An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, most used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are special-purpose ovens used in metalworking, respectively; the earliest ovens were found in Central Europe, dated to 29,000 BC. They were boiling pits inside yurts used to cook mammoth. In Ukraine from 20,000 BC they used pits with hot coals covered in ashes; the food was wrapped in leaves and set on top covered with earth. In camps found in Mezhirich, each mammoth bone house had a hearth used for cooking. Ovens were used by cultures who lived in pre-dynastic Egypt. By 3200 BC, each mud-brick house had an oven in settlements across the Indus Valley. Ovens were used to make bricks. Pre-dynastic civilizations in Egypt used kilns around 5000–4000 BC to make pottery. Culinary historians credit the Greeks for developing bread baking significantly. Front-loaded bread ovens were developed in ancient Greece; the Greeks created a wide variety of doughs, loaf shapes, styles of serving bread with other foods.
Baking developed as a trade and profession as bread was prepared outside of the family home by specially trained workers to be sold to the public. During the Middle Ages, instead of earth and ceramic ovens, Europeans used fireplaces in conjunction with large cauldrons; these were similar to the Dutch oven. Following the Middle-Ages, ovens underwent many changes over time from wood, coal and electric; each design had purpose. The wood burning stoves saw improvement through the addition of fire chambers that allowed better containment and release of smoke. Another recognizable oven would be the cast-iron stove; these were first used around the early 1700s when they themselves underwent several variations including the Stewart Oberlin iron stove, smaller and had its own chimney. In the early part of the 19th century, the coal oven was developed, it was cylindrical in shape and made of heavy cast-iron. The gas oven saw its first use as early as the beginning of the 19th century as well. Gas stoves became common household ovens once gas lines were available to most houses and neighborhoods.
James Sharp patented one of the first gas stoves in 1826. Other various improvements to the gas stove included the AGA cooker invented in 1922 by Gustaf Dalén; the first electric ovens were invented in the late 19th century, like many electrical inventions destined for commercial use, mass ownership of electrical ovens could not be a reality until better and more efficient use of electricity was available. More ovens have become more high-tech in terms of cooking strategy; the microwave as a cooking tool was discovered by Percy Spencer in 1946, with the help from engineers, the microwave oven was patented. The microwave oven uses microwave radiation to excite the molecules in food causing friction, thus producing heat. Double oven: a built-in oven fixture that has either two ovens, or one oven and one microwave oven, it is built into the kitchen cabinet. Earth oven: An earth oven is a pit dug into the ground and heated by rocks or smoldering debris; these have been used by many cultures for cooking.
Cooking times are long, the process is cooking by slow roasting the food. Earth ovens are among the most common things archaeologists look for at an anthropological dig, as they are one of the key indicators of human civilization and static society. Ceramic oven: The ceramic oven is an oven constructed of clay or any other ceramic material and takes different forms depending on the culture; the Indians refer to it as a tandoor, use it for cooking. They can be dated back as far as 3,000 BC, they have been argued to have their origins in the Indus Valley. Brick ovens are another ceramic type oven. A culture most notable for the use of brick ovens is its intimate history with pizza. However, its history dates further back to Roman times, wherein the brick oven was used not only for commercial use but household use as well. Gas oven: One of the first recorded uses of a gas stove and oven referenced a dinner party in 1802 hosted by Zachaus Winzler, where all the food was prepared either on a gas stove or in its oven compartment.
In 1834, British inventor James Sharp began to commercially produce gas ovens after installing one in his own house. In 1851, the Bower's Registered Gas Stove was displayed at the Great Exhibition; this stove would set the basis for the modern gas oven. Notable improvements to the gas stove since include the addition of the thermostat which assisted in temperature regulation. Masonry oven: Masonry ovens consist of a baking chamber made of fireproof brick, stone, or clay. Though traditionally wood-fired, coal-fired ovens were common in the 19th century. Modern masonry ovens are fired with natural gas or electricity, are associated with artisanal bread and pizza. In the past, they were used for any cooking task that required baking. Microwave oven: An oven that uses micro radiation waves as a source of heat in order to cook food as opposed to a fire source. Conceptualized in 1946, Dr. Percy Spencer discovered the heating properties of microwaves while studying the magnetron. By 1947, the first commercial microwave was in use in Mass..
