click links in text for more info


A plaquette is a small low relief sculpture in bronze or other materials. These were popular in the Italian Renaissance and later, they may be commemorative, but in the Renaissance and Mannerist periods were made for purely decorative purposes, with crowded scenes from religious, historical or mythological sources. Only one side is decorated, giving the main point of distinction with the artistic medal, where both sides are decorated. Most are rectangular or circular. Typical sizes range from about two inches up to about seven across a side, or as the diameter, with the smaller end or middle of that range more common, they "typically fit within the hand", as Grove puts it. At the smaller end they overlap with medals, at the larger they begin to be called plaques; the form began in the 1440s in Italy, but spread across Europe in the next century to France and the Low Countries. By about 1550 it had fallen from fashion in Italy, but French plaquettes were entering their best period, there and in Germany they continued to be popular into the 17th century.

The form continued to be made at a low level, with something of a revival from about 1850. They have always been related to the medal, many awards today are in the form of plaquettes, but plaquettes were less restricted in their subject-matter than the medal, allowed the artist more freedom; the purpose and use of decorative plaquettes remains somewhat unclear. Some were mounted in furniture, boxes or other objects such as lamps, many examples have holes for hanging on walls, added later. Other copies have four holes, for holding in a setting. Religious subjects in a pair or set might be set into the doors of tabernacles, many were used for paxes, sometimes after being given a frame; some shapes were designed for particular roles such as decorating sword hilts, though not all copies made were used in this way. Others were framed for hanging, but many were just kept and displayed loose propped up on a shelf or desk, or in drawers or boxes. Many images show signs of wear. Devotional images were often carried around in a pocket, a habit that became common with crucifixes in Florence after a plague in 1373.

A large part of the market was other artists and craftsmen looking for models for other forms. Plaquette bindings are leather bookbindings that incorporate plaquette casts in gesso of designs that are found in metal. Plaquettes were collected, in particular 16th-century examples are crowded with figures, making the scenes hard to read, they are best appreciated when held in the hand near a good light source, were passed round when a collection was shown to fellow connoisseurs. The difficulty of reading the scenes, an obscure choice of subjects, suggest that a self-conscious display of classical learning was part of their appeal, for collectors and artists alike, they were one of the types of objects found in the – male – environment of the studiolo and cabinet of curiosities, along with other small forms such as classical coins and engraved gems. The artists who made them tended to be either sculptors in bronze making small figures and objects such as inkwells, or goldsmiths, who practised in the related field of engraving.

They were cheap and transportable, were soon disseminated across Europe, offering an opportunity for artists to display their virtuosity and sophistication, promote themselves beyond their own city. The same factors, combined with their modern display behind glass, make them little appreciated today; the moulds were sometimes re-used at considerable distances from their time and place of creation, or new moulds were made from a plaquette. German 17th-century plaquettes were still being used as models for silverware in Regency London. Plaquettes, like prints, played an important part in the diffusion of styles and trends in iconography for classical subjects; some drawings for plaquette designs survive. In Germany models in wood or limestone might be made, they were made in sets, illustrating a story, or set of figures. As with medals, Renaissance plaquettes were made using the lost wax technique of casting, numbers of copies were normally made, although many now only survive in a unique copy, never had others.

The quality of individual castings can vary and the time and locations of individual castings from the same mould my vary considerably. Some designs can be shown to have had different generations of casts made from casts. Most are in bronze, but silver and gold, in solid or plated and gilded forms, are found, as well as other metals. Plaquettes with copies in precious metal exist in bronze copies. In early 16th-century Nuremberg, the main German centre, like other metalwork types of objects, were made in the plebeian material of brass by top artists like the Vischer family and Peter Flötner. Lead was used in German castings intended as artisan's models rather than for collectors. From the 19th century on cast iron was used in Germany. In Italy lead was used for an initial trial cast; the castings were not worked much further with tools, beyond polishing and giving an artificial patina. The word plaquette is a 19th-century invention by the French art historian Eugen

Rissa, Norway

Rissa is a former municipality in the old Sør-Trøndelag county in Norway in the Fosen region. The municipality existed from 1860 until its dissolution on 1 January 2018 when it became part of the municipality of Indre Fosen in Trøndelag county; the administrative centre of the municipality was the village of Årnset. Other villages in the municipality included Askjem, Husbysjøen, Rørvika, Råkvåg, Stadsbygd; the 621-square-kilometre municipality was the 179th largest by area out of the 426 municipalities in Norway. Rissa was the 158th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 6,628; the municipality's population density was 11.3 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population had increased by 4.1% over the last decade. The municipality of Rissen was established in 1860 when it was separated from the big municipality of Stadsbygd. Rissen had 3,733 residents; the spelling was changed to Rissa. On 1 January 1905, the southwestern district of Lensvik on the west side of the Trondheimsfjord was separated from Rissa to form a municipality of its own.

This left Rissa with 3,394 residents. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, most of Stadsbygd municipality and the southern part of the municipality of Stjørna were merged with Rissa to form a new, enlarged municipality of Rissa. On 1 January 2018, the neighboring municipalities of Rissa and Leksvik merged to form the new municipality of Indre Fosen which became part of the new Trøndelag county on the same date; the Old Norse form of the name was Rissi. This was the old name of the brackish basin of Botn. Though this is a land-locked fjord with a river-like inlet from the Trondheimsfjord; the name is derived from the verb rísa which means "raise" or "rise". The name of the municipality was spelled Rissen; the coat of arms was granted on 23 January 1987. The arms show a silver crown on a green background; the crown is that of Skule Bårdsson. Bårdsson was the founder of Rein kloster and the accompanying farm and Rein estate, which lies in the municipality.

The crown is a typical headdress used by the medieval Norwegian Dukes. The Church of Norway had four parishes within the municipality of Rissa, it was part of the Fosen prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros. In April 1978, Rissa was home to a quick-clay landslide which encompassed an area of 330,000 square metres and sent 6,000,000 cubic metres of clay from the Årnset area on the shore into Botn, causing a miniature tsunami on the north shore in Leira; this slide is famous because a large portion of the slide happened to be recorded on film by two amateur photographers. The municipal government of Rissa was responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The final municipal council of Rissa, elected to represent the municipality was made up of 23 representatives that were elected to four year terms.

The last council party breakdown was as follows: The municipality is located on the southern end of the Fosen peninsula along the Trondheimsfjord and the Stjørnfjord. The large lake Storvatnet lies on the eastern border with Lensvik. To the north were the municipalities of Åfjord, Ørland; the Flakk–Rørvik Ferry crosses the Trondheimsfjord and connected the village of Rørvik with the city of Trondheim. List of former municipalities of Norway The Quick Clay Landslide at Rissa Trøndelag travel guide from Wikivoyage

Locator map

A locator map, sometimes referred to as a locator, is a simple map used in cartography to show the location of a particular geographic area within its larger and more familiar context. Depending on the needs of the cartographer, this type of map can be used on its own or as an inset or addition to a larger map. Arthur Robinson, an American cartographer influential in thematic cartography, stated that a map not properly designed "will be a cartographic failure." Any map that does not take its audience into account by assuming too much reader knowledge about the map area's context will not fulfill its purpose. Location maps help achieve this purpose by familiarizing the reader with the location of an area they may not have read about previously. A good understanding of the audience's mental map for a particular area is critical for a proper application of location maps. Used on their own, location maps do not differ from traditional maps, differing in the fact that solitary locator maps focus the attention on a single location within the map frame, where traditional maps seek to portray a multitude of features across the entire frame.

More location maps appear as insets or ancillary maps in order to help the audience place the geographic area being mapped properly inside their internal frame of reference. As educators seek to teach students increasing levels of geography, maps generated for textbooks must reference the expected geographic knowledge of a particular education level. Location maps achieve this purpose by highlighting more in-depth geography within the context the student is familiar with. In the United States, this purpose is reinforced by the standards set by the National Council for Geographic Education, which says that "Mental maps, or cognitive maps, are among our most important geographic tools; because they exist in our minds, they are the maps we use for thinking and decision-making." Some online applications that allow the user to zoom into an area include locator maps to assist in navigating the main map or image. For example, Google Maps uses a locator map to orient visitors to its site, included as a toggle button.

