A plaintiff is the party who initiates a lawsuit before a court. By doing so, the plaintiff seeks a legal remedy. "Plaintiff" is the term used in civil cases in most English-speaking jurisdictions, the notable exception being England and Wales, where a plaintiff has, since the introduction of the Civil Procedure Rules in 1999, been known as a "claimant", but that term has other meanings. In criminal cases, the prosecutor brings the case against the defendant, but the key complaining party is called the "complainant". In some jurisdictions, a lawsuit is commenced by filing claim form or a complaint; these documents are known as pleadings, that set forth the alleged wrongs committed by the defendant or defendants with a demand for relief. In other jurisdictions, the action is commenced by service of legal process by delivery of these documents on the defendant by a process server. In most English-speaking jurisdictions, including Hong Kong, Australia and the United States, as well as in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, the legal term "plaintiff" is used as a general term for the party taking action in a civil case.
The word plaintiff can be traced to the year 1278, stems from the Anglo-French word pleintif meaning "complaining". It was identical to "plaintive" at first and receded into legal usage with the -iff spelling in the 15th century. A plaintiff identified by name in a class action is called a named plaintiff. In most common-law jurisdictions, the term "claimant" used in England and Wales since 1999 is used only in specific non-judicial contexts. In particular, in American usage, terms such as "claimant" and "claim form" are limited to extrajudicial process in insurance and administrative law. After exhausting remedies available through an insurer or government agency, an American claimant in need of further relief would turn to the courts, file a complaint and become a plaintiff. In England and Wales, the term "claimant" replaced "plaintiff" after the Civil Procedure Rules came into force on 26 April 1999; the move, which brings England and Wales out of line with general usage in English-speaking jurisdictions, was based on an assessment that the word "claimant" is more acceptable as "plain English" than the word "plaintiff".
In Scottish law a plaintiff is referred to as a "pursuer" and a defendant as a "defender". The party against whom the complaint is made is the defendant. Case names are given with the plaintiff first, as in Plaintiff v. Defendant; the similar term "complainant" denotes the complaining witness in a criminal proceeding. Legal financing Defendant Lawsuit
Texcoco was a major Acolhua altepetl in the central Mexican plateau region of Mesoamerica during the Late Postclassic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. It was situated on the eastern bank of Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico, to the northeast of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan; the site of pre-Columbian Texcoco is now subsumed by the modern Mexican municipio of Texcoco and its major settlement, the city formally known as Texcoco de Mora. It lies within the greater metropolitan area of Mexico City. Pre-Columbian Texcoco is most noted for its membership in the Aztec Triple Alliance. At the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, it was one of the largest and most prestigious cities in central Mexico, second only to the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan. A survey of Mesoamerican cities estimated that pre-conquest Texcoco had a population of 24,000 and occupied an area of 450 hectares; the people of Tetzcohco were called Tetzcocah. Texcoco was founded in the 12th century, on the eastern shore of Lake Texcoco by the Chichimecs.
In or about 1337, the Acolhua, with Tepanec help, expelled Chichimecs from Texcoco and Texcoco became the Acolhua capital city, taking over that role from Coatlinchan. In 1418, Ixtlilxochitl I, the tlatoani of Texcoco, was dethroned by Tezozomoc of Azcapotzalco. Ten years in 1428, Ixtlilxochitl's son, Nezahualcoyotl allied with the Mexica to defeat Tezozomoc's son and successor, Maxtla. Texcoco and the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan, with the Tepanecs of Tlacopan, subsequently formalized their association as the Triple Alliance; however this was an uneven alliance. Texcoco thereby became the second-most important city in the eventual Aztec empire, by agreement receiving two-fifths of the tribute collected while Tlacopan received one-fifth. Texcoco was known as a center of learning within the empire, had a famed library including books from older Mesoamerican civilizations. Erected by the hill of Texcotzingo, the royal residence had aqueducts, gardens and over 300 separate chambers; the palace gardens were a vast botanical collection that included plants from not only the growing Aztec Empire but the most remote corners of Mesoamerica.
Remnants of the gardens still exist to this day and have been studied by a team of Discovery Channel scientists, who were able to demonstrate by means of modeling and computer simulation that the layout of the site had been planned to be in alignment with astronomical events, with an emphasis on Venus, not aligned with the cardinal directions as assumed. The water used to irrigate the gardens was obtained from the springs beyond the mountains to the east of Texcoco; the water was channeled through canals carved into the rock. In certain areas, rock staircases were used as waterfalls. After clearing the mountains, the canals continued downhill to a point a short distance from Texcotzingo. There the path to the city was blocked a deep canyon. Nezahualcoyotl ordered that the gap be filled with tons of rocks and stones, thus creating one of the earliest major aqueducts in the New World; the whole hill of Texcotzingo was served by this canal system and converted by his designers into a sacred place for the rain god Tláloc, complete with waterfalls, exotic animals and birds.
