Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece. It is located in the Olympus Range on the border between Thessaly and Macedonia, between the units of Pieria and Larissa, about 80 km southwest from Thessaloniki. Mount Olympus has 52 peaks, deep gorges, and exceptional biodiversity, the highest peak Mytikas, meaning nose, rises to 2,918 metres. It is one of the highest peaks in Europe in terms of topographic prominence, Olympus was notable in Greek mythology as the home of the Greek gods, on the Mytikas peak. Mount Olympus is noted for its rich flora with several species. It has been a National Park, the first in Greece, since 1938 and it is a Worlds Biosphere Reserve. Every year thousands of people visit Olympus to admire its fauna and flora, to tour its slopes, organized mountain refuges and various mountaineering and climbing routes are available to visitors who want to explore it. The usual starting point is the town of Litochoro, on the foothills of the mountain,100 km from Thessaloniki, where, in the beginning of every summer.
The shape of Olympus was formed by rain and wind, which produced an isolated tower almost 3,000 metres above the sea, Olympus has many peaks and an almost circular shape. The mountain has a circumference of 150 kilometres, a diameter of 26 kilometres. To the northwest lies the Vlach village of Kokkinoplou, the Makryrema stream separates Olympus from the massif of Voulgara. The villages Petra and Dion lie to the northwest, while on the side there is the town of Litochoro. On its southeastern side, the Ziliana gorge divides Mount Olympus from Kato Olympos, while on its foothills, there are the villages Sykaminea. The Aghias Triadas Sparmou Monastery and the village Pythion lie to the west, Olympus dry foothills are known as the Xirokampi, containing chaparral and small animals. Further east, the plain of Dion is fertile and watered by the streams originate on Olympus. Mount Olympus is formed of rock laid down 200 million years ago in a shallow sea. Various geological events that caused the emergence of the whole region.
Around one million years ago glaciers covered Olympus and created its plateaus, the complicated geological past of the region is obvious on the morphology of Olympus and its National Park
The Struma or Strymónas is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. Its catchment area is 10,800 square kilometres and it takes its source from the Vitosha Mountain in Bulgaria, runs first westward, enters Greek territory at the Kula village. In Greece it is the main waterway feeding and exiting from Lake Kerkini, the river flows into the Strymonian Gulf in Aegean Sea, near Amphipolis in the Serres regional unit. The rivers length is 415 kilometres, parts of the river valley belong to a Bulgarian coal-producing area, more significant in the past than nowadays. The Greek portion is a valley which is dominant in agriculture, the tributaries include the Rila River, the Dragovishtitsa, the Blagoevgradska Bistritsa, the Konska River, the Sandanska Bistritsa and the Angitis. The Ancient Greek city of Amphipolis was founded near the entrance to the Aegean. When Xerxes I of Persia crossed the river during his invasion in 480 BC he buried alive nine young boys, the forces of Alexander I of Macedon defeated the remnants of Xerxes army near Ennea Odoi in 479 BC.
In 424 BC the Spartan general Brasidas after crossing the entire Greek peninsula sieged and conquered Amphipolis, the Battle of Kleidion was fought by the river in 1014. In 1913, the Greek Army was nearly surrounded in the Kresna Gorge of the Struma during the Second Balkan War, the Bulgarians were defeated in the war and the Treaty of Bucharest resulted in significant territorial losses for Bulgaria. The river valley was part of the Macedonian front in World War I, the ship Struma, which took Jewish refugees out of Romania in World War II and was torpedoed and sunk in the Black Sea, causing nearly 800 deaths, was named after the river. The name Strymón, was a hydronym in ancient Greek mythology, Strymón was used as a personal name in various regions of Ancient Greece during the 3rd century BC. Struma Glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Struma River, media related to Struma River at Wikimedia Commons Livius. org, Strymon
100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria
100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria is a Bulgarian national movement established in 1966 to promote tourism among Bulgarias most significant cultural and natural landmarks. Each of the chosen landmarks has its own seal, which is stamped onto pages of an official passport-like booklet issued by the Bulgarian Tourist Union. A booklet can be purchased at any tourist union center or on location at any of the sites, the booklet comes with a separate map which includes a list of the sites, their addresses and working hours. The maximum number of stamps per booklet is 100 and, contrary to the movements title. A reward scheme has been developed to encourage collection of as many stamps as possible, depending on the number of stamps collected, participants may receive bronze, silver or gold badges. 25 stamps earn bronze,50 stamps earn silver and 100 stamps earn gold, the National Organizational Committee of the BTU holds an annual lottery for the previous years badge earners every August. Prizes include domestic and overseas excursions, tents, sleeping bags, some landmarks in the original program highlighted Bulgarias Communist government, which collapsed on November 10,1989.
