In botany, a drupe is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a single shell of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, from flowers with superior ovaries; the definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, "lignified" stone is derived from the ovary wall of the flower—in an aggregate fruit composed of small, individual drupes, each individual is termed a drupelet and may together form a botanic berry. Other fleshy fruits may have a stony enclosure that comes from the seed coat surrounding the seed, but such fruits are not drupes; some flowering plants that produce drupes are: coffee, mango, most palms, white sapote and all members of the genus Prunus, including the almond, cherry, nectarine and plum. The term drupaceous is applied to a fruit which has the structure and texture of a drupe, but which does not fit the definition of a drupe; the boundary between a drupe and a berry is not always clear. Thus, some sources describe the fruit of species of the genus Persea, which includes the avocado, as a "drupe", others describe avocado fruit as a "berry".
One definition of "berry" requires the endocarp to be less than 2 mm thick, other fruits with a stony endocarp being "drupes". In marginal cases, terms such as "drupaceous" or "drupe-like" may be used; the term stone fruit can be a synonym for drupe or, more it can mean just the fruit of the genus Prunus. Freestone refers to a drupe having a stone with ease; the flesh does not need to be cut to free the stone. Freestone varieties of fruits are preferred for uses that require careful removal of the stone if removal will be done by hand. Freestone plums are preferred for making homegrown prunes, freestone sour cherries are preferred for making pies and cherry soup. Clingstone refers to a drupe having a stone which cannot be removed from the flesh; the flesh is attached to the stone and must be cut to free the stone. Clingstone varieties of fruits in the genus Prunus are preferred as table fruit and for jams, because the flesh of clingstone fruits tends to be more tender and juicy throughout. Tryma is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes.
Hickory nuts and walnuts in the Juglandaceae family grow within an outer husk. Many drupes, with their sweet, fleshy outer layer, attract the attention of animals as a food, the plant population benefits from the resulting dispersal of its seeds; the endocarp is sometimes dropped after the fleshy part is eaten, but is swallowed, passing through the digestive tract, returned to the soil in feces with the seed inside unharmed. This passage through the digestive tract can reduce the thickness of the endocarp, thus can aid in germination rates; the process is known as scarification. Typical drupes include apricots, peaches, cherries and amlas. Other examples include ivy; the coconut is a drupe, but the mesocarp is fibrous or dry, so this type of fruit is classified as a simple dry, fibrous drupe. Unlike other drupes, the coconut seed is unlikely to be dispersed by being swallowed by fauna, due to its large size, it can, float long distances across oceans. Bramble fruits are aggregates of drupelets; the fruit of blackberries and raspberries comes from a single flower whose pistil is made up of a number of free carpels.
However, which resemble blackberries, are not aggregate fruit, but are multiple fruits derived from bunches of catkins, each drupelet thus belonging to a different flower. Certain drupes occur in large clusters, as in the case of palm species, where a sizable array of drupes is found in a cluster. Examples of such large drupe clusters include dates, Jubaea chilensis in central Chile and Washingtonia filifera in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Pome Identification Of Major Fruit Types Fruits Called Nuts "Drupe". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage". A leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral. Most leaves have distinct upper surface and lower surface that differ in colour, the number of stomata, the amount and structure of epicuticular wax and other features. Leaves can have many different shapes and textures; the broad, flat leaves with complex venation of flowering plants are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. In the clubmosses, with different evolutionary origins, the leaves are simple and are known as microphylls.
Some leaves, such as bulb scales, are not above ground. In many aquatic species the leaves are submerged in water. Succulent plants have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls and spines. Furthermore, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not homologous with them. Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from leaves both in their structure and origin; some structures of non-vascular plants function much like leaves. Examples include the phyllids of liverworts. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants. Green plants are autotrophic, meaning that they do not obtain food from other living things but instead create their own food by photosynthesis, they capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make simple sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, from carbon dioxide and water. The sugars are stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as proteins or cellulose, the basic structural material in plant cell walls, or metabolised by cellular respiration to provide chemical energy to run cellular processes.
The leaves draw water from the ground in the transpiration stream through a vascular conducting system known as xylem and obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by diffusion through openings called stomata in the outer covering layer of the leaf, while leaves are orientated to maximise their exposure to sunlight. Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a special tissue called the phloem; the phloem and xylem are parallel to each other but the transport of materials is in opposite directions. Within the leaf these vascular systems branch to form veins which supply as much of the leaf as possible, ensuring that cells carrying out photosynthesis are close to the transportation system. Leaves are broad and thin, thereby maximising the surface area directly exposed to light and enabling the light to penetrate the tissues and reach the chloroplasts, thus promoting photosynthesis.
They are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications. For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows and eucalyptss; the flat, or laminar, shape maximises thermal contact with the surrounding air, promoting cooling. Functionally, in addition to carrying out photosynthesis, the leaf is the principal site of transpiration, providing the energy required to draw the transpiration stream up from the roots, guttation. Many gymnosperms have thin needle-like or scale-like leaves that can be advantageous in cold climates with frequent snow and frost; these are interpreted as reduced from megaphyllous leaves of their Devonian ancestors. Some leaf forms are adapted to modulate the amount of light they absorb to avoid or mitigate excessive heat, ultraviolet damage, or desiccation, or to sacrifice light-absorption efficiency in favour of protection from herbivory.
