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Pirin

The Pirin Mountain is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren at an altitude of 2,914 m being the highest peak. One hypothesis is the mountain was named after Perun, the highest god of the Slavic pantheon and the god of thunder and lightning. Another version is that the etymology of the range derives from the Thracian word Perinthos, meaning "Rocky Mountain"; the range extends about 80 km from the north-west to the south-east and is about 40 km wide, spanning a territory of 2,585 km2. To the north Pirin is separated from Bulgaria's highest mountain range, the Rila Mountain, by the Predel saddle, while to the south it reaches the Slavyanka Mountain. To the west is located the valley of the river Struma and to the east the valley of the river Mesta separates it from the Rhodope Mountains. Pirin is dotted with more than a hundred glacial lakes and is the home of Europe's southernmost glaciers and Banski Suhodol; the northern part of the range, the highest one, is protected by the Pirin National Park, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983.

Pirin is noted for its rich flora and fauna, as well as for the presence of a number of relict species. Much of the area is forested, with some of the best preserved conifer woods in Bulgaria, holding important populations of the Balkan endemic species Macedonian pine, Bosnian pine and Bulgarian fir. Animals include many species of high conservation value, such as brown bear, gray wolf, European pine marten, wild boar, red deer, roe deer, etc; the combination of favourable natural conditions and varied historical heritage contribute makes Pirin an important tourist destination. The town of Bansko, situated on the north-eastern slopes of the mountain, has grown to be the primary ski and winter sports centre in the Balkans. A number of settlements at the foothills of Pirin have mineral spring and are spa resorts — Banya, Gotse Delchev, etc. Melnik at the south-western foothills of the mountain is Bulgaria's smallest town and is an architectural reserve. Within a few kilometres from the town are the Melnik Earth Pyramids and the Rozhen Monastery.

Pirin is part of the Rila -- Rhodope Massif. To the north the Predel Saddle and mountain pass at 1140 m altitude separates it from the Rila mountain range. To the east Pirin borders the Razlog Valley, the valley of the river Mesta and the Momina Klisura Gorge that separate it from the Rhodope Mountains. To the south the Paril Saddle divides it from the Slavyanka mountain range. To the west Pirin reaches the valley of the river Struma, including the Kresna Gorge and the Sandanski-Petrich Valley, that serve as a divide from the mountains Vlahina and Ograzhden further to the west; the main orographic ridge extends from the north-west to the south-east. Pirin spans an area of 2,585 km2 with an average height of 1,033 m; the maximum length between the Paril and Predel saddles is 80 km. Reaching an altitude of 2,914 m Pirin is the second highest mountain range in Bulgaria after Rila and the eighth highest in Europe after the Caucasus, the Alps, Sierra Nevada, the Pyrenees, Mount Etna, the aforementioned Rila, Mount Olympus.

Geologically and morphologically Pirin is divided into three parts: north and south, which differ in size and altitude. North Pirin is the largest of the mountain's downright part, it takes up 74% of the whole range's territory, being about 42 km long and ranging from Predel to the north to the Todorova Polyana Saddle to the south. It is the most visited part of the mountain, the only one to have an Alpine appearance, featuring many glacial lakes and shelters. North Pirin is itself divided into two zones by the Kabata Saddle and the valleys of the Banderitsa and Vlahinska rivers; the northern zone consists of the steep marble Vihren ridge with the three highest summits in the range: Vihren and Banski Suhodol. The marble ridge is narrow and steep, reaching a width of only 0.5 m at the ridge Koncheto. The southern zone is more massive and consists of granite ridges, including Pirin's fourth highest summit Polezhan, at 2851 m; the southern zone has marble ridges, such as the Sinanitsa ridge with its homonymous summit.

In total the northern section of Pirin includes two summits with an altitude over 2900 m, seven over 2800 m, 13 over 2700 m and 60 over 2500 m. Central Pirin extends between the Popovi Livadi Saddle, it constitutes the smallest and the shortest of the three subdivisions, covering only 7% of Pirin's total area. It is composed of crystalline schists and granite, as well as of marbled limestone in the south; because of the karstic relief there are no lakes. It is covered by deciduous forests; the highest peak is Orelyak. South Pirin stretches from the Popovi Livadi Saddle to the Paril Saddle and is the lowest and least rugged part; the highest peak is Ushite at 1,978 m, although Sveshtnik had long been considered the highest summit. It constitutes 19% of the mountain's territory. Despite being characterised with flat ridges, its lateral slopes are steep. South Pirin is composed of granite with marbled limestone in the periphery, it is covered with forests. Like Central Pirin the springs are short and with low water discharge.