In 2003 the BTU removed many of sites from the official list. Both the original and current lists appear below, the list has since seen minor changes in 2007,2008 and 2009. A variety of organizations and institutions participated in developing and promoting the 100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria, dobarsko village — Theodore Tyro and Theodore Stratilates Church. Melnik — Historical Museum of Melnik, Kordopulov House, Rozhen Monastery, petrich — the Rupite Area, St. Petka Church, Samuils Fortress. Malko Tarnovo — Petrova Niva Site, Museum of History, nesebar — Architectural Reserve, Archaeological Museum. Varna — Museum of History and the Maritime Museum, veliko Tarnovo — Tsarevets architectural reserve, Museum of History, Arbanasi architectural reserve. Vidin — Baba Vida Fortress Magura Cave and Fortress of Belogradchik, Museum of History. Vratsa — Ledenika Cave, Regional Museum of History, okolchitsa — the place of Hristo Botev’s death. Kozloduy — Radetzky steam ship-museum, Monument of Hristo Botev, gabrovo — Etar Architectural-Ethnographic Complex, Museum of Education Bozhentsi village — Architectural Reserve.
Tryavna — Museum of the Wood-Carving and Ethnographical Arts, Dryanovo — Dryanovo Monastery, Kolyu Ficheto Museum, Bacho Kiro Cave. Dobrich — House of Yordan Yovkov, Art Gallery, balchik — University Botanic Garden, Architectural Park Dvoretsa, Kavarna — Kaliakra Headland, Kaliakra Archaeological reserve
Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica lying between Greenwich Island and Snow Islands. There are many islets and rocks in the waters, particularly off the north coast. More sizable among the adjacent smaller islands are Rugged Island off Byers Peninsula, Half Moon Island in Moon Bay, Desolation Island in Hero Bay, ice cliffs, often withdrawing during recent decades to uncover new coves and points, form most of the coastline. Typical of the island’s glaciology are the conspicuous ash layers originating from volcanic activity on the neighbouring Deception Island, the local variety of the Antarctic Peninsula weather is particularly changeable, windy and sunless. Says Australian mountaineer Damien Gildea, ‘Livingston got just about the worst weather in the world’, a US seasonal field camp on Byers Peninsula was wrecked by storm and emergency evacuated in February 2009. Whiteouts are common, and blizzards can occur at any time of the year, temperatures are rather constant, rarely exceeding 3 °C in summer or falling below −11 °C in winter, with wind chill temperatures up to 5 to 10 °C lower.
Below are the temperatures of the warmest month, coldest month, yearly average. It was only during the century that any land was discovered in what are now the ‘political’ territories of Antarctica. That was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude. A few months Smith revisited the South Shetlands to land on King George Island on 16 October 1819, in the meantime, a Spanish vessel had been damaged by severe weather in the Drake Passage and sunk off the north coast of Livingston in September 1819. The 74-gun ship San Telmo commanded by Captain Rosendo Porlier was the flagship of a Spanish naval squadron, the more than 600 persons killed when the San Telmo sank were the first recorded people to die in Antarctica. While no one survived, parts of her wreckage were found subsequently by sealers on Half Moon Beach, during December 1819 William Smith returned with his ship to the South Shetlands. Remains of huts and sealer artefacts are found on Livingston. The names of geographical features on the island refer to its early history.
