Pittsburgh Tribune-Review

The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review known as "the Trib," is the second largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Although it transitioned to an all-digital format on December 1, 2016, it remains the second largest daily in the state, amassing nearly one million unique page views a month. Founded on August 22, 1811, as the Greensburg Gazette and in 1889 consolidated with several papers into the Greensburg Tribune-Review, the paper circulated only in the eastern suburban counties of Westmoreland and parts of Indiana and Fayette until May 1992, when it began serving all of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area after a strike at the two Pittsburgh dailies, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and Pittsburgh Press, deprived the city of a newspaper for several months; the Tribune-Review Publishing Company was owned by Richard Mellon Scaife, an heir to the Mellon banking and aluminum fortune, until his death in July 2014. Scaife was a major funder of conservative organizations, including the Arkansas Project.

Accordingly, the Tribune-Review has maintained a conservative editorial stance, contrasting with the more liberal Post-Gazette. In addition to its flagship paper, the company publishes 17 weekly community newspapers, the Pittsburgh Pennysaver, as well as and The paper began as the Gazette on August 22, 1811. After a series of name changes and mergers it became the Greensburg Daily Tribune in 1889. In 1924, it and the Greensburg Morning Review, launched by David J. Berry in 1903, consolidated their interests under a single ownership. Both papers continued separate publication until 1955, when they merged to form the Greensburg Tribune-Review. Scaife bought the Tribune-Review in 1970. Scaife was a decade early in trying to unarm the Post-Gazette. In 1981–82, he started a short-lived eastern suburbs paper, The Daily-Sunday Tribune; the Tribune-Review owns several "satellite" papers that insert or surround the regional publication with neighborhood specific stories.

The Valley News Dispatch, of Pittsburgh suburbs Tarentum and New Kensington is one such satellite. Local journalism student John Filo worked for the publication while attending nearby Kent State University and served as the Valley News Dispatch's correspondent of the Kent State shootings, his photography that day has ascended to iconic status and won the paper its only Pulitzer Prize. During a newspaper strike that temporarily shut down the Post-Gazette and closed the Pittsburgh Press, Scaife launched the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, an edition of the Greensburg-based Tribune-Review covering Allegheny County and Pittsburgh. Over time, it became a stand-alone newspaper headquartered on Pittsburgh's North Side. In 1997, Scaife added to his small collection of newspapers by purchasing The Daily Courier of Connellsville, the Leader Times of Kittanning and The Valley Independent of Monessen from Thomson Newspapers. In late 1997, Scaife's NewsWorks facility opened in the North Hills. In December 1997, the Tribune-Review company purchased the North Hills News Record though four months earlier, then-Trib president Ed Harrell told the Pittsburgh Business Times that the company was not interested in the News Record.

Nine months after purchasing the North Hills News Record from Gannett Company, Tribune-Review Publishing Co. announced the paper would be merged with the Pittsburgh Trib. The News Record was most successful during the newspaper strike of the early 1990s. At its demise, the North Hills News Record had a daily circulation of more than 16,000, nearly 1,000 less than its circulation before the Trib bought it. In early 2000, the Trib announced the "News Record" name would retire after more than two years of a combined "Tribune-Review/North Hills News Record" banner. North Hills coverage would be wrapped into the Trib's neighborhoods section. In 2000, the Trib announced it would convert its Irwin-based paper, the daily Standard Observer, into a twice-weekly regional section of the Greensburg Tribune-Review. Citing a "sagging economy", the Trib laid off more than four percent of its workforce in 2003, including freelance writers. More shakeups continued in 2005 as circulation numbers dropped and a top official left.

