicentennial Mall, Ropers Knob. Select site investigations on non-state lands include Brick Church Pike Mound, Fort Southwest Point, First Hermitage, Penitentiary Branch, Fort Blount, Brandywine Pointe, Coats-Hines Mastodon, Old Town, Austin Cave, Carson-Conn-Short, Rutherford-Kizer, Brentwood Library, Moss-Wright and collaborative investigations along the Cumberland River near Nashville following the 2010 floods. Thematic historic site surveys have been an important component of TDOA research. Reconnaissance surveys for prehistoric sites have been conducted within the Obion, Cumberland, Caney Fork, Collins and Hiwassee/Ocoee River watersheds; the Division’s ability to perform larger-scale site excavations has diminished over the years due to the same position reductions experienced by other state agencies.
Division positions have been cut 70%
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a