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Piraeus

Piraeus is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece. Piraeus is located within the Athens urban area, 12 kilometres southwest from its city centre, lies along the east coast of the Saronic Gulf. According to the 2011 census, Piraeus had a population of 163.688 people within its administrative limits, making it the fifth largest municipality in Greece and the second largest within the urban area of the Greek capital, following the municipality of Athens. The municipality of Piraeus and several other suburban municipalities within the regional unit of Piraeus form the greater Piraeus area, with a total population of 448,997, is part οf Athens urban area. Piraeus has a long recorded history, dating to ancient Greece; the city was founded in the early 5th century BC, when this area was selected to become the new port of classical Athens and was built as a prototype harbour, concentrating all the import and transit trade of Athens. During the Golden Age of Athens the Long Walls were constructed to fortify its port.

It became the chief harbour of ancient Greece, but declined after the 3rd century B. C. growing once more in the 19th century, after Athens' declaration as the capital of Greece. In the modern era, Piraeus is a large city, bustling with activity and an integral part of Athens, acting as home to the country's biggest harbour and bearing all the characteristics of a huge marine and commercial-industrial center; the port of Piraeus is the chief port in Greece, the largest passenger port in Europe and the second largest in the world, servicing about 20 million passengers annually. With a throughput of 1.4 million TEUs, Piraeus is placed among the top ten ports in container traffic in Europe and the top container port in the Eastern Mediterranean. The municipality hosted events in both the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens; the University of Piraeus is one of the largest Greek universities and has the country's second-oldest business school, as well as the oldest academic department in the area of finance.

Piraeus, which means'the place over the passage', has been inhabited since the 26th century BC. In prehistoric times, Piraeus was a rocky island consisting of the steep hill of Munichia, modern-day Kastella, was connected to the mainland by a low-lying stretch of land, flooded with sea water most of the year, used as a salt field whenever it dried up, it was called the Halipedon, meaning the'salt field', its muddy soil made it a tricky passage. Through the centuries, the area was silted and flooding ceased, thus by early classical times the land passage was made safe. In ancient Greece, Piraeus assumed its importance with its three deep water harbours, the main port of Cantharus and the two smaller of Zea and Munichia, replaced the older and shallow Phaleron harbour, which fell into disuse. In the late 6th century BC, the area caught attention due to its advantages. In 511 BC, the hill of Munichia was fortified by Hippias and four years Piraeus became a deme of Athens by Cleisthenes. According to the ancient Greek historian Thucydides, in 493 BC, Themistocles initiated the fortification works in Piraeus and advised the Athenians to take advantage of its natural harbours' strategic potential instead of using the sandy bay of Phaleron.

In 483 BC, a new silver vein was discovered in Laurion mines, utilized to fund the construction of 200 triremes, the Athenian fleet, transferred to Piraeus and was built in its shipyards. The Athenian fleet played a crucial role in the battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BC. From on Piraeus was permanently used as the navy base. After the second Persian invasion of Greece, Themistocles fortified the three harbours of Piraeus and created the neosoikoi; the city's fortification was further reinforced by the construction of the Long Walls under Cimon and Pericles, with which secure port's route to Athens main city. Meanwhile, Piraeus was rebuilt to the famous grid plan of architect Hippodamus of Miletus, known as the Hippodamian plan, the main agora of the city was named after him in honour; as a result, Piraeus flourished and became a port of high security and great commercial activity, a city bustling with life. During the Peloponnesian War, Piraeus suffered its first setback. In the second year of the war, the first cases of the Athens plague were recorded in Piraeus.

In 429 the Spartans ravaged Salamis as part of an abortive attack on the Piraeus, when the Athenians responded by sending a fleet to investigate, the Spartan alliance forces fled. In 404 BC, the Spartan fleet under Lysander blockaded Piraeus and subsequently Athens surrendered to the Spartans, putting an end to the Delian League and the war itself. Piraeus would follow the fate of Athens and was to bear the brunt of the Spartans' rage, as the city's walls and the Long Walls were torn down; as a result, the tattered and unfortified port city was not able to compete with prosperous Rhodes, which controlled commerce. In 403 BC, Munichia was seized by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle, in the battle of Munichia, where the Phyleans defeated the Thirty Tyrants of Athens, but in the following battle of Piraeus the exiles were defeated by Spartan forces. After the reinstatement of democracy, Conon rebuilt the walls in 393 BC, founded the temple of Aphrodite Euploia and the sanctuary of Zeus Sotiros and A