An online message board featured back and forth fights between Pittsburgh and Greensburg employees. Edward Harrell, then-president of the Tribune Review Publishing Company, announced in January 2005 that most of the regional editions of the paper would have their newsroom and circulation departments merged and staff reductions would follow; the merged papers include the Tribune-Review of Greensburg, the Valley News Dispatch of Tarentum, The Leader-Times of Kittanning, The Daily Courier of Connellsville and the Blairsville Dispatch. The Valley Independent, the only paper with a unionized newsroom and contract, was not affected; the company incorporated as Trib Total Media in the summer of 2005, purchased Gateway Newspapers, a community publication group servicing 22 communities, at the time, in and around Pittsburgh's Allegheny County. Two managers were laid off; the exact number of proposed redundancies was not announced. In September 2005, Harrell announced his retirement as president of Tribune-Review Publishing Company, effective December 31, 2005.

He had served as president since 1989. Several staff writers were laid off in December 2005 as two of Gateway's newspapers were discontinued. In May 2008, the Post-Gazette and the Trib reached a deal for one company to deliver both papers; the Post-Gazette would begin delivering the Trib to most of the area with some exceptions. Terms of the deal were not disclosed. On June 20, 2008, Trib Total Media publicly announced it was closing several weekly newspapers in the Gateway Newspapers chain; the papers affected include: Bridgevil


Trachelospermum Star Jasmine, Confederate Jasmine, is a genus of evergreen woody vines in the dogbane family Apocynaceae, first described as a genus in 1851. All species are native to eastern Asia, they have long stems more high in trees. The leaves are simple broad lanceolate to ovate, 2 -- 8 cm long and 0.5 -- 4 cm broad. The flowers are salverform, simple, 2.5–7 cm broad, with five white, pale yellow or purple petals joined together at the base to form a tube. The generic name Trachelospermum comes from the Greek meaning "neck seed", referring to the seed shape. Trachelospermum asiaticum Nakai - China, Korea, Assam, Borneo, W Malaysia Trachelospermum assamense Woodson - Assam, Bhutan Trachelospermum axillare Hook.f. - China, Thailand, Myanmar Trachelospermum bodinieri Woodson - Tibet, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hunan, Taiwan, Zhejiang Trachelospermum brevistylum Hand.-Mazz. - Anhui, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, Tibet Trachelospermum dunnii H. Lév. - Guangxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Vietnam Trachelospermum inflatum Pierre ex Pichon - Java, Sumatra Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem.

Japan, Laos, Anhui, Guangdong, Guizhou, Henan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang Trachelospermum lucidum K. Schum. - Himalayas Trachelospermum ninhii Lý - C Vietnam Trachelospermum vanoverberghii Merr. - Luzon in Philippines Trachelospermum anceps = Kibatalia macrophylla Trachelospermum auritum = Epigynum auritum Trachelospermum curtisii = Epigynum auritum Trachelospermum difforme = Thyrsanthella difformis Trachelospermum esquirolii = Melodinus fusiformis Trachelospermum laurifolium = Kibatalia laurifolia Trachelospermum navaillei = Aganosma schlechteriana Trachelospermum obtusifolium = Anodendron wrayi Trachelospermum philippinense = Micrechites serpyllifolius Trachelospermum slootenii = Chonemorpha verrucosa Trachelospermum stans = Mandevilla foliosa Trachelospermum verrucosa = Chonemorpha verrucosa Some species - notably T. asiaticum and T. jasminoides - are cultivated for their foliage and strongly-scented flowers. Trachelospermum jasminoides

Daytona Beach, Florida

Daytona Beach is a city in Volusia County, United States. It lies 51 miles northeast of Orlando, 86 miles southeast of Jacksonville, 265 miles northwest of Miami; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, it had a population of 61,005, it is a principal city of the Deltona–Daytona Beach–Ormond Beach metropolitan area, home to 600,756 people as of 2013. Daytona Beach is a principal city of the Fun Coast region of Florida; the city is known for its beach, where the hard-packed sand allows motorized vehicles to drive on the beach in restricted areas. This hard-packed sand made Daytona Beach a mecca for motorsports, the old Daytona Beach Road Course hosted races for over 50 years; this was replaced in 1959 by Daytona International Speedway. The city is the headquarters for NASCAR. Daytona Beach hosts large groups of out-of-towners during the year, who visit the city for various events, notably Speedweeks in early February when over 200,000 NASCAR fans come to attend the season-opening Daytona 500. Other events include the NASCAR Coke Zero Sugar 400 race in July, Bike Week in early March, Biketoberfest in late October, the 24 Hours of Daytona endurance race in January.