These locators feature a movable box that assists the user with navigating the main map. Other applications using locator software allow people to generate their own location maps by entering some basic information about where they are; this generates a map showing places within a specified radius of that point that meet the user's criteria. Banks, retail chains, restaurants are common users of this type of service. Businesses have a vested interest in letting consumers know where they are located, use locator maps to help them reach out to potential customers; these maps range from a crude schematic map showing nearby crossroads, to more realistic maps that include greater geographic detail and context. Businesses such as restaurants and retail establishments have locator maps online to help potential customers find their location; these are sometimes accompanied by driving and parking directions from one or more directions of travel if many of their customers are not from the local area. The widespread distribution of sophisticated Geographic Information System mapping techniques has allowed the development of large-scale customized locator maps that can be tailored to individual consumers in direct marketing campaigns.

This sophistication allows a variety of customized locator maps to be produced in a short period of time. Major types of direct marketing locator maps are: Single Location: A single business location is shown with major street and road connections. While this type of map can be efficiently constructed using GIS with existing street databases and customized map templates, special software is not required because the map does not change for each direct mailing. Customer to Business: Using a customer address list, specialized software can frame the map that shows a customer's location in relation to the business, connects the two using a pre-existing street database. Multiple Location: Like the single location locator map, a GIS package is not required, though it can be useful in plotting the locations onto an existing street database using map templates. Defined Area Locators: Multiple locations within a defined area are shown

George Coomber

George Stephen Comber known as George Coomber, was an English professional footballer who made 168 Football League appearances playing as a half back for Brighton & Hove Albion. Coomber was born in West Hoathly and attended St Martin's School, before beginning a glass-blowing apprenticeship in London. There he began his football career with Tottenham Thursday, Tufnell Park and Tottenham Hotspur – though not for their first team – before returning home in 1913 to sign as an amateur for Brighton & Hove Albion of the Southern League, he appeared intermittently in 1913–14, turned professional at the end of the season, soon established himself in the side. During the war, he served in the Army and made guest appearances for clubs including Tottenham Hotspur and Watford, he resumed his place in the Albion team and was a regular for the five years following the war, which included the club's first four seasons in the Football League. He captained the team from December 1922 until his career was ended by injury in 1924.

Coomber used. He died in Hove in 1960 at the age of 70

Regent Park, Kolkata

Regent Park is a neighbourhood of South Kolkata, in West Bengal, India. Regent Park police station is in the South Suburban division of Kolkata Police, it is located at 45/D/2A, Moore Avenue, Kolkata-700040. Patuli Women police station has jurisdiction over all police districts under the jurisdiction of South Suburban Division i.e. Netaji Nagar, Kasba, Regent Park, Bansdroni and Patuli. Jadavpur, Behala, Purba Jadavpur, Regent Park, Metiabruz and Kasba police stations were transferred from South 24 Parganas to Kolkata in 2011. Except Metiabruz, all the police stations were split into two; the new police stations are Parnasree, Garfa, Survey Park, Pragati Maidan and Rajabagan. GD Birla Centre for Education is an English-medium ICSE school, classes LKG to XII, at 118, NSC Bose Road, Regent Park, Kolkata-700 040. Sports facilities: taekwando, table tennis, basketball. Arrangements for teaching French and Mandarin; the Future Foundation School is an English-medium ICSE school, classes Nursery-XII, at 3 Regent Park, Kolkata-700 040

Maol Choluim II, Earl of Lennox

Mormaer Maol Choluim II of Lennox was mormaer of Lennox from 1303 to his death. Maol Cholium's father, Maol Choluim I embraced the cause of Robert the Bruce as early as 1292; as a result the English king bestowed the Lennox earldom on Sir John Menteith, holding it in 1307 while the real earl was with King Robert in his wanderings in the Lennox country. He was allowed to succeed to the Mormaerdom only on giving homage to King Edward I of England and attending Edward's court, it was to ease this process, that his mother Marjorie became an informant of the English crown. Maol Choluim assisted Edward by raising men from his Mormaerdom. Maol Choluim's Bruce loyalties were the same as his father Maol Choluim I's, this was keenly displayed when he attended Robert's coronation, he was one of the signatories of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320. Maol Choluim was in fact one of the most loyal followers of Bruce, was rewarded by both Bruce and by pro-Bruce writers such as John Barbour and John of Fordun, who wrote much praise of him.

Robert retired in Lennox country, at the settlement of Cardross. Maol Choluim died in 1333 fighting for the Bruce cause against the Anglo-Balliol alliance at Battle of Halidon Hill, he had two known sons by his successor Domhnall and Muireadhach. Neville, Cynthia J. Native Lordship in Medieval Scotland: The Earldoms of Strathearn and Lennox, c. 1140-1365