A smiley is a stylized representation of a smiling humanoid face, a part of popular culture worldwide. The classic form designed by Harvey Ball in 1963 comprises a yellow circle with two black dots representing eyes and a black arc representing the mouth On the Internet and in other plain text communication channels, the emoticon form has traditionally been most popular employing a colon and a right parenthesis to form sequences such as:-),:), or (: that resemble a smiling face when viewed after rotation through 90 degrees. "Smiley" is sometimes used as a generic term for any emoticon. The smiley has been referenced in nearly all areas of Western culture including music and art; the smiley has been associated with late 1980s and early 1990s rave culture. The plural form "smilies" is used, but the variant spelling "smilie" is not as common as the "y" spelling. Around 2017, a team of archaeologists led by Nicolò Marchetti of the University of Bologna pieced together the fragments of a Hittite pot from 1700 BC, found in Karkamış, Turkey.
After it was pieced together, the team saw that it had what appeared to be a large smiley face painted on it. The Danish poet and author Johannes V. Jensen was amongst other things famous for experimenting with the form of his writing. In a letter sent to publisher Ernst Bojesen in December 1900, he includes both a happy face and a sad face, resembling the modern smiley. A commercial version of a smiley face with the word "THANKS" above it was available in 1919 and applied as a sticker on receipts issued by the Buffalo Steam Roller Company in Buffalo New York; the round face was much more detailed than the one depicted above, having eyebrows, teeth, facial creases and shading, is reminiscent of "man-in-the-moon" style characterizations. Ingmar Bergman's 1948 film Port of Call includes a scene where the unhappy Berit draws a sad face – resembling the modern "frowny", but including a dot for the nose – in lipstick on her mirror, before being interrupted. In 1953 and 1958, similar happy faces were used in promotional campaigns for the films Lili and Gigi.
The smiley was first introduced to popular culture as part of a promotion by New York radio station WMCA beginning in 1962. Listeners who answered their phone "WMCA Good Guys!" were rewarded with a "WMCA good guys" sweatshirt that incorporated a happy face into its design. Thousands of these sweatshirts were given away; the WMCA smiley was yellow with black dots as eyes, had a crooked smile, had no creases at the sides of the mouth. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the smiley face as we know it today was created by Harvey Ross Ball, an American graphic artist. In 1963, Ball was employed by State Mutual Life Assurance Company of Worcester, Massachusetts to create a happy face to raise the morale of the employees. Ball created the design in ten minutes and was paid $45, his rendition, with a bright yellow background, dark oval eyes, full smile, creases at the sides of the mouth, was imprinted on more than fifty million buttons and became familiar around the world. The design is so simple that it is certain that similar versions were produced before 1963, including those cited above.
However, Ball’s rendition, as described here, has become the most iconic version. In 1967, Seattle graphic artist George Tenagi drew his own version at the request of advertising agent, David Stern. Tenagi's design was used in an advertising campaign for Seattle-based University Federal Savings & Loan; the ad campaign was inspired by Lee Adams's lyrics in "Put on a Happy Face" from the musical Bye Bye Birdie. Stern, the man behind this campaign later incorporated the Happy Face in his run for Seattle mayor in 1993; the graphic was further popularized in the early 1970s by Philadelphia brothers Bernard and Murray Spain, who seized upon it in September 1970 in a campaign to sell novelty items. The two produced buttons as well as coffee mugs, t-shirts, bumper stickers and many other items emblazoned with the symbol and the phrase "Have a happy day", which mutated into "Have a nice day". Working with New York button manufacturer NG Slater, some 50 million happy face badges were produced by 1972. In 1972, Frenchman Franklin Loufrani became the first person to trademark use of a smiley face.