However, names like Livingston, Mount Friesland and Renier Point became established during the first few seasons after the discovery of the islands, the toponyms Friesland and Smolensk are now preserved as Mount Friesland and Smolensk Strait respectively. The first modern, post-sealer habitation facility on Livingston Island was the British base camp Station P that operated in Hannah Point area during the 1957/58 summer season, the permanent scientific bases of Juan Carlos I and St. Kliment Ohridski were established in 1988 at South Bay. Other base facilities are the small Shirreff Base on Cape Shirreff since 1991, occasional field camps support research in remote areas of the island. There are two Historic Sites or Monuments of Antarctica on the island, San Telmo Cairn at Cape Shirreff commemorates the 644 officers and seamen lost when the Spanish warship San Telmo sank nearby in September 1819
The highest peak of Slavyanka is Gotsev Vrah at 2,212 m, while other notable peaks include Golyam Tsarev Vrah, Malak Tsarev Vrah and Salyuva Dzhamiya. The massif is dome-shaped and has steep ridges. Slavyanka has a pronounced karst character and thus features over 30 caves, the average annual temperature in the lowest part of the mountain is almost 14°C and about 6 °C in the highest part. Slavyanka has a flora, with more than 1,700 vascular plants, including 20 Bulgarian endemic species. There have been found 44 species of gastropods in the Bulgarian part of the Alibotush Mountains. Twenty-four species of terrestrial gastropods have Mediterranean type of distribution
Scutellaria alpina, the alpine skullcap, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae. Scutellaria alpina can reach a height of 10–30 centimetres and it is a small rhizomatous perennial plant. The stems are square, prostrate-ascending, woody at the base, leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, oval, rounded at the base, 2-3 cm long, with a short petiole and crenulate margins. Inflorescence is a terminal tetragonal spike, the flowers are blue-violet or purple-white,2. 5-3 cm long. They bloom from June to August and this species is native to central and southern Europe and Russia. Scutellaria alpina prefers rocky areas in high mountains at elevation of 1. Biolib Encyclopaedia of Life Luirig. altervista Tela Botanica
This article is about the mountain range. For the football teams, see PFC Belasitsa Petrich and FK Belasica, Belles or Kerkini, is a mountain range in the region of Macedonia in Southeastern Europe, shared by northwestern Greece, southeastern Republic of Macedonia and southwestern Bulgaria. The mountain range is about 60 km long and 7 to 9 km wide and is situated just northeast of Dojran Lake, the highest point is Radomir at 2,029 m, with elevation otherwise ranging between 300 and 1900 m above sea level. The borders of all three meet at Tumba Peak. The climate in the shows strong Mediterranean influence. The area of Belasica became a euroregion in 2003, two football teams are named after the mountain range, PFC Belasitsa from the nearby Bulgarian town of Petrich and FC Belasica from Strumica in the Republic of Macedonia. During antiquity its name was Órbēlos, according to the ancient authors it was a mountain range in the border area between Thrace and Macedonia. It is generally equated today with the modern Belasica, the name Órbēlos is probably derived from the ancient Thracian/Paionian toponym of the mountain, which means shining mountain, from belos - blazing or shining and or - mountain.
It was known for its Dionysos cult, the area is particularly famous for the Battle of Kleidion of 1014, which proved crucial for the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire. Kongur Glacier on Smith Island, South Shetland Islands is named after the peak, Belasitsa Nature Park Smolare Falls Belasitsa
Koncheto is a name given to a ridge in the Pirin Mountains in Bulgaria, at an elevation of approximately 2,810 metres, between the peaks Banski Suhodol and Kutelo. There are steep slopes on either side, the side is almost vertical and 300–400 metres deep, while the southwestern side is less steep. There is a cable stretched along the top of the ridge to help hikers across. It is said that some less experienced hikers go through Koncheto by saddling the ridge edge like a horse and slowly advancing and it is not recommended for hikers with acrophobia. The epic Koncheto Ridge - do you dare
Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, with a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europes 16th-largest country. Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period and its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians, Persians, Romans, Goths and Huns. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State, the following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, in December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgarias transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Bulgarias population of 7.2 million people is predominantly urbanised, most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are industry, power engineering. The countrys current political structure dates to the adoption of a constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative. Human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria can be traced back to the Paleolithic, animal bones incised with man-made markings from Kozarnika cave are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans. Organised prehistoric societies in Bulgarian lands include the Neolithic Hamangia culture, Vinča culture, the latter is credited with inventing gold working and exploitation. Some of these first gold smelters produced the coins and jewellery of the Varna Necropolis treasure and this site offers insights for understanding the social hierarchy of the earliest European societies.