On the summit of the mountain he constructed a shrine to the god, laid out in hanging gardens reached by an airy flight of five hundred and twenty marble steps, a significant number, since according to Aztec mythology the gods have the opportunity to destroy humanity once every 52 years. Xolotl was said to be the founder of Texcoco in 1115 AD and reigned until 1232, he was followed by Nopaltzin, Quinatzin, Ixlilxochitl, Nezahualpilli, Cacama and Don Fernando Ixtlilxochitl. Nezahualcoyotl was a noted poet and patron of the arts, he had a large botanical and zoological garden, with specimens of plants and animals from throughout the empire and from the more distant lands with which the Empire traded. Nezahualcoyotl's son Nezahualpilli continued the tradition of patronizing the arts. In 1520 the troops of Hernán Cortés occupied the city and killed Cacamatzin, Nezahualpilli's son and the last independent tlatoani, installing Ixtlilxochitl II as a puppet ruler. Cortés employed Texcoco warriors in the Siege of Tenochtitlan.
A descendant of the royal line, Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxochitl was an official during the colonial era and served as governor of Texcoco. From 1827 to 1830, Texcoco was the capital of the State of Mexico. Hicks, Frederic Tetzcoco in the Early 16th Century: The State, the City and the Calpolli. American Ethnologist 9:230-249. Lee, Jongsoo & Galen Brokaw Texcoco: Prehispanic and Colonial Perspectives. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado 2014 Offner, Jerome A. Law and Politics in Aztec Texcoco. Cambridge University Press, New York. Smith, Michael E. Aztec City-State Capitals. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Smith, Michael E.. "City Size in Late Post-Classic Mesoamerica". Journal of Urban History. 31: 403–434. Doi:10.1177/0096144204274396. Government site, with historic and tourist information
John Anthony Flanagan is an Australian fantasy author best known for his medieval fantasy series, the Ranger's Apprentice, its sister series, the Brotherband Chronicles. Some of his other works include his Storm Peak duology, as well as the adult novel The Grey Raider. John Flanagan was born in Sydney, Australia on 22 May 1944, he graduated from Waverley College with plans to become a writer. As he grew up, he got a job at an advertising agency, he planned to become a trainee copywriter, but the agency instead assigned him to train as a media researcher. While working as a media researcher trainee, he wrote an offensive poem directed toward one of his senior executives; the poem made it to the desk of one of the company's directors. Flanagan was called into the director's office where he complimented Flanagan's writing skills and offered him the job of trainee copywriter. After working in the advertisement agency for 20 years, Flanagan entered the TV industry and co-wrote a sitcom called Hey Dad..!.
Flanagan's early novels originated as thrillers. He started working on; the series originated as twenty short stories for Michael. Flanagan wanted to encourage his son to read and hoped that he could do so by convincing Michael that the stories were children's book ideas that his father wanted to test out. Since Michael was on the smaller side, Flanagan wanted to encourage him by showing that not all heroes must be big and strong, his son began asking for more of the stories. In the early 2000s, John decided to make the stories into the first novel, The Ruins of Gorlan, it was published in 2004. 11 books comprise the main Ranger's Apprentice series. He has written the Ranger's Apprentice: The Early Years series which explores the time before the first book, has continued the story in the Ranger's Apprentice: The Royal Ranger series, his other series in the same world, was based around Flanagan's passion and love of the sea In 2008, he won the Australian Publishers Association's Book of the Year for "Older Children and the International Success Award" for Erak's Ransom.
The series appeared on the New York Times Best Sellers List and get shortlisted for children's book awards in Australia and overseas. The Ranger's Apprentice: The Ruins of Gorlan became optioned as a movie; the Ruins of Gorlan The Burning Bridge The Icebound Land Oakleaf Bearers The Sorcerer in the North The Siege of Macindaw Erak's Ransom The Kings of Clonmel Halt's Peril The Emperor of Nihon-Ja The Lost Stories The Tournament at Gorlan The Battle of Hackham Heath A New Beginning The Red Fox Clan Duel At Araluen The Outcasts The Invaders The Hunters Slaves of Socorro Scorpion Mountain The Ghostfaces The Caldera Return of the Temujai Storm Peak Avalanche Pass The Grey Raider John Flanagan on IMDb Official Ranger's Apprentice Website John Flanagan at Penguin Random House John Flanagan at Fantastic Fiction John Flanagan at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Catch Me If You Can is a musical comedy with a libretto by Terrence McNally and a theatrical score by Marc Shaiman and Scott Wittman. It follows the story of a con artist named Frank Abagnale. A majority of the plot is borrowed from the 2002 film of the same name, which in turn was based on the 1980 autobiography of the same name by Abagnale and Stan Redding. After a tryout musical performance in Seattle in 2009, Catch Me If You Can opened at Broadway's Neil Simon Theatre in April 2011; the production received four Tony Awards nominations, including one for Best Musical, winning Best Actor in a Musical for Norbert Leo Butz. The musical had a reading in 2005, directed by Jack O'Brien, with Nathan Lane, Tom Wopat, Brandon Wardell and Matthew Morrison. In private workshops held in July 2007, O'Brien was director, with Nathan Lane, Christian Borle, Angie Schworer, Tom Wopat and Brandon Wardell. Other actors involved in the readings included Aaron Tveit and Norbert Leo Butz, Celia Keenan-Bolger, Sara Gettelfinger, Katharine McPhee, Felicia Finley, Autumn Hurlbert, Lauren Ashley Zakrin and Annaleigh Ashford.
The musical was scheduled to premiere on July 25, 2009 at the 5th Avenue Theatre in Seattle, with Jack O'Brien as director and choreography by Jerry Mitchell. The 5th Avenue Theatre held the world premiere of the creative team's hit musical Hairspray; the first few days of previews of the show were cancelled due to a tragedy in Norbert Leo Butz's family. The musical premiered on July 28, 2009, ended August 16, 2009. In addition to Butz, the cast included Aaron Tveit as Frank, Tom Wopat as Frank Sr. Kerry Butler as Brenda, Linda Hart as Carol, Nick Wyman as Roger; the production received positive reviews from critics. On March 11, 2011, the musical began preview performances on Broadway at the Neil Simon Theatre, with an official opening date on April 10, 2011; the show featured most of the Seattle cast, with Butz, Tveit and Butler appearing in leading roles. Other Seattle cast members included: Linda Hart, Nick Wyman, Rachel deBenedet, Brandon Wardell, Timothy McCuen Piggee, Angie Schworer; the production had scenic design by David Rockwell, costume design by William Ivey Long, lighting design by Kenneth Posner, musical direction by John McDaniel.
The production closed September 2011, after 32 previews and 170 regular performances. A United States national tour, presented by Troika Entertainment, began performances October 7, 2012, in Providence, Rhode Island; the tour was contracted through July 28, 2013. The production features Stephen Anthony as Frank Abagnale Jr. and Merritt David Janes as Agent Carl Hanratty. In the 1960s, Frank Abagnale Jr. a young con man, is cornered at the Miami International Airport by FBI Agent Carl Hanratty and his team. Hanratty asserts. Before his arrest, Frank pleads with Hanratty to allow him to inform the people in the airport why they're beating at him, though Hanratty only wants to know how he passed the bar exam in New Orleans to pose as a lawyer. Frank promises. A reluctant Hanratty agrees. In a home in New Rochelle, New York, Frank lives with his parents Frank Abagnale Sr. and Paula Abagnale. His parents met in Montrichard, during World War II. Paula was performing at a diner, noticed Frank Sr. among the soldiers in the audience, marrying him soon after.
Due to money shortages, Frank is unable to attend private school, nonetheless wearing his school jacket to public school. He is taunted there as looking like a substitute teacher. One day, Frank walks home from school to find his mother dancing with one of Frank Sr.'s friends. She pleads with him not to tell Frank Sr. but a distraught Frank is soon in court, with Paula and Frank Sr. fighting over custody of him. Frank decides to run away, he soon learns how to create fake checks, cashing them at banks across the country and conning millions of dollars. While entering a New York City hotel, Frank notices several attractive women, all of them stewardesses. After creating a fake ID card, he finds a co-pilot job at Pan American World Airways; the workers express the joys of a life in the skies. Hanratty finds several fake checks on his desk in Washington, D. C.. He and Agents Branton and Cod are assigned to track down the writer of these fake checks. Hanratty gives a word of wisdom to whoever wrote the checks: "Don't Break the Rules".
Frank is enjoying his pilot job, remembering how his dad always said that "women love a man in uniform", as "The Pinstripes Are All That They See". Feeling homesick, he goes to visit Frank Sr. upset to find out that he had to close his store to save money. Frank offers him several checks to improve his financial situation, but Frank Sr. declines, believing that Frank should be happy with his success and not worry about him. Meanwhile, Hanratty sorts through leftover items from the hotel Frank had just stayed at, looking for "The Man Inside the Clues". Hanratty tracks Frank to a hotel room in Los Angeles, but Frank escapes after tricking Hanratty into believing that Frank is a Secret Service agent named Barry Allen. Frank attends a holiday party for the airport staff, but feels lonely, calling Hanratty on a pay phone for comfor
This is a list of members of the Western Australian Legislative Council from 22 May 1908 to 21 May 1910. The chamber had 30 seats made up of ten provinces each electing three members, on a system of rotation whereby one-third of the members would retire at each biennial election. 1 On 7 September 1909, South-East MLC Wesley Maley resigned. Joseph Cullen won the resulting by-election on 1 October 1907. 2 On 8 December 1909, North Province MLC Robert Frederick Sholl died. Edward Wittenoom was returned unopposed on 8 January 1910. Black, David. Legislative Council of Western Australia: membership register, electoral law and statistics, 1890-1989. Perth: Parliamentary History Project. ISBN 0-7309-3641-4. Hughes, Colin A.. Voting for the Australian State Upper Houses, 1890-1984. Canberra: Australian National University. ISBN 0-909779-18-X
The Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony "Rosomak" is 8×8 multi-role military vehicle produced by Rosomak S. A. in Siemianowice Śląskie, a Polish Armaments Group company. The vehicle is a licensed variant of Patria's Armored Modular Vehicle. In December 2002, the Polish Ministry of National Defense signed a contract to buy 690 Patria AMV vehicles, to be manufactured in Poland; the main competitors of the AMV were the MOWAG Steyr Pandur. As part of the initial order, 690 vehicles were to be delivered in two basic variants: 313 combat IFV and 377 transport/special base vehicles. In October 2013 order increased to 997 for delivery between 2014 and 2019; the name Rosomak was chosen following a contest organized by the Nowa Technika Wojskowa magazine. The Rosomak will replace the obsolete OT-64 SKOT APCs and the BWP-1 IFV in service with the Polish Land Forces. Rosomak - Infantry fighting vehicle variant with to Oto Melara Hitfist-30P gun turret armed with 30 mm ATK Mk 44 chain gun and 7.62mm NATO UKM-2000C machine gun.
The turret has advanced fire control system with thermal sight and Obra laser warning system connected to six 81 mm 902A ZM Dezamet smoke grenade launchers. Infantry fighting vehicle variant modified for war in Afghanistan was called Rosomak-M1M, it was equipped with additional steel-composite armor, upgraded communications, wire cutters in front of driver and commander hatch, video cameras showing back and sides of vehicle on two LCD screens in troop compartment, Pilar system that detects the direction of fire; because of additional armor this variant has no water propellers. This variant was further upgraded to standard known as M1M. Most noticeable change is addition of QinetiQ RPGNet anti RPG new "sand" camouflage. Other changes include installation of Blue Force Tracking BMS system. All older Rosomaks in M1 standard received RPG Net. Rosomak-M2 and M3 - Armored personnel carrier variant modified for mission in Afghanistan equipped with similar task equipment as M1 variant; the main difference is that this variant is equipped with OSS-D open turret with 40 mm Mk-19 grenade launcher or 12.7 mm NSW/WKM-B heavy machine gun.
Rosomak-S - Armored personnel carrier variant for two anti-tank teams armed with Spike anti-tank guided missile. Rosomak-WEM - – armored ambulance vehicle with crew of 3, capable of transporting 3 injured soldiers on stretchers and an additional four in sitting position; the WEM-M variant for Afghanistan was equipped with additional armor and RPGNet same as in M1M variant. Rosomak-WRT - Rosomak-WSRiD - Rosomak-Rak - 120mm mortar artillery vehicle, first delivered in July 2017. Rosomak-NJ - War in Afghanistan The Polish Land Forces contingent, a part of the International Security Assistance Force operated over 100 KTO Rosomak vehicles during the Afghanistan War; the APCs were equipped with additional steel-composite armor. In early 2008 a Polish Rosomak serving in Afghanistan was attacked by the Taliban; the vehicle was hit by RPG-7 rockets, but it managed to fire back and returned to base without any help required. In June 2008, a Rosomak was attacked by Taliban and was hit in its frontal armor with an RPG.
The armour was not penetrated. In 2009, the first soldier was reported killed while traveling in a Rosomak after an improvised explosive device exploded under the vehicle, which rolled over and crushed the gunner, standing in the open turret. Similar attacks had failed to inflict casualties. European Union mission in Chad European Union Force Chad/CAR Poland is the sole user of KTO Rosomak but as the first export customer of Patria Oy AMV & WZM SA has the right to export the KTO Rosomak in some markets. In 2006 the KTO Rosomak was tested in Malaysia. Poland12 Brygada Zmechanizowana - Szczecin 17 Wielkopolska Brygada Zmechanizowana – Międzyrzecz United Arab Emirates40 AMV Patria manufactured in Poland. Armoured Modular Vehicles on Rosomak official webpage