Toaster oven: Toaster ovens are small electric ovens with a front door, wire rack and removable baking pan. To toast bread with a toaster oven, slices of bread are placed horizontally on the rack; when the toast is done, the toaster turns off, but in most case
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro. It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties. South Slavic dialects formed a continuum; the turbulent history of the area due to expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in a patchwork of dialectal and religious differences. Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian. Bosniaks and Serbs differ in religion and were often part of different cultural circles, although a large part of the nations have lived side by side under foreign overlords. During that period, the language was referred to under a variety of names, such as "Slavic" in general or "Serbian", "Croatian", ”Bosnian”, "Slavonian" or "Dalmatian" in particular. In a classicizing manner, it was referred to as "Illyrian"; the process of linguistic standardization of Serbo-Croatian was initiated in the mid-19th-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established.
From the beginning, there were different literary Serbian and Croatian standards, although both were based on the same Shtokavian subdialect, Eastern Herzegovinian. In the 20th century, Serbo-Croatian served as the official language of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, as one of the official languages of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the breakup of Yugoslavia affected language attitudes, so that social conceptions of the language separated on ethnic and political lines. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bosnian has been established as an official standard in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is an ongoing movement to codify a separate Montenegrin standard. Serbo-Croatian thus goes by the names Serbian, Croatian and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac. Like other South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian has a simple phonology, with the common five-vowel system and twenty-five consonants, its grammar evolved from Common Slavic, with complex inflection, preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns and adjectives.
Verbs exhibit imperfective or perfective aspect, with a moderately complex tense system. Serbo-Croatian is a pro-drop language with flexible word order, subject–verb–object being the default, it can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, the orthography is phonemic in all standards. Throughout the history of the South Slavs, the vernacular and written languages of the various regions and ethnicities developed and diverged independently. Prior to the 19th century, they were collectively called "Illyric", "Slavic", "Slavonian", "Bosnian", "Dalmatian", "Serbian" or "Croatian". Since the XIX century the term Illyric was used quite often. Although the word Illyrian was used on a few occasions before, the widespread usage of the term began after Ljudevit Gaj and several other prominent linguists met at Ljudevit Vukotinović's house to discuss the issue in 1832; the term Serbo-Croatian was first used by Jacob Grimm in 1824, popularized by the Viennese philologist Jernej Kopitar in the following decades, accepted by Croatian Zagreb grammarians in 1854 and 1859.
At that time and Croat lands were still part of the Ottoman and Austrian Empires. The language was called variously Serbo-Croat, Croato-Serbian and Croatian, Croatian and Serbian, Serbian or Croatian, Croatian or Serbian. Unofficially and Croats called the language "Serbian" or "Croatian" without implying a distinction between the two, again in independent Bosnia and Herzegovina, "Bosnian", "Croatian", "Serbian" were considered to be three names of a single official language. Croatian linguist Dalibor Brozović advocated the term Serbo-Croatian as late as 1988, claiming that in an analogy with Indo-European, Serbo-Croatian does not only name the two components of the same language, but charts the limits of the region in which it is spoken and includes everything between the limits. Today, use of the term "Serbo-Croatian" is controversial due to the prejudice that nation and language must match, it is still used for lack of a succinct alternative, though alternative names have emerged, such as Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, seen in political contexts such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.
