National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
The Dakota are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government in North America. They compose two of the three main subcultures of the Sioux people, are divided into the Eastern Dakota and the Western Dakota; the Eastern Dakota are the Santee, who reside in the eastern Dakotas, central Minnesota and northern Iowa. They have federally recognized tribes established in several places; the Western Dakota are the Yankton, the Yanktonai, who reside in the Upper Missouri River area. The Yankton-Yanktonai are collectively referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, they have distinct federally recognized tribes. In the past the Western Dakota have been erroneously classified as Nakota, a branch of the Sioux who moved further west; the latter are now located in Montana and across the border in Canada, where they are known as Stoney. The word Dakota means "ally" in the Dakota language, their autonyms include Ikčé Wičhášta and Dakhóta Oyáte; the Eastern and Western Dakota are two of the three groupings belonging to the Sioux nation, the third being the Lakota.
The three groupings speak dialects that are still mutually intelligible. This is referred to Dakota-Lakota, or Sioux; the other two languages of the Dakotan dialect continuum and Stoney, have grown or unintelligible to Dakota and Lakota speakers. The Dakota include the following bands: Santee division Mdewakanton notable persons: Taoyateduta Sisseton Wahpekute notable persons: Inkpaduta Wahpeton Yankton-Yanktonai division Yankton Yanktonai Upper Yanktonai Húŋkpathina or Lower Yanktonai In the 21st century, the majority of the Santee live on reservations and communities in Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Canada; some have moved to cities for more work opportunities. In the north woods of Minnesota, some Santee continue to live in historic communities at the Ottertail Lake and Inspiration Peak areas, their ancestors were never sent to reservations, as they were protected by settlers whom they had befriended. After the Dakota War of 1862, the federal government expelled the Santee from Minnesota.
Many were sent to Crow Creek Indian Reservation. In 1864 some from the Crow Creek Reservation were sent to St. Louis and by boat up the Missouri River to the Santee Sioux Reservation; the Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ live predominantly at the Prairie Shakopee reservations in Minnesota. Most of the Yankton live on the Yankton Indian Reservation in southeastern South Dakota; some Yankton live on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation and Crow Creek Reservation, occupied by the Lower Yanktonai. The Upper Yanktonai live in the northern part of Standing Rock Reservation, on the Spirit Lake Reservation in central North Dakota. Others live in the eastern half of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana. In addition, they reside at several Canadian reserves, including Birdtail, Oak Lake, Whitecap, it is difficult to determine where the Dakota people came from before the recorded era. The most similar people to them linguistically were Great Lakes–region speakers of Chiwere, a linguistically conservative Siouan language.
However, the Dakota language, Dakhótiyapi/Dakȟótiyapi, is very related to that of the Dhegihan and Hokan Siouan peoples — both of whom have oral histories explaining that they came west from present-day Ohio in migrations ending around the 13th century. A single line of older history seems to have survived from the Dakotas — that they had come to live with the Winnebago, but the Winnebago soon became angry and ordered them to leave. Combining this with the histories of the Dhegihans, it is possible to surmise that the ancestors of the Dakota people may have been refugees from further east who started taking refuge with other Siouan allies — even predating the move of the Dhegihan Sioux peoples; the Winnebago may have been forced to send the Dakota off to find a new homeland because of overcrowding or because the Dhegihans' arrival on the Plains disrupted commerce and trading along the Mississippi River. Either explanation, can only be an educated guess; the Dakota Oyate lived in Minnesota prior to the 18th century.
Most of their early history was recorded by a white man named James Walker close to the end of the 19th century, as he offered aid among the Lakota/Dakota people. He recorded much of what he knew in three books: Lakota Myth, Lakota Belief and Ritual, Lakota Society. According to Walker, the group was one people with one chief, which grew and developed four sub-factions over time, each with their own equal chiefs. In these two groups there evolved two distinct dialects of the original language and Dakota, their capitol was situated at a place known as Ble Wakan, identified as Lake Mille Lac. Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants; the French were trying t
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another in exchange for money. A system or network that allows trade is called a market. An early form of trade, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. Barter involves trading things without the use of money. One bartering party started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic as well as practical importance. Modern traders negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money; as a result, buying can be separated from earning. The invention of money simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade involving more than two traders is called multilateral trade. Trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs. Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere, or because different regions' sizes may encourage mass production.
In such circumstances, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations. Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser. Wholesale trade is defined as traffic in goods that are sold as merchandise to retailers, or to industrial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. Commerce is derived from the Latin commercium, from cum "together" and merx, "merchandise."Trade from Middle English trade, introduced into English by Hanseatic merchants, from Middle Low German trade, from Old Saxon trada, from Proto-Germanic *tradō, cognate with Old English tredan. Trade originated with human communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.