Geologically Pirin is a horst forming a massive anticline situated between the complex graben valleys of the Struma and the Mesta, formed by metamorphic rocks — gneiss and crystalline schists, a

Embroiderers' Guild

The Embroiderers' Guild is the UK's leading educational charity promoting embroidery. The guild was formed in September 1906 at a meeting of sixteen ex-students of the Royal School of Art Needlework, under the name The Society of Certificated Embroideresses of the Royal School of Art Needlework. Miss Wade, head of the Royal School of Art Needlework was invited to be founder President, Miss Scott who hosted the inaugural meeting and Beatrice Paulson Townsend, wife of W. G. Paulson Townsend, design master at the school, were invited to be vice-chairs, they separated during World War I but reunited after the war and began teaching embroidery to shell shocked and disabled servicemen as a form of occupational therapy. In 1920 Louisa Frances Persel was appointed as the first President. By the time of World War II the Guild was well established and continued to promote the therapeutic value of embroidery. In the 1960s an offshoot of the Embroiderers' Guild was developed as a platform to exhibit professional embroidery to the public.

Founded in 1962 and named'The Professional Group of the Embroiderers' Guild' the group was pivitol in bringing textile art to the fore in the UK and beyond. Around twenty years the group was renamed The 62 Group of Textile Artists when the group decided to extend beyond embroidery and encompass other textile disciplines. From its centre in Aylesbury, around the UK, the Guild works to celebrate and preserve embroidery's rich heritage, to secure its living future as contemporary art and craft; the Guild has 175 adult Branches and Young Embroiderers Groups in the UK, organised in 10 Regions, with a sundry range of educational and social programmes. Many of the branches and regions contribute to local activities and educational programmes for the public benefit; the Guild's activities and events for adults and children providing opportunities to enjoy stitching and to discover the history and traditions of this ancient and international craft. Through outreach and distance learning programmes the Guild's education team brings the benefits of embroidery and its potential for creative and personal development to wide-ranging audiences.

The Guild's centre at Bucks County Museum is a registered museum and holds a nationally significant, global collection of embroideries from early times to the present day. From the Summer of 2018 there will be a permanent exhibition of items from the Embroiderers' Guild Collection available for viewing at Bucks County Museum, Church Street, Aylesbury HP20 2QP; the initiative for 2017 was an exhibition of over 120 new pieces of work by Guild members and invited artists inspired by Page 17' of a book of their choice. Launched in 2017 was an invitation to schools and academies to take part in creating the'World's Longest Embroidery for Schools; each participating school uses a one-metre length of fabric to tell their story. The Guild aims to involve 1000 schools around the world. In 2018 Guild members are creating exhibitions each of 100 hearts to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the end of World War 1. For more information on these projects and other national and local activities please visit the Guild's website.

The Guild partners with high footfall exhibition venues to bring original and unique works to the attention of the public. In recent years the Guild and its members have created and exhibited works inspired by the 2012 London Olympics; this piece was exhibited at 10 venues throughout the UK. It will be on display in Glasgow Caledonian University from July 2018 for a period extending into 2019; the Guild has two websites, one for adults and another for young and student embroiderers, two Facebook pages and eight Pinterest Boards - all are available to the general public. The Guild attends the major public shows for embroidery and textile art... the Knitting & Stitching Shows held annually in Alexandra Palace and Stitch & Hobbycraft Show at the NEC. In conjunction with Search Press The Guild is a specialist retailer of books relating to embroidery, books can be purchased on the Guild's web site; the Guild publishes the two leading embroidery magazines: "Embroidery" and "Stitch" - available on subscription or through WH Smith and Hobbycraft, Subscriptions for both magazines are available online.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.embroiderersguild.com The Guild offers a range of distant learning courses.

They cater for developing embroiderers, through to those who wish to explore new opportunities and to those who want to break the boundaries of textile art. Each year the Guild awards Scholarships, hosts exceptionally talented graduates enabling them to attend the Knitting & Stitching Shows, recognises teaching excellence via the award in the name and memory of Beryl Dean. Members are challenged every year to create original pieces inspired by a theme or concept. For 2017/18 the challenge was'Underfoot'. In 2019 membership of the Guild will be extended worldwide supported by the introduction of an on-line branch available 24/7. Updates extracted

William Twiss (Indian Army officer)

Major-General Sir William Louis Oberkirch Twiss was a senior British Indian Army officer. Born on 18 January 1879, William Twiss was educated at Bedford School and at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, he received his first commission in January 1898, was appointed to the 25th Madras Infantry March 1899 and was appointed to the 9th Gurkha Rifles in 1901. He served in China during the Boxer Rebellion between 1900 and 1901 as a Transport Officer and was mentioned in despatches and during the British expedition to Tibet, between 1903 and 1904, he served during the First World War in France and Flanders from September 1914 to September 1917 on the Staff and was Deputy Director of Military Intelligence, Army Headquarters, between 1917 and 1919. He commanded the 2/9th Gurkha Rifles, between 1921 and 1923, was Director of Military Intelligence, Army Headquarters, between 1923 and 1924, Director of Military Operations, Army Headquarters, between 1924 and 1927. Promoted to the rank of Major General in 1929, he was Military Secretary, Army Headquarters, between 1932 and 1936, General Officer Commanding, Burma Independent District, between 1936 and 1937, General Officer Commanding, Army in Burma, between 1937 and 1939.

Major General Sir William Twiss was awarded the Military Cross in the London Gazette of 1 January 1916, became a Commander of the Order of the British Empire on 12 December 1919, a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 1 January 1930, a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire on 14 June 1938. He retired from the British Indian Army in January 1939 and died on 13 October 1962