For xerophytes the major constraint drought. Some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes. and Bulbine mesembryanthemoides. Leaves function to store chemical energy and water and may become specialised organs serving other functions, such as tendrils of peas and other legumes, the protective spines of cacti and the insect traps in carnivorous plants such as Nepenthes and Sarracenia. Leaves are the fundamental structural units from which cones are constructed in gymnosperms and from which flowers are constructed in flowering plants; the internal organisation of most kinds of leaves has evolved to maximise exposure of the photosynthetic organelles, the chloroplasts, to light and to increase the absorption of carbon dioxide while at the same time controlling water loss. Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is controlled by minute openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapour into
The pea is most the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Each pod contains several peas, which can be yellow. Pea pods are botanically fruit, since they develop from the ovary of a flower; the name is used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea, the cowpea, the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world; the average pea weighs between 0.36 gram. The immature peas are used as a vegetable, frozen or canned; these are the basis of staples of medieval cuisine. The wild pea is restricted to the Near East; the earliest archaeological finds of peas date from the late neolithic era of current Greece, Syria and Jordan. In Egypt, early finds date from c. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile delta area, from c. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was present in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Farther east, the finds are younger. Peas were present in Afghanistan c. 2000 BC.
In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, this pulse crop appears in the Ganges Basin and southern India. A pea is a most green golden yellow, or infrequently purple pod-shaped vegetable grown as a cool season vegetable crop; the seeds may be planted as soon as the soil temperature reaches 10 °C, with the plants growing best at temperatures of 13 to 18 °C. They do not thrive in the summer heat of warmer temperate and lowland tropical climates, but do grow well in cooler, high altitude, tropical areas. Many cultivars reach maturity about 60 days after planting. Peas have vining cultivars; the vining cultivars grow thin tendrils from leaves that coil around any available support and can climb to be 1–2 m high. A traditional approach to supporting climbing peas is to thrust branches pruned from trees or other woody plants upright into the soil, providing a lattice for the peas to climb. Branches used in this fashion are sometimes called pea brush. Metal fences, twine, or netting supported by a frame are used for the same purpose.
In dense plantings, peas give each other some measure of mutual support. Pea plants can self-pollinate. In early times, peas were grown for their dry seeds. From plants growing wild in the Mediterranean basin, constant selection since the Neolithic dawn of agriculture improved their yield. In the early 3rd century BC Theophrastus mentions peas among the pulses that are sown late in the winter because of their tenderness. In the first century AD, Columella mentions them in De re rustica, when Roman legionaries still gathered wild peas from the sandy soils of Numidia and Judea to supplement their rations. In the Middle Ages, field peas are mentioned, as they were the staple that kept famine at bay, as Charles the Good, count of Flanders, noted explicitly in 1124. Green "garden" peas, eaten immature and fresh, were an innovative luxury of Early Modern Europe. In England, the distinction between field peas and garden peas dates from the early 17th century: John Gerard and John Parkinson both mention garden peas.
Sugar peas, which the French soon called mange-tout, for they were consumed pods and all, were introduced to France from the market gardens of Holland in the time of Henri IV, through the French ambassador. Green peas were introduced from Genoa to the court of Louis XIV of France in January 1660, with some staged fanfare. Established and grown for earliness warmed with manure and protected under glass, they were still a luxurious delicacy in 1696, when Mme de Maintenon and Mme de Sevigné each reported that they were "a fashion, a fury."Modern split peas, with their indigestible skins rubbed off, are a development of the 19th century. In modern times peas are boiled or steamed, which breaks down the cell walls and makes the taste sweeter and the nutrients more bioavailable. Along with broad beans and lentils, these formed an important part of the diet of most people in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe during the Middle Ages. By the 17th and 18th centuries, it had become popular to eat peas "green", that is, while they are immature and right after they are picked.
New cultivars of peas were developed by the English during this time, which became known as "garden" or "English" peas. The popularity of green peas spread to North America. Thomas Jefferson grew more than 30 cultivars of peas on his estate. With the invention of canning and freezing of foods, green peas became available year-round, not just in the spring as before. Fresh peas are eaten boiled and flavored with butter and/or spearmint as a side dish vegetable. Salt and pepper are commonly added to peas when served. Fresh peas are used in pot pies and casseroles. Pod peas are used in stir-fried dishes those in A
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Pistacia lentiscus is a dioecious evergreen shrub or small tree of the pistacia genus growing up to 4 m tall, cultivated for its aromatic resin on the Greek island of Chios. Pistacia lentiscus is a shrub or dioecious tree, with separate male and female plants, evergreen from 1 to 5 m high, with a strong smell of resin, growing in dry and rocky areas in Mediterranean Europe, it resists heavy frosts and grows on all types of soils, can grow well in limestone areas and in salty or saline environments, making it more abundant near the sea. It is found in woodlands, Kermes oak wood, oaks wood, maquis, gorges and rocky hillsides of the entire Mediterranean area, it is a typical species that grows in Mediterranean mixed communities of myrtle, Kermes oak, Mediterranean dwarf palm, sarsaparilla, etc. and serves as protection and food for birds and other fauna in this ecosystem. It is a hardy pioneer species dispersed by birds; when older, it develops numerous thicker and longer branches. In appropriate areas, when allowed to grow and age, it becomes a tree of up to 7 m.