He used it to highlight the good news parts of the newspaper France Soir. He called the design "Smiley" and launched The Smiley Company. In 1996 Loufrani's son Nicolas Loufrani took over the family business and built it into a multinational corporation. Nicolas Loufrani was outwardly skeptical of Harvey Ball's claim to creating the first smiley face. While noting that the design that his father came up with and Ball's design were nearly identical, Loufrani argued that the design is so simple that no one person can lay claim to having created it; as evidence for this, Loufrani's website points to early cave paintings found in France that he claims are the first depictions of a smiley face. Loufrani points to a 1960 radio ad campaign that made use of a similar design. In the UK, the happy face has been associated with psychedelic culture since Ubi Dwyer and the Windsor Free Festival in the 1970s and the electronic dance music culture with acid house, that emerged during the Second Summer of Love in the late 1980s.
The association was cemented when the band Bomb the Bass used an extracted smiley from Watchmen on the center of its "Beat Dis" hit single. The earliest known smiley-like image in a written document was drawn by a Slovak notary to indicate his satisfaction with the state of his tow
The PlayStation Vita is a handheld game console developed and released by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the PlayStation Portable as part of the PlayStation brand of gaming devices, it was released in Japan on December 17, 2011, with releases in North America and other worldwide regions starting on February 22, 2012. It competed with the Nintendo 3DS as part of the eighth generation of video game consoles; the original model of the handheld includes a 5-inch OLED multi-touch capacitive touchscreen, two analog joysticks and shoulder push-button input, supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and optional 3G. Internally, the Vita features a quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a quad-core SGX543MP graphics processing unit. A revised model, the PS Vita 2000 series, released across 2013 and 2014, sports all of the same features with a smaller size, extended battery life, an LCD screen replacing the OLED display. Sony released the PlayStation TV, a short-lived, re-purposed version of the Vita that allowed for the play of PS Vita games on a television screen similar to a home video game console, though the PS TV variant was discontinued by the end of 2015.
The system's design was created to meld the experience of big budget, dedicated video game platforms with the up-and-coming trend of mobile gaming through smart phones and tablets. However, in the year after the device's successful launch, sales of the hardware and its bigger budget games stalled, threatening to end its lifespan. A concentrated effort to attract smaller, indie developers in the West, combined with strong support from mid-level Japanese companies, helped keep the platform afloat. While this led to less diversity in its game library, it did garner strong support in Japanese-developed role-playing video games and visual novels alongside a wealth of Western-developed indie games, leading it to become a moderate seller in Japan, build a smaller, yet passionate userbase in the West. While Sony has not released exact sales figures, late-lifespan estimates in sales fall around 15 to 16 million units. In the platform's years, Sony promoted its ability to work in conjunction with its other gaming products, notably the ability to play PlayStation 4 games on it through the process of Remote Play, similar to the Wii U's function of Off-TV Play.
Production of the system and physical cartridge games ended in March 2019. After the massive success of Nintendo's Game Boy line of handheld game consoles throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, with little in the way of market competition, Sony's massive success with its PlayStation and PlayStation 2 home video game consoles around the same time, Sony decided to enter the handheld market as well. In 2004, it released the PlayStation Portable to compete with the Nintendo DS as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles. After a slow start in the worldwide market, it was invigorated in Japan with multiple releases in the Monster Hunter series. With the series being less popular in western regions, it failed to revive the platform in the same way; the PSP ended up being a mixed result for the company. It was seen as a success in that it was the only handheld video game platform that had significantly competed with Nintendo for market share in a meaningful way, selling 80 million units in its lifespan the same amount as Nintendo's Game Boy Advance had during the sixth generation of video game consoles.