Old Church Slavonic was adopted as the language of the liturgy. This language was adapted to non-liturgical purposes and became known as the Croatian version of Old Slavonic; the two variants of the language and non-liturgical, continued to be a part of the Glagolitic service as late as the middle of the 19th century. The earliest known Croatian Church Slavonic Glagolitic manuscripts are the Glagolita Clozianus and the Vienna Folia from the 11th century; the beginning of written Serbo-Croatian can be traced from the 10th century and on when Serbo-Croatian medieval texts were written in five scripts: Latin, Early Cyrillic, Bosnian Cyrillic, Arebica, the last principally by Bosniak nobility. Serbo-Croatian competed with the more established literary languages of Latin
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Hummus is a Levantine dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice and garlic. It is popular in the Middle East and Mediterranean, as well as in Middle Eastern cuisine around the globe, it can be found in most grocery stores in North America and Europe. "Hummus" comes from the Arabic word meaning "chickpeas", the complete name of the prepared spread in Arabic is ḥummuṣ bi ṭaḥīna which means "chickpeas with tahini". Spelling of the word in English can be inconsistent. "Hummus" is the most common spelling in both British English. The spelling "houmous" is however common enough in British English to be listed as a less common spelling in some UK dictionaries but not, for example, in the Cambridge online dictionary; some US dictionaries list other spellings such as humus and hommos, but not Merriam-Webster, for example. Although there are a number of different theories and claims of origins in various parts of the Middle East, there is insufficient evidence to determine the precise location or time of the invention of hummus.
Its basic ingredients—chickpeas, sesame and garlic—have been combined and eaten in the Levant over centuries. Though chickpeas were eaten in the region, they were cooked in stews and other hot dishes, puréed chickpeas eaten cold with tahini do not appear before the Abbasid period in Egypt and the Levant; the earliest known written recipes for a dish resembling hummus bi tahina are recorded in cookbooks written in Cairo in the 13th century. A cold purée of chickpeas with vinegar and pickled lemons with herbs and oil, but no tahini or garlic, appears in the Kanz al-Fawa'id fi Tanwi' al-Mawa'id, it is served by rolling it out and letting it sit overnight, which gives it a different texture from hummus bi tahina. As an appetizer and dip, hummus is scooped with flatbread, such as pita, it is served as part of a meze or as an accompaniment to falafel, grilled chicken, fish, or eggplant. Garnishes include chopped tomato, coriander, caramelized onions, sautéed mushrooms, whole chickpeas, olive oil, hard-boiled eggs, sumac, olives and pine nuts.
Outside the Middle East, it is sometimes served with tortilla crackers. Hummus ful is topped with a paste made from fava beans boiled until soft and crushed. Hummus msabbaha/mashawsha is a mixture of hummus paste, warm chickpeas, tahini. Hummus is a popular dip in Egypt where it is eaten with pita, flavored with cumin or other spices. For Palestinians and Jordanians, hummus has long been a staple food served warm, with bread for breakfast, lunch or dinner. All of the ingredients in hummus are found in Palestinian gardens and markets, thus adding to the availability and popularity of the dish. In Palestine, hummus is garnished, with olive oil, "nana" mint leaves and parsley. A related dish popular in Palestine and Jordan is laban ma' hummus, which uses yogurt in the place of tahini and butter in the place of olive oil and is topped with pieces of toasted bread. Hummus is a common part of everyday meals in Israel, it is made from ingredients that, following Kashrut, can be combined with both dairy meals.
Jewish immigrants arriving from Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century adopted much of the local Palestinian cuisine, including hummus, though it traditionally has been part of the cuisine of the Mizrahi Jews who lived in Arabic-speaking lands. The many Mizrahi Jewish immigrants from these countries brought their own unique variations, such as hummus with fried eggplant and boiled eggs prepared by Iraqi Jews, Hasa Al Hummus, a chickpea soup preferred by Moroccans; the Yemenite quarter of Tel Aviv is known for its hummus with traditional skhug hot sauce. More African immigrants have brought specialties such as Sudanese Hummus Darfur, with eggs and grated cheese. Arab Israelis and Jews alike seek out authentic hummus in Arab hummusia, restaurants specializing in hummus, making famous such Arab villages as Abu Gosh and Kafr Yasif. Enthusiasts travel to the more remote Arab and Druze villages in the northern Galilee region in search of the perfect hummus experience. Although sometimes criticized as Jewish appropriation of Palestinian and Arab culture, hummus has been adopted as an unofficial "national dish" of Israel, reflecting its huge popularity and significance among the entire Israeli population.