However, logging and fires prevent its development. The leaves are alternate and compound paripinnate with five or six pairs of deep-green leaflets, it presents small flowers, the male with five stamens, the female trifid style. The fruit is a drupe, first red and black when ripe, about 4 mm in diameter. In tourist areas, with palmitos or Mediterranean dwarf palm, exotic plants, it is chosen to repopulate gardens and resorts, because of its strength and attractive appearance. Unlike other species of Pistacia, it retains its leaves throughout the year, it has been introduced as an ornamental shrub in Mexico, where it has naturalized and is seen in suburban and semiarid areas where the summer rainfall climate, contrary to the Mediterranean, does not hurt it. A related species, P. saportae, has been shown by DNA analysis to be a hybrid between maternal P. lentiscus and paternal P. terebinthus. The hybrid has imparipinnate leaves, with leaflets semipersistent, subsessile terminal, sometimes reduced.
P. terebinthus and P. lentiscus occupy different biotopes and overlap: Mastic appears at lower elevations and near the sea, while the P. terebinthus most inhabits inland and mountainous areas such as the Iberian System. Pistacia lentiscus is native throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Iberian peninsula in the west through southern France and Turkey to Iraq and Iran in the east, it is native to the Canary Islands. The word mastic derives from the Latin word "Masticare", in Greek: μαστιχάω verb mastichein or massein. Within the European Union, mastic production in Chios is granted protected designation of origin and protected geographical indication names. Although the tree is native to all of the Mediterranean region, only on southern Chios is the mastic trees' bark scored to "weep" the masticha resin; the island's mastic production is controlled by a co-operative of medieval villages, collectively known as the'Mastichochoria', which are located in the southern part of Chios.
The aromatic, ivory-coloured resin known as mastic, is harvested as a spice from the cultivated mastic trees grown in the south of the Greek island of Chios in the Aegean Sea, where it is known by the name "Chios tears". Liquid, it is hardened, when the weather turns cold, into drops or patties of hard, translucent resin; when chewed, the resin becomes a bright white and opaque gum. The resin is collected by bleeding the trees from small cuts made in the bark of the main branches, allowing the sap to drip onto the specially prepared ground below; the harvesting is done during the summer between September. After the mastic is collected, it is washed manually and is set aside to dry, away from the sun, as it will start melting again. Mastic resin is a expensive kind of spice; the flavour can be described as a strong smoky, resiny aroma and can be an acquired taste. Some scholars identify the bakha בכא mentioned in the Bible—as in the Valley of Baca of Psalm 84—with the mastic plant; the word bakha appears to be derived from the Hebrew word for crying or weeping, is thought to refer to the "tears" of resin secreted by the mastic plant, along with a sad weeping noise which occurs when the plant is walked on and branches are broken.
The Valley of Baca is thought to be a valley near Jerusalem, covered with low mastic shrubbery, much like some hillsides in northern Israel today. In an additional biblical reference, King David receives divine counsel to place himself opposite the Philistines coming up the Valley of Rephaim, southwest of Jerusalem, such that the "sound of walking on the tops of the bakha shrubs" signals the moment to attack. Mastic is known to have been popular in Roman times when children chewed it, in Medieval times, it was prized for the Sultan's harem both as a breath freshener and for cosmetics, it was the Sultan's privilege to chew mastic, it was considered to have healing properties. The spice's use was widened when Chios became part of the Ottoman Empire, it remains popular in North Africa and the Near East; the Mastichochoria are located in the southern part of Chios. Mastic gum is principally
Sapindales is an order of flowering plants. Well-known members of Sapindales include citrus; the APG III system of 2009 includes it in the clade malvids with the following nine families: Anacardiaceae Biebersteiniaceae Burseraceae Kirkiaceae Meliaceae Nitrariaceae Rutaceae Sapindaceae SimaroubaceaeThe APG II system of 2003 allowed the optional segregation of families now included in the Nitrariaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Rutaceae were placed in the order Rutales, in the superorder Rutiflorae; the Cronquist system of 1981 used a somewhat different circumscription, including the following families: Staphyleaceae Melianthaceae Bretschneideraceae Akaniaceae Sapindaceae Hippocastanaceae Aceraceae Burseraceae Anacardiaceae Julianiaceae Simaroubaceae Cneoraceae Meliaceae Rutaceae ZygophyllaceaeThe difference from the APG III system is not as large as may appear, as the plants in the families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae stay in this order at APG III. The species now composing the family Nitrariaceae in APG III belonged to this order in the Cronquist system as part of the family Zygophyllaceae, while those now in the family Kirkiaceae were present as part of the family Simaroubaceae.
Pell, Susan Katherine. Molecular systematics of the cashew family. Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie