North Holland is a province in the northwest of the Netherlands. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, in 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163 and a total area of 2,670 km2. From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was a part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated, in the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland. At that time, the distinction between the Noorderkwartier and the Zuiderkwartier became common, in 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was drained and turned into land, the capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, and Amsterdam, the Netherlands capital city, is the provinces largest city. The Kings Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, there are 51 municipalities and three water boards in the province. For most of its history, the province of North Holland was an integral part of Holland.
From the 9th century to the 16th century, Holland was a county ruled by the counts of Holland, during this period an area known as West Friesland was conquered and integrated into Holland. For centuries afterwards Holland would be officially called Holland and West Friesland, the people of West Friesland had a strong sense of identity as a region within Holland. From the 16th century to 1795, Holland was the wealthiest and most important province in the United Provinces in the Dutch Republic, as the richest and most powerful province, Holland dominated the union. During this period a distinction was made between the North Quarter and the South Quarter, areas that roughly correspond to the two modern provinces. The province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813 and this was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795 the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established, in the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed.
The republic was reorganised into eight departments with roughly equal populations, Holland was split up into five departments named Texel, Delf, Schelde en Maas, and Rijn. The first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland, the two were made up of parts of different provinces. In 1801 the old borders were restored when the department of Holland was created and this reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province. This time the two departments were called Amstelland and Maasland and this did not last long
Natura Artis Magistra
Artis, short for Natura Artis Magistra, is a zoo in the centre of Amsterdam. It is the oldest zoo in the Netherlands and one of the oldest zoos of mainland Europe, Artis Royal Zoo is not just a zoo, it contains an aquarium and a planetarium. Artis has an arboretum and a large art collection. A part of the art collection is on display in the Aquarium building of the zoo, Artis contains 27 monumental buildings, most of which are used as enclosures for the animals, making Artis a unique cultural heritage of the 19th century. The zoo is a member of the Dutch Zoo Federation, the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, the International Species Information System, the zoo was founded in 1838 by Gerard Westerman, J. W. H. It was initially only to members. Starting in 1851 it was opened to the public during the month of September, in 1920 it was opened year-round to the public, but September remains discount month. From the start it exhibited both live and mounted specimens, the zoo is commonly referred to as Artis, because the zoo has three gates with the words Natura and Magistra written above each of them, respectively.
More often than not, only the gate was open, so that people who walked through it, seeing that Artis was written above it. Thanks to this, soon few people knew it by its full name, the last quagga in captivity died at Artis on 12 August 1883. At the time, because all zebras were referred to as quagga, the Aquarium was built in 1882 on land leased from the city on condition that only a museum ever be built on it. The library dates back to 1867 and the building the Ledenlokalen on the side of the main entrance dates back to the 19th century as well. The wolf house, and the Masman Garden House which now houses scarlet ibis were both on the site before the zoo was established, Artis has a library on the history of zoology and botany. It houses the library of the zoo, as well as the libraries of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam and it hosts the archives of a number of zoologists and botanists, such as the archive of Hugo de Vries. It contains 20,000 books,3000 manuscripts and 80,000 animal prints, the library is part of the special collections of the University of Amsterdam.
Artis is window number 26 in the Canon of Amsterdam, turtles of the United States and Canada. Media related to Artis at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The Kadijken, known as Kadijkseiland or Kadijkenbuurt, is a neighbourhood to the north of Artis zoo in the centre of Amsterdam. The name Kadijken is the form of Kadijk and refers to the two main streets that traverse the neighbourhood, Hoogte Kadijk and Laagte Kadijk. The neighbourhood is cut into two halves, a western part and a smaller western part, by a former complex of sluice gates that forms a canal between the Nieuwe Vaart and Entrepotdok canals. This canal isolates the western part of the neighbourhood from the rest of the city, connecting the two main streets, Hoogte en Laagte Kadijk, is a small street appropriately named Tussen Kadijken. The small street Buiten Kadijken runs from Hoogte Kadijk to Nieuwe Vaart canal, at the corner of Hoogte Kadijk and Buiten Kadijken is a pillar topped with a sculpture of a falcon with a crown on its head. This is a replica of a sculpture that stood here for many years as a trademark of the beer brewery De Gekroonde Valk. The western edge of the neighbourhood is formed by Kadijkenplein square with the Zeemanshuis, from the square, a cast-iron bridge leads across Nieuwe Herengracht canal.
Behind the bridge are the Scharrebiersluis sluice gates, both the bridge and the sluice gates were constructed in 1906. The neighbourhood has about 3,000 inhabitants, there about 1,700 residences, primarily in the western part of the neighbourhood. Of those, 70% is rented, and the remaining 30% is privately owned, the eastern part of the neighbourhood is less residential, this area is dominated by offices and workshops. The many former warehouses and shipyards in the Kadijken are a reminder of the neighbourhoods past as an area of town dominated by shipping, Werfmuseum t Kromhout and Koning William, both on Hoogte Kadijk, are still in use as shipyards. The eastern hall of Werfmuseum t Kromhout is now a museum, the neighbourhood has a large number of rijksmonumenten, including the warehouses on Entrepotdok, the Sibbelwoningen on Hoogte Kadijk and a series of 17th- and 18th-century houses. In this area, a dike, the Nieuwe Zeedijk, had been constructed beyond the original Sint Antoniesdijk dike. A kadijk is the outer, lower dike within a set of two dikes to keep a river, from flooding.
During the city expansion, the Nieuwe Zeedijk was raised and the part was called Hoogte Kadijk. The Kadijken rapidly developed into an area dominated by shipyards, the south side was originally used for recreation, but from the early part of the 18th century this part of the neighbourhood was filled with warehouses and other buildings for storage of goods. In 1827 the Rapenburgergracht, as the canal along the edge of the neighbourhood was called, was taken over by the Dutch national government. The government established the Algemeen Rijksentrepot there, which allowed goods in transit to be stored and transferred from one ship to another without the need to pay excise duties
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are grown for commercial production. Orchards are sometimes a feature of gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose. A fruit garden is generally synonymous with an orchard, although it is set on a smaller non-commercial scale, most temperate-zone orchards are laid out in a regular grid, with a grazed or mown grass or bare soil base that makes maintenance and fruit gathering easy. Orchards are sometimes concentrated near bodies of water, where climatic extremes are moderated, an orchards layout is the technique of planting the crops in a proper system. There are different methods of planting and thus different layouts, some of these layout types include, Square method Rectangular method Quincunx method Triangular method Hexagonal method Contour method For different varieties, these systems may vary to some extent. The most extensive orchards in the United States are apple and orange orchards, the most extensive apple orchard area is in eastern Washington state, with a lesser but significant apple orchard area in most of Upstate New York.
Extensive orange orchards are found in Florida and southern California, where they are widely known as groves. In eastern North America, many orchards are along the shores of Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, in Canada and other fruit orchards are widespread on the Niagara Peninsula, south of Lake Ontario. This region is known as Canada Fruitbelt and, in addition to large-scale commercial fruit marketing, murcia is a major orchard area in Europe, with citrus crops. New Zealand, China and Chile have extensive apple orchards, tenbury Wells in Worcestershire has been called The Town in the Orchard, since the 19th century, because it was surrounded by extensive orchards. Today, this heritage is celebrated through an annual Applefest, streuobstwiese is a German word that means a meadow with scattered fruit trees or fruit trees that are planted in a field. Streuobstwiese, or a meadow orchard, is a landscape in the temperate. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Streuobstwiesen were a kind of a community orchard that were intended for productive cultivation of stone fruit.
In recent years, ecologists have successfully lobbied for state subsidies to valuable habitats and natural landscapes, both conventional and meadow orchards provide a suitable habitat for many animal species that live in a cultured landscape. Orchard House in Concord, Massachusetts was the residence of American celebrated writer Louisa May Alcott, Utah part of Capitol Reef National Park has Mormon pioneer orchards maintained by the United States National Park Service. The Orchard Link organisation provides advice on how to manage and restore the county of Devons orchards, an organisation called Orchards Live carries out similar work in North Devon. Peoples Trust for Endangered Species has mapped every traditional orchard within England, the UK Biodiversity Partnership lists traditional orchards and a priority UK Biodiversity Action Plan habitat
A pleasure garden is usually a garden that is open to the public for recreation and entertainment. Pleasure gardens differ from other public gardens by serving as venues for entertainment, variously featuring such attractions as concert halls, amusement rides, public pleasure gardens have existed for many centuries. In Ancient Rome, the landscaped Gardens of Sallust were developed as a garden by the historian Sallust. The gardens were acquired by the Roman Emperor Tiberius for public use, containing many pavilions, a temple to Venus, and monumental sculptures, the gardens were open to the public for centuries. Many contained large concert halls, or hosted promenade concerts, some lesser discussed pleasure gardens were home to haberdasheries, a smaller version of a pleasure garden is a tea garden, where visitors may drink tea and stroll. The pleasure garden forms one of the six parts of the 18th century perfect garden, the others being the garden, an orchard, a park, an orangery or greenhouse.
Melanie Doderer-Winkler, Magnificent Entertainments, Temporary Architecture for Georgian Festivals, the London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century. Media related to pleasure gardens at Wikimedia Commons
Herman Heijermans, was a Dutch writer. Heijermans was born in Rotterdam, into a liberal Jewish family, in the Algemeen Handelsblad daily, he published a series of sketches of Jewish family life under the pseudonym of Samuel Falkland, which were collected in volume form. His novels and tales include Trinette, Kamertjeszonde and his other plays are, Dora Kremer, Het zevende Gebod, Het Pantser, Ora et labora, and numerous one-act pieces. A Case of Arson, an English version of the one-act play Brand in de Jonge Jan, was notable for the impersonation by Henri de Vries of all the seven witnesses who appear as characters, Heijermans died in Zandvoort at age 59, and is buried at Zorgvlied cemetery. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Works by Herman Heijermans at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Herman Heijermans at Internet Archive Works by Herman Heijermans at LibriVox
The Dutch Resistance Museum is located in the Plantage neighbourhood in Amsterdam. The Dutch Resistance Museum, chosen as the best historical museum of the Netherlands, from 14 May 1940 to 5 May 1945, the Netherlands were occupied by Nazi Germany. Permanent exhibit of the museum recreates the atmosphere of the streets of Amsterdam during the German occupation of the World War II, big photographs, old posters, objects and sounds from that horrible time, help to recreate the scene. The background of the Holocaust is visualized to the visitor and this is an exhibition about the everyday life during that time, but about exceptional historical events, resistance of the population against the Nazis and heroism. The building bearing the Star of David and the name of Petrus Plancius and it served for several decades as a Jewish cultural center and synagogue. The Oefening Baart Kunst society kept the Plancius name on its building to underline its respect to the Amsterdam city traditions and that was the name of the old house which stood on this spot before.
For a long time Plancius building served in different functions. Since 1999, after its renovation, it is the seat of the Verzetsmuseum, overloon War Museum Verzetsmuseum Tourist info
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
In Dutch history, the year 1672 was known as the rampjaar, the disaster year. The invading armies quickly defeated the Dutch States Army and conquered part of the Republic, a famous Dutch saying coined that year describes the Dutch people redeloos, its government radeloos, and the country reddeloos, irrational and beyond rescue, respectively. Despite the initial shock and successful invasion of the eastern Dutch Republic, the English were defeated by the navy under Michiel de Ruyter in 1674, resulting in the Treaty of Westminster and eventually leading to the Glorious Revolution. The French were pushed back with the help of the Spanish forces in the Spanish Netherlands, the conflict eventually ended with the Treaties of Nijmegen in 1678-9. These tensions had escalated in 1650 when William II, Prince of Orange had tried to conquer Amsterdam, after negotiations he succeeded in removing a number of his adversaries from office. When William died from smallpox that year, the party came back into power.
Johan de Witt was appointed Grand Pensionary of Holland and led the States of Holland, to appease the Orangists, and because of their own business interests, the Dutch Regents tried to keep the peace within Europe. When the Republic fought for its independence from Spain, it had allied with France, in 1648, as part of the Peace of Westphalia, the Republic made peace with Austria and Spain. France had only made peace with Austria and continued fighting Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, a condition of that peace was that Louis XIV would marry Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV of Spain. Maria Theresa would renounce her share of the inheritance in exchange for a large dowry, the dowry, was never paid by the Spanish. During the 1650s and 1660s the existing tensions between Dutch trade interests and English trade interests grew, the First Anglo-Dutch War was fought between the republics, resulting in a victory for the English. Oliver Cromwell, who was Lord Protector of England at that time, an English attempt to take over Dutch trade and colonies led to the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
After the previous war Johan de Witt had supervised the expansion, First Münster and England were forced to make peace. While France had helped to put pressure on England and Münster they had not committed a major part of their army or fleet, after the death of Philip IV, Louis XIV claimed part of the inheritance for his wife. According to local law in parts of the Spanish Netherlands daughters of a marriage took precedence before the sons of a marriage. The way Louis XIV explained this, Maria Theresa, daughter of the first marriage of Philip IV, should inherit the Spanish Netherlands because Philips son and this went against the interests of the Dutch Republic, who preferred having a weak state as their neighbour to the south. Because of this, Johan de Witt allied with the defeated English and Sweden, in secret clauses of the treaty they agreed to use force if Louis XIV would not come to terms with Spain. France made peace with Spain, but because the secret clauses of the Triple Alliance were soon made public, Louis XIV felt insulted by the perfidious Dutch, immediately after the peace agreement, France took steps to isolate the Republic
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Haarlemmerbuurt is a neighbourhood in Amsterdam, in the Dutch province of North Holland, and is part of the borough Centrum. The central artery of the area is formed by the streets Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat, the neighbourhood is bordered to the south by Brouwersgracht, to the west by Singelgracht, on the north by the railway embankment and on the east by Singel. Haarlemmerplein, with the Haarlemmerpoort or Willemspoort city gate, is a located at the western end of the neighbourhood. On the north there used to be a timber storage area. With the construction of the line between Singelgracht and Central Station through the Haarlemmer Houttuinen in 1878 this became the northern boundary. This caused the square to lose its cohesion, since a new block on the north facade was finished in 2012, the square is once again complete. The West-Indisch Huis is located at Haarlemmerstraat 75, and is the headquarters of the Dutch West India Company. The Posthoornkerk, a church by architect Pierre Cuypers, is located further down the street at numbers 124-126, Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk are known for the great quality and diversity of their shops and restaurants, and were voted best shopping street of The Netherlands in 2011.
There are a couple of coffeeshops located on Haarlemmerstraat