Many restaurants run by Mizrahi Jews and Arab citizens of Israel are dedicated to warm hummus, which may be served as chick peas softened with baking soda along with garlic, olive oil and tahini. One of the hummus versions available is msabbaha, made with lemon-spiked tahini garnished with whole chick peas, a sprinkling of paprika and a drizzle of olive oil. One author calls hummus, "One of the most popular and best-known of all Syrian dishes" and a "must on any mezzeh table." Syrians in Canada's Arab diaspora prepare and consume hummus along with other dishes like falafel and tabbouleh among the third- and fourth-generation offspring of the original immigrants. In Cyprus, hummus is part of the local cuisine in both Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities where it is called "humoi". In Turkey, hummus is considered as a meze and oven-dried wi
Proofing (baking technique)
Proofing, as the term is used by bakers, is the final rise of shaped bread dough before baking. It refers to a specific rest period within the more generalized process known as fermentation. Fermentation is a step in creating yeast breads and baked goods where the yeast is allowed to leaven the dough. Fermentation rest periods are not always explicitly named, can appear in recipes as "Allow dough to rise." When they are named, terms include "bulk fermentation," "first rise," "second rise," "final proof" and "shaped proof." Proofing yeast refers to the process of first dissolving yeast in warm water, a needed hydration step when using active dry yeast. Proofing can refer to testing the viability of yeast by dissolving it in water and feeding it sugar or carbohydrate. If the yeast is viable, it will feed on the sugar and produce a visible layer of bubbles on the surface of the water mixture; the process of making yeast-leavened bread involves a series of alternating rest periods. Work periods occur.
Some work periods are called mixing and folding, as well as division and panning. Work periods are followed by rest periods, which occur when dough is allowed to sit undisturbed. Particular rest periods include, but are not limited to, bulk fermentation and proofing. Proofing sometimes called final fermentation, is the specific term for allowing dough to rise after it has been shaped and before it is baked; some breads begin mixing with an autolyse. This refers to a period of rest after the initial mixing of flour and water, a rest period that occurs sequentially before the addition of yeast and other ingredients; this rest period helps the gluten and starches to align. The autolyse is credited to Raymond Calvel, who recommended it as a way to reduce kneading time and thereby improve the flavor and color of bread. Proofing the yeast is a hydration or dissolving process that occurs when dry yeast is mixed with warm water and allowed to rest for a short time; the minimum weight of water required may be calculated: yeast weight x 4 = water weight.
Yeast viability can be tested by mixing yeast in warm water and sugar, following a short rest period during which it first dissolves begins to grow, a layer of foam is developed by the action of the yeast, a sign of primary fermentation and live yeast. Using US customary volume units, ¼ cup water at 105–115 °F and ½ teaspoon of sugar are used, or expressed differently, a sugar weight of about 3.5% of the water's weight. While this sugar may be sucrose or table sugar, instead it may be maltose. Fermentation begins when viable baker's yeast or a starter culture is added to flour and water. Enzymes in the flour and yeast create sugars, which are consumed by the yeast, which in turn produce carbon dioxide and alcohol; the grain enzyme diastase begins to convert starch in the grain to maltose. The baker's yeast enzyme maltase converts maltose into glucose, invertase converts any added sucrose to glucose and fructose, zymase converts glucose and fructose to carbon dioxide gas which makes the dough rise, alcohol which gives the baked bread flavor.
Sourdough starters produce lactic and acetic acids, further contributing to flavor. When the yeast cells die, they release high quantities of a protease which snip protein strands, in large dieoffs result in soft, sticky dough, less baked volume and a coarse crumb, but in smaller dieoffs, increase dough extensibility and baked volume. Different bread varieties will have different process requirements; these are classified as either straight or sponge dough processes. Straight doughs will require only a single mixing period. During bulk fermentation straight-dough recipes may instruct a baker to "punch down" or "deflate" the dough, while artisan bakers will use terms like "stretching," "folding," and "degassing," meaning to expel gas from the carbon dioxide bubbles that have formed. Sponge doughs will need multiple mixing periods. Overproofing occurs, its bubbles have grown so large that they have popped and tunneled, dough baked at this point would result in a bread with poor structure. Length of rest periods, including proofing, can be determined by time at specific temperatures or by characteristics.