Despite this, it had still only managed to sell a little over half of what its actual market competitor, the DS, had sold, over 150 million units by the end of 2011. Rumors of a successor to the PSP came as early as July 2009 when Eurogamer reported that Sony was working on such a device, which would utilize the PowerVR SGX543MP processor and perform at a level similar to the original Xbox. Through mid-2010, websites continued to run stories about accounts of the existence of a "PSP 2". Reports arose during the Tokyo Game Show that the device was unveiled internally during a private meeting during mid-September held at Sony Computer Entertainment's headquarters in Aoyama, Tokyo. Shortly after, reports of development kits for the handheld had already been shipped to numerous video game developers including both first-party and third-party developers to start making games for the device, a report confirmed by Mortal Kombat Executive Producer Shaun Himmerick. By November, Senior Vice President of Electronic Arts, Patrick Soderlund, confirmed that he had seen that the PlayStation Portable successor existed, but could not confirm details.
In the same month, VG247 released pictures of an early prototype version showing a PSP Go-like slide-screen design along with two analog sticks, two cameras and a microphone, though the report mentioned that overheating issues had since caused them to move away from the design in favor of a model more similar to the original PlayStation Portable device. Throughout 2010, Sony would not confirm these reports of a PSP successor, but would make comments regarding making future hardware. Shuhei Yoshida, President of Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios revealed that his studio, despite being more involved with software, had a continued role in future hardware development at the time. In December, Sony Computer Entertainment CEO Kazuo Hirai stated that Sony aimed to appeal to a wide demographic of people by using multiple input methods on future hardware; the device was announced by Sony on January 27, 2011, at their "PlayStation Meeting" press conference held by the company in Japan. The system, only known by its code name "Next Generation Portable", wa
The PlayStation is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. The console was released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, 9 September 1995 in North America, 29 September 1995 in Europe, 15 November 1995 in Australia; the console was the first of the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles. It competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn as part of the fifth generation of video game consoles; the PlayStation is the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch. In July 2000, a redesigned, slim version called the PS one was released, replacing the original grey console and named appropriately to avoid confusion with its successor, the PlayStation 2; the PlayStation 2, backwards compatible with the PlayStation's DualShock controller and games, was announced in 1999 and launched in 2000. The last PS one units were sold in late 2006 to early 2007 shortly after it was discontinued, for a total of 102 million units shipped since its launch 11 years earlier.
Games for the PlayStation continued to sell until Sony ceased production of both the PlayStation and PlayStation games on 23 March 2006 – over 11 years after it had been released, less than a year before the debut of the PlayStation 3. On 19 September 2018, Sony unveiled the PlayStation Classic, to mark the 24th anniversary of the original console; the new console is a miniature recreation of the original PlayStation, preloaded with 20 titles released on the original console, was released on 3 December 2018, the exact date the console was released in Japan in 1994. The inception of what would become the released PlayStation dates back to 1986 with a joint venture between Nintendo and Sony. Nintendo had produced floppy disk technology to complement cartridges, in the form of the Family Computer Disk System, wanted to continue this complementary storage strategy for the Super Famicom. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "Play Station" or "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, work began.
Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities. Kutaragi was nearly fired by Sony because he was working with Nintendo on the side without Sony's knowledge, it was then-CEO, Norio Ohga, who recognised the potential in Kutaragi's chip, in working with Nintendo on the project. Ohga kept Kutaragi on at Sony, it was not until Nintendo cancelled the project that Sony decided to develop its own console. Sony planned to develop a Super NES-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super NES cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design; this was to be the format used in SNES-CDs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.
The product, dubbed the "Play Station" was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show. However, when Nintendo's Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realised that the earlier agreement handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was unacceptable and he secretly cancelled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 am the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips' global headquarters in the Netherlands and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature—one that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.
After the collapse of the joint-Nintendo project, Sony considered allying itself with Sega to produce a stand-alone console. The Sega CEO at the time, Tom Kalinske, took the proposal to Sega's Board of Directors in Tokyo, who promptly vetoed the idea. Kalinske, in a 2013 interview recalled them saying "that’s a stupid idea, Sony doesn't know how to make hardware, they don't know. Why would we want to do this?". This prompted Sony into halting their research, but the company decided to use what it had developed so far with both Nintendo and Sega to make it into a complete console based upon the Super Famicom; as a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of what was christened the "Play Station", on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the aforementioned brand new game system was revealed.