The area where Daytona Beach is located was once inhabited by the indigenous Timucuan Indians who lived in fortified villages. The Timucuas were nearly exterminated by contact with Europeans through war and disease and became extinct as a racial entity through assimilation and attrition during the 18th century; the Seminole Indians, descendants of Creek Indians from Georgia and Alabama, frequented the area prior to the Second Seminole War. During the era of British rule of Florida between 1763 and 1783, the King's Road passed through present-day Daytona Beach; the road extended from Saint Augustine, the capital of East Florida, to Andrew Turnbull's experimental colony in New Smyrna. In 1804 Samuel Williams received a land grant of 3,000 acres from the Spanish Crown, which had regained Florida from the British after the American Revolution; this land grant encompassed the area. Williams built a slave-labor-based plantation to grow cotton and sugar cane, his son Samuel Hill Williams would abandon the plantation during the Second Seminole War, when the Seminoles burned it to the ground.

The area now known as the Daytona Beach Historical District was once the Orange Grove Plantation, a citrus and sugar cane plantation granted to Samuel Williams in 1787. The plantation was situated on the west bank of the tidal channel known as the Halifax River, 12 miles north of Mosquito Inlet. Williams was a British loyalist from North Carolina who fled to the Bahamas with his family until the Spanish reopened Florida to non-Spanish immigration. After his death in 1810, the plantation was run by his family until it was burned down in 1835. In 1871, Mathias Day Jr. of Mansfield, purchased the 3,200 acre tract of the former Orange Grove Plantation. He built a hotel. In 1872, due to financial troubles, Day lost title to his land. In 1886, the St. Johns & Halifax River Railway arrived in Daytona; the line would be purchased in 1889 by Henry M. Flagler, who made it part of his Florida East Coast Railway; the separate towns of Daytona, Daytona Beach and Seabreeze merged as "Daytona Beach" in 1926, at the urging of civic leader J.

B. Kahn and others. By the 1920s, it was dubbed "The World's Most Famous Beach". Daytona's wide beach of smooth, compacted sand attracted automobile and motorcycle races beginning in 1902, as pioneers in the industry tested their inventions, it hosted land speed record attempts beginning in 1904, when William K. Vanderbilt set an unofficial record of 92.307 mph. Land speed racers from Barney Oldfield to Henry Seagrave to Malcolm Campbell would visit Daytona and make the 23 mi beach course famous. Record attempts, including numerous fatal endeavors such as Frank Lockhart and Lee Bible, would continue until Campbell's March 7, 1935 effort, which set the record at 276.816 mph and marked the end of Daytona's land speed racing days. On March 8, 1936, the first stock car race was held on the Daytona Beach Road Course, located in the present-day Town of Ponce Inlet. In 1958, William France Sr. and NASCAR created the Daytona International Speedway to replace the beach course. Automobiles are still permitted at a maximum speed of 10 mph.

Daytona Beach is located at 29°12′N 81°2′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 64.93 sq mi. of which 58.68 sq mi is land and 6.25 sq mi is water, with water thus comprising 9.6% of the total area. The city of Daytona Beach is split in two by the Halifax River lagoon, part of the Intracoastal Waterway, sits on the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered on the north by Holly Hill and Ormond Beach and on the south by Daytona Beach Shores, South Daytona and Port Orange. Daytona Beach has a humid subtropical climate, typical of the Gulf and South Atlantic states; as is typical of much of Florida, there are two seasons in Daytona Beach. In summer, temperatures are stable and there is an average of only 9.2 days annually with a maximum at or above 95 °F. The Bermuda High pumps hot and unstable tropical air from the Bahamas and Gulf of Mexico, resulti