The "poke method" is used to determine if a dough has risen long enough. If the dough, when poked, springs back it is underproofed and needs more time; some breads are considered proofed if the indent left by the poke springs back while others are considered proofed when the indent remains and does not spring back. A bread, properly proofed will balance gas production with the ability of the bread's gluten structure to contain it, will exhibit good oven spring when baked. A bread, under- or overproofed will have less oven spring and be more dense. An overproofed bread may collapse in the oven as the volume of gas produced by the yeast can no longer be contained by the gluten structure. Retarding may occur at any time during fermentation and is accomplished by placing the dough into a dough retarder, refrigerator, or other cold environment to slow the activity of the yeast; the retarding stage is used in sourdough bread recipes to allow the bread to develop its characteristic flavor. A cold fermentation stage is sometimes used to develop flavor in other artisan breads, with a part of the dough before the final mixing, with the entire dough during bulk fermentation, or in the final fermentation stages after shaping.
To ensure c
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. Covering an area of 255,804 km², the SFRY was bordered by the Adriatic Sea and Italy to the west and Hungary to the north and Romania to the east, Albania and Greece to the south; the nation was a socialist state and a federation governed by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia and made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia with Belgrade as its capital. In addition, it included two autonomous provinces within Serbia: Vojvodina; the SFRY's origin is traced to 26 November 1942, when the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia was formed during World War II. On 29 November 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed after the deposition of King Peter II, thus ending the monarchy.
Until 1948, the new communist government sided with the Eastern Bloc under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito at the beginning of the Cold War, but after the Tito–Stalin split of 1948, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality. It became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, transitioned from a planned economy to market socialism; the SFRY maintained neutrality during the Cold War as part of its foreign policy. It was a founding member of CERN, the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, OSCE, IFAD, WTO, BTWC. Following the death of Tito on 4 May 1980, the Yugoslav economy started to collapse, which increased unemployment and inflation; the economic crisis led to a rise in ethnic nationalism in early 1990s. With the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, inter-republic talks on transformation of the federation failed. In 1991 some European states recognized their independence; the federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.
Two of its republics and Montenegro, remained within a reconstituted state known as the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia", but this union was not recognized internationally as the official successor state to the SFRY. The term "former Yugoslavia" is now used retrospectively; the name Yugoslavia, an Anglicised transcription of Jugoslavija, is a composite word made up of jug and slavija. The Slavic word jug means'south', while slavija denotes a'land of the Slavs'. Thus, a translation of Jugoslavija would be'South-Slavia' or'Land of the South Slavs'; the full official name of the federation varied between 1945 and 1992. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 under the name Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In January 1929, King Alexander I assumed dictatorship of the kingdom and renamed it the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, for the first time making the term "Yugoslavia"—which had been used colloquially for decades —the official name of the state. After the Kingdom was occupied by the Axis during World War II, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia announced in 1943 the formation of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in the substantial resistance-controlled areas of the country.
The name deliberately left the republic-or-kingdom question open. In 1945, King Peter II was deposed, with the state reorganized as a republic, accordingly renamed Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, with the constitution coming into force in 1946. In 1963, amid pervasive liberal constitutional reforms, the name Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was introduced; the state is most referred to by the latter name, which it held for the longest period of all. Of the three main Yugoslav languages, the Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian language name for the state was identical, while Slovene differed in capitalization and the spelling of the adjective "Socialist"; the names are as follows: Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian languages Latin: Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija Cyrillic: Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: Macedonian pronunciation: Slovene language Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija Due to the length of the name, abbreviations were used to refer to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, though the state was most known as Yugoslavia.