Mill Avenue bridges

The Mill Avenue Bridges consist of two bridges that cross the Salt River in Tempe, Arizona at the north end of the shopping district on Mill Avenue. The first bridge opened in August 1931 and the second bridge opened in 1994; the original bridge was built in 1931 but was not dedicated until 1 May 1933. The dedication celebration lasted for two days. Attending the celebration was Benjamin Baker Moeur, a former Tempe doctor and the governor at that time; the creation of this bridge replaced the Ash Avenue Bridge, a one-lane highway bridge, completed in 1913. It was demolished in 1991. In the Phoenix area, besides the Center Street Bridge, which opened on Central Ave in 1911, it was one of two crossings at the Salt River for some time. Water flowed down the Salt River until the 1940s; the water flow ceased, creating a dry river bed to support the growing Southwest. For years, southbound traffic used both lanes of the bridge, while northbound traffic utilized an unbridged crossing in the riverbed. Despite the Salt's being a dry river, water flowed.

When reservoir levels got too high, the dams were required to release water, causing water to flow once more. Due to monsoon storms heavy rains would fall, washes and street runoff emptied into the river. At such times the unbridged crossing was closed, the bridge was opened to north- and southbound traffic, one lane in each direction; the bridge faced many strong floods. In 1980 all but two of the bridged crossings on the Salt River were closed for safety reasons due to severe flooding; the Mill Avenue Bridge and one other bridge, the Central Avenue bridge in Phoenix were the only bridges that remained open. This was. Water hit the bridge at 200,000 cubic feet per second, which far surpassed the expected strength of the bridge. In one 24-hour period during this flood, 92,000 vehicles crossed the bridge; the Old Mill Avenue Bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981, celebrating the 50th anniversary of its opening. The Old Mill Avenue Bridge is listed on the Tempe Historic Property Register.

It was the 8th property to be added to that list, receiving designation on November 4, 1999. As traffic congestion increased, the city began preparations for a new bridge crossing parallel to the existing. In the early 1990s construction began on the new crossing. In the spring of 1993, floods returned to the valley again and hampered construction efforts on the new bridge as flood waters tore down scaffolding and form work on the new bridge project. Opening was delayed but the project was completed; the New Mill Avenue Bridge opened in 1994 to relieve the original bridge from the increasing traffic. This allowed for two lanes to travel in each direction, instead of the previous single, two-lane bridge. With the opening of the northbound bridge, the unbridged crossing was permanently closed. With two lanes now running in each direction no matter the weather, monsoon storms and releases from dams no longer lead to traffic obstructions. In 1999 the dry river bed was transformed into a dammed artificial lake.

Tempe Town Lake was a key success to the revitalization of Downtown Tempe. Just a crossing over the dry river, these bridges became a centerpiece of the new lake; this prompted a lot of development along the lake. Today, mid-rise offices rise above the southeast portion of the bridges; every Fourth of July the CBS 5 July 4 Tempe Town Lake Festival is held at the lake. The fireworks for the celebration are launched from the bridges; the Mill Avenue Bridges complex includes two rail bridges downstream from the motor-traffic bridges: a railroad bridge of many decades' standing, parallel to it a new bridge to accommodate the Phoenix Light Rail system, which opened in late 2008. On September 21, 2018, the Mill Avenue Bridges were designated as part of Historic U. S. Route 80 by the Arizona Department of Transportation. Mill Avenue Scharbach and John H. Akers. Phoenix: Then and Now. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 2005

Crécy (comics)

Crécy is a graphic novel written by Warren Ellis and illustrated by Raulo Cáceres, depicting some of the events surrounding the historical Battle of Crécy. The graphic novel was published in 2007 under the Apparat imprint; the story is told from the point of view of the fictional William of Stonham, a sarcastic and foul-mouthed English longbowman. It features several important characters from the event, including Edward III and Philip VI, the kings of England and France respectively. V sign, the two-fingered "Longbowman's Salute" described in Crécy, shown on the cover of the book. Crécy at the Comic Book DB www.warrenellis.com - CRÉCY Crécy Review At The KvltSite