However, it is theorised that only 200 or so of these machines were produced. By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "Play Station" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "Play Station" concept to target a new generation of hardware and softw
Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine
Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine is a now-defunct monthly video game magazine, published by Ziff Davis Media, it was a sister publication of Electronic Gaming Monthly. The magazine focused on PlayStation hardware and culture, covering the original PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable; the most famous aspect of the magazine was the inclusion each month of a disc that contained playable demos and videos of PlayStation games. The magazine was produced for nearly ten years, from October 1997 to the final issue in January 2007. One month after OPM was discontinued in January 2007, the independent PlayStation magazine PSM became PlayStation: The Official Magazine, replacing OPM as the official magazine focusing on Sony game consoles; the final incarnation of the OPM staff included: Editor-in-chief – Tom Byron Managing editor – Dana Jongewaard Senior editor – Joe Rybicki Previews editor – Thierry "Scooter" Nguyen News editor – Giancarlo Varanini Art director – Ryan Vulk Associate art director – Alejandro Chavetta Disc editor – Logan Parr Editorial director – John DavisonPast members included: Senior Art Director - Bob Conlon Managing editor – Gary Steinman Managing editor – Din Perez Managing editor – Dan Peluso Reviews editor – Chris Baker Associate editor – Mark MacDonald Editor-in-chief – Wataru Maruyama Editor-in-chief – Kraig Kujawa Editor-in-chief – John Davison OPM was the first gaming magazine to include a disc that featured playable demos of PlayStation games.
Beginning with issue one, each magazine came with a disc containing playable PlayStation game demos and non-playable video footage. Interviews, industry event coverage, video walkthroughs of games would be included on the discs. Beginning with issue 49, the magazine came with a PlayStation 2 demo disc, though for a time it would still be alternated with original PlayStation demo discs. Issues 50, 52, 54 were the last issues to include demo discs for the original PlayStation. All of the demo discs were developed by Inc.. OPM had released Killzone Liberation, it was available only with the purchase of retail copies rather than subscription issues. The magazine was discontinued before making the assumed transition to PlayStation 3 demo discs. OPM demo discs for PS1 and PS2 were listed in order: Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #1 First PS1 OPM Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #2 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #3 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #4 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #5 Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #6 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #7 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #8 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #9 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #10 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #11 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #12 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #13 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #14 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #15 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #16 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #17 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #18 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #19 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #20 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #21 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #22 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #23 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #24 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #25 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #26 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #27 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #28 - Robot in the City Section Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #29 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #30 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #31 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #32 - Atlantis Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #33 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #34 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #35 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #36 - Future City Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #37 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #38 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #39 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #40 - Dr. Evil Fish Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #41 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #42 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #43 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #44 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #45 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #46 - Orb Crystal Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #47 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #48 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #49 First PS2 OPM Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #50 PS1 OPM- Square lines Section /Galaxy Map Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #51 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #52 PS1 OPM Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #53 (Februar
PlayStation Official Magazine – UK
PlayStation Official Magazine – UK abbreviated as OPM, is a magazine based in the United Kingdom that covers PlayStation news created in Winter 2006. Although the first issue was distributed in three-month intervals, from Issue 2 onward, it became a monthly segment. From Issue 7 to Issue 84, the magazine came with a playable Blu-ray Disc. However, it additionally covers PlayStation Vita material; the magazine covers PlayStation lifestyle, as well all aspects of High Definition media in lesser detail. The Official UK PlayStation Magazine is a now-defunct magazine, launched in November 1995 to coincide with the launch of the PlayStation console, it ran for 108 issues, with the last hitting news stands in March 2004. The first issue sold 37,000 copies. Midway through its run the abbreviations in the magazine changed from PSM to OPM, it had 3 design changes in its lifetime: 1 to 51, 52 to 72, 73 to 108. The first game to be reviewed was Wipeout, which received 8/10; the last game to be reviewed was Ford Truck Mania, which garnered 7/10.