The most common abbreviation is SFRY, though SFR Yugoslavia was used in an official capacity by the media. On 6 April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers led by Nazi Germany. Yugoslav resistance was soon established in two forms, the Royal Yugoslav Army in the Homeland and the Communist Yugoslav Partisans; the Partisan supreme commander was Josip Broz Tito, under his command the movement soon began establishing "liberated territories" which attracted the attention of occupying forces. Unlike the various nationalist militias operating in occupied Yugoslavia, the Partisans were a pan-Yugoslav movement promoting the "brotherhood and unity" of Yugoslav nations, representing the republican, left-wing, socialist elements of the Yugoslav political
Dough is a thick, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops. Dough is made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings; the process of making and shaping dough is a precursor to making a wide variety of foodstuffs breads and bread-based items, but including biscuits, cookies, flatbreads, pasta, pizza and similar items. Doughs are made from a wide variety of flours wheat but flours made from maize, rye, legumes and other cereals and crops used around the world. Doughs vary depending on ingredients, the kind of product being produced, the type of leavening agent, how the dough is mixed, cooking or baking technique. There is no formal definition of. Leavened or fermented doughs are used all over the world to make various breads. Salt, oils or fats, sugars or honey and sometimes milk or eggs are common ingredients in bread dough.
Commercial bread doughs may include dough conditioners, a class of ingredients that aid in dough consistency and final product. Flatbreads such as pita, lavash, matzah or matzo, roti, sangak and yufka are eaten around the world and are made from dough; some flatbreads, such as naan, use leavening agents. Crackers are made from dough, some are leavened. Pasta and noodles are based on unleavened doughs that are worked until they are dry and smooth, shaped into their final form; the finished pasta may be cooked or dried before cooking. Doughs with higher fat content have a lesser water content, develop less gluten and are therefore less elastic than bread doughs; this category includes many pie crust doughs, such as shortcrust pastry. In many parts of central India, people use the quick method of making an instant roasted dough ball or baati. In countries in the Sahel region of Africa, dough balls called aiysh or biya are made from sorghum or millet, are ground and boiled. Quick breads use leavening agents other than yeast, include most cookies, cakes and more.
Techniques used in dough production depend on the type of final product. For yeast-based and sponge breads, a common production technique is the dough is mixed and left to rise. Many bread doughs call for a second stage, where the dough is kneaded again, shaped into the final form, left to rise a final time before baking. Kneading is the process of working a dough to produce a elastic dough by developing gluten; this process is both time-dependent. Pasta is made from a dry dough, kneaded and shaped, either through extrusion, rolling out in a pasta machine, or stretched or shaped by hand. Pasta may be cooked directly after dried, which renders it shelf-stable. Doughs for biscuits and many flatbreads which are not leavened with yeast are mixed but not kneaded or left to rise. While breads and other products made from doughs are baked, some types of dough-based foods are cooked over direct heat, such as tortillas, which are cooked directly on a griddle. Fried dough foods are common in many cultures.
Pancakes, some kinds of bar cookies such as brownies, many cakes and quick breads are made with a semi-liquid batter of flour and liquid, poured into the final shape, rather than a solid dough. Unlike bread dough, these batters are not stabilized by the formation of a gluten network. Acetone peroxide is an oxidizing agent used to strengthen flour; this product speeds up the oxidation process which allows companies to produce baked goods faster and more efficiently. Ammonium persulfate is used in baking, which acts to improve baking color of flour; this additive supplies nitrogen for the yeast which improves consistency and shelf life. It serves to control the pH of flour and baked products. Ascorbic acid, otherwise known as vitamin C, is used as an antioxidant in dough. By controlling the amount of oxygen reacting with the bread products, it acts to promote optimal taste and texture, it is used as an ingredient preservative in baked goods, as it increases the shelf life by controlling oxidation.
This additive can boost a product's vitamin content, when used in bread, it enhances the elasticity and size of the loaf when baked. Azodicarbonamide is used as a bleaching agent in flour and helps the dough rise through its conditioning properties. There is however public concern over the use of azodicarbonamide being used in yoga mats and other plastic foams, as it has been associated with respiratory problems. A Canadian expert argues that respiratory problems associated with azodicarbonamide are associated with workers in industrial plants who inhale the chemical, the reason some countries have banned th