In the Mediterranean region the earliest contact between cultures were of members of the species Homo sapiens principally using the Danube river, at a time beginning 35,000–30,000 BCE. Some trace the origins of commerce to the start of transaction in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of flint during the stone age. Trade in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea from 17,000 BCE; the earliest use of obsidian in the Near East dates to the Middle paleolithic. Trade in the stone age was investigated by Robert Carr Bosanquet in excavations of 1901. Trade is believed to have first begun in south west Asia. Archaeological evidence of obsidian use provides data on how this material was the preferred choice rather than chert from the late Mesolithic to Neolithic, requiring exchange as deposits of obsidian are rare in the Mediterranean region.
Obsidian is thought to have provided the material to make cutting utensils or tools, although since other more obtainable materials were available, use was found exclusive to the higher status of the tribe using "the rich man's flint". Obsidian was traded at distances of 900 kilometres within the Mediterranean region. Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material. Networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE Anatolia was the source for trade with the Levant and Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990. Melos and Lipari sources produced among the most widespread trading in the Mediterranean region as known to archaeology; the Sari-i-Sang mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for trade of lapis lazuli. The material was most traded during the Kassite period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE. Ebla was a prominent trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE.
Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. For this purpose they established trade colonies. From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including India and China. Roman commerce allowed its empire to endure; the latter Roman Republic and the Pax Romana of the Roman empire produced a stable and secure transportation network that enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant piracy, as Rome had become the sole effective sea power in the Mediterranean with the conquest of Egypt and the near east. In ancient Greece Hermes was the god of trade and weights and measures, for Romans Mercurius god of merchants, whose festival was celebrated by traders on the 25th day o
Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge
The 18,208-acre Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1935 and is located in the scenic forest and bog area of northern Minnesota. Visitors can enjoy a range of habitats, including lake, river and hardwood forest; the refuge's history centers around the 4,500-acre Rice Lake which, for thousands of years, has supplied an abundant wild rice crop. Each fall, the bountiful rice attracts hundreds of thousands of waterfowl, as well as American Indians who harvest it using traditional methods. Rice Lake is known for its tremendous number of ring-necked ducks; because of the high concentrations of migratory birds, Rice Lake Refuge has been designated as a Globally Important Bird Area by the American Birding Association. The 2,045-acre Sandstone Unit of Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge was acquired in 1970 through a land exchange with the United States Department of Justice. Sandstone is located in central Minnesota, in an area once known for expanses of towering white pine forests. Today, visitors enjoy a rustic and natural setting that includes a portion of the Wild and Scenic Kettle River.
Birders will fall. Sandstone's wildlife includes sandhill cranes, white-tailed deer and songbirds; the one-half-acre Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, located in Mille Lacs Lake, is administered from Rice Lake Refuge. Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Mississippi National River and Recreation Area
The Mississippi National River and Recreation Area protects a 72-mile and 54,000-acre corridor along the Mississippi River from the cities of Dayton and Ramsey, Minnesota to just downstream of Hastings, Minnesota. This includes the stretch of Mississippi River which flows through Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota; this stretch of the upper Mississippi River includes natural, recreational, scenic and economic resources of national significance. This is the only national park dedicated to the Mississippi River, it is located in parts of Anoka, Hennepin and Washington counties, all within the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area. The Mississippi National River and Recreation Area is a long name and therefore is referred to as MNRRA or MISS; the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area was established in 1988 as a new unique type of National Park known as a partnership park. Unlike traditional national parks, MISS is not a major land owner and therefore does not have control over land use.
MISS works with dozens of "partners" who own land along the river or who have an interest in the Mississippi River to achieve the National Park Service's mission to protect and preserve for future generations. Some of the most prominent attractions within the park include the St. Anthony Falls Historic District, the Historic Fort Snelling and the adjacent Fort Snelling State Park, Minnehaha Falls. There are many additional attractions and programs all within the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area; as of 2016 MNRRA has two visitor centers, one located inside the Science Museum of Minnesota in St. Paul, MN and the other at Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock & Dam in Minneapolis, both of which are staffed by National Park Rangers; the Minneapolis visitor center offers three free tours daily of the Upper St. Anthony Lock and surrounding area; each year, the rangers manage community activities, including interpretive sessions, bike rides, movies, that help to educate the local community about the natural and human history of the area.
The park's website lists the following features as partner sites. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Mississippi River Fund The Mississippi River Fund supports stewardship and community engagement programs that support the park and its mission; these programs include water quality protection, habitat restoration, formal education, interpretive programs that share with the public the significant role our national park plays in American history and culture. Friends of the Mississippi River
Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge
Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States. It lies in the glacial lake country of northwestern Minnesota in Becker County, 18 miles northeast of Detroit Lakes, it was established in 1938 as a refuge breeding ground for other wildlife. It covers 42,724 acres. Local topography consists of rolling forested hills interspersed with lakes, marshes and shrub swamps; the token of the refuge is tamarac tree. This unusual tree is a deciduous conifer which turns a brilliant gold before losing its needles each fall. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge lies in the heart of one of the most diverse vegetative transition zones in North America, where northern hardwood forests, coniferous forests and the tallgrass prairie converge; this diversity of habitat brings with it a wealth of both woodland and prairie species. An attractive visitor center offers a spectacular vista of the marshes and trees that are typical of the Tamarac Refuge. A theater presentation provides orientation to the life and legends of this unique area.
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Refuge website