The magazine would go on to become not only the best selling PlayStation magazine in the United Kingdom, but the best selling videogames magazine in the world. By mid-1997, PSM was selling over 150,000 issues a month. In the month of February 1999, issue 42, according to ABC the magazine managed a record 453,571, beating the UK's biggest lads magazines FHM, Maxim and Loaded. Essential PlayStation was a spin-off magazine to the Official UK PlayStation Magazine, running for twelve issues from late-1996 to mid-1999. Official UK PlayStation 2 Magazine was launched in December 2000 as the sequel publication to the Official UK PlayStation Magazine priced £4.99, to coincide with the launch of the PlayStation 2 console. Each month the magazine came with a cover-mounted playable demo DVD, it ran for 100 issues, with the last going on sale in the month of July 2008. The magazine was abbreviated OPS2, it had four design changes in its lifetime: 1 to 25, 26 to 41, 42 to 89, 90 to 100. The first game to be reviewed was Tekken Tag Tournament, which received 8/10.
The last game to be reviewed was SBK-08: Superbike World Championship, which earned 7/10. The magazine would go on to become the UK's best selling PlayStation 2 magazine, peaking with 197,348 readers in 2002. In the beginning OPS2 was designed for the early adopter – encompassing hardcore gamers and previous readers crossing over from the original Official UK PlayStation Magazine; this ran from issue 1 to 25. Starting from issue 26, the magazine was set the task of attracting a more mass market, mainstream audience; this included a full redesign. From issue 34, OPS2 changed again – however this time retaining its recent redesign. In a drastic attempt to attract a more young male demographic – similar to that of the independent PlayStation magazines of the'90s – the publication decided to review readers girlfriends and their mothers, it received a mixed response from readers, failed to increase the readership. In turn, the magazine featured another redesign from issue 42. OPS2 would retain this middle ground for the next three years, neither employing an overly male nor hardcore adult gamer stance.
In the final year, as the PlayStation 2 entered a more family-friendly stage, OPS2 changed once more. Starting from issue 90 the magazine would focus on the younger gamer. In 2004, OPSM2 won the prestigious Industry Dinner Magazine of the Year Award. In 2004, OPSM2 publication won MCV's Magazine Team of the Year Award. In 1998 and 1999, OPSM won the prestigious Industry Dinner Magazine of the Year Award; the magazine's design follows the same approximate structure each issue. Recurring segments include: The Big 10, in which the ten most momentous PlayStation-related pieces of news are discussed. Agenda, which contains the game sales charts for all three major PlayStation platforms as well as a Personal column and regulars like Culture, where PlayStation super fans show off their art and tributes, it shows off the latest Sony gadgets as well as "Lust have kit". Previews and reviews sections. Blu-ray movies section in which the latest Blu-ray releases are reviewed. Contact, in which letters and emails from readers are shown and replied to, this section includes a corner dedicated to "what's on my hard drive" where people talk about what games, music and friends are on their PS3 and several wall posts from the Official PlayStation Magazine US Facebook page.
Directory, which houses a "Buyer's Guide" for games for the main platforms as well as for HDTVs. From issues #1 to #51, the magazine followed a set format every month: StartUp Update PrePlay Letters Features PlayTest Cheats Down Loading On the CD Next Month Spy Monitor Features Next Month Letters Replay (looking at reviewed titles, review A to Z, chea
The PlayStation 4 is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, on February 22, 2014, in Japan, it Switch. Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices, the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely; the console's controller was redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, an integrated touchpad among other changes.
The console supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia. The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors. Heightened demand helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3; as of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide. On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games; the company released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.
According to lead architect Mark Cerny, development of Sony's fourth video game console began as early as 2008. Less than two years earlier, the PlayStation 3 had launched