Thracians, one of the three primary groups of modern Bulgarians, began appearing in the region during the Iron Age. In the late 6th century BC, the Persians conquered most of present-day Bulgaria, and kept it until 479 BC. After the division of the Roman Empire in the 5th century the area fell under Byzantine control, by this time, Christianity had already spread in the region. A small Gothic community in Nicopolis ad Istrum produced the first Germanic language book in the 4th century, the first Christian monastery in Europe was established around the same time by Saint Athanasius in central Bulgaria. From the 6th century the easternmost South Slavs gradually settled in the region, in 680 Bulgar tribes under the leadership of Asparukh moved south across the Danube and settled in the area between the lower Danube and the Balkan, establishing their capital at Pliska
South Shetland Islands
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about 120 kilometres north of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories, the islands have been claimed by the United Kingdom since 1908 and have been part of the British Antarctic Territory since 1962. They are claimed by the governments of Chile and by Argentina, several countries maintain research stations on the islands. Most of them are situated on King George Island, benefitting from the airfield of the Chilean base Eduardo Frei, there are sixteen research stations to date in different parts of the islands, with Chilean stations being the greatest in number. Research is often a shared duty of nations, with the Chilean-United States Shirreff Base being one example, the Dutchman Dirck Gerritsz in 1599, or the Spaniard Gabriel de Castilla in 1603, supposedly sailed south of the Drake Passage in the South Shetland Islands area.
In 1818 Juan Pedro de Aguirre obtained permission from the Buenos Aires authorities to establish a base for sealing on some of the islands near the South Pole. Thus Livingston Island became the first land discovered south of the 60th southern latitude. Smith revisited the South Shetlands, landed on King George Island on 16 October 1819, the Spanish Navy ship San Telmo sank in September 1819 whilst trying to go through the Drake Passage. Parts of her wreckage were found months by sealers on the north coast of Livingston Island. From December 1819 to January 1820, the islands were surveyed and mapped by Lieutenant Edward Bransfield on board the Williams, the discovery of the islands attracted British and American sealers. The first sealing ship to operate in the area was the brig Espirito Santo, the ship arrived at Rugged Island off Livingston Island, where its British crew landed on Christmas Day 1819, and claimed the islands for King George III. A narrative of the events was published by the master, Joseph Herring.
The Espirito Santo was followed from the Falkland Islands by the American brig Hersilia, commanded by Captain James Sheffield, having circumnavigated the Antarctic continent, the Russian Antarctic expedition of Fabian von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev arrived at the South Shetlands in January 1821. The Russians surveyed the islands and named them, landing on both King George Island and Elephant Island, the name New South Britain was used briefly, but was soon changed to South Shetland Islands. The name South Shetland Islands is now established in international usage, both island groups lie at a similar distance from the South Pole and North Pole respectively, but the South Shetlands are much colder. Seal hunting and whaling was conducted on the islands during the 19th, from 1908 the islands were governed as part of the Falkland Islands Dependency, but they have only been occupied since the establishment of a scientific research station in 1944. The archipelago, together with the nearby Antarctic Peninsula and South Georgia, is a popular tourist destination during the austral summer.
As a group of islands, the South Shetland Islands are located at 62°0′S 58°0′W and they are within the region 61° 00–63°37 South, 53° 83–62°83 West
Kutelo is the second highest peak in Pirin, southwestern Bulgaria. Like Vihren, which towers to the south, Kutelo is marble but its slopes though sheer are not so rocky and it is not very difficult to climb. Kutelo is a peak with a small saddle between the two parts, the lower being only one meter below the higher one, at 2,907 m. The Premkata saddle is situated to the south and leads to Vihren while to the north is the narrow karst edge Koncheto. There are no marked tracks to the summit of Kutelo, and this track leads along Koncheto. In a cirque to the north east there are all the year
The Vlahini Lakes is a group of four lakes in Pirin, southwestern Bulgaria situated at 1.5 km to the southwest from Vihren. The group consists of four lakes the highest of which makes 80% of their total area, the lakes are named after the village of Vlahi, located at much lower altitude. The first and largest lake is the Big Vlahino lake, at 2,302 m and its size is 400x245 m, with surface area of 23.4 decares and depth of 13.4 m. The amount of water is 421,000 m³, below is situated at 2,300 m the smallest lake with size of 68x50 m, area of 3 decares, depth of 8.4 m and volume of 10,000 m³. The third lake is placed at 300 m of the Big Vlahina lake at the elevation as the second lake. It is elongated but very shallow- up to 0.8 m and this is why the amount of water is 4,400 m³. The smallest lake is elongated and has a surface area of 10 decares. The amount of water is only 9,000 m³, there is trout in the lakes. The water pours out as Vlachina river which is a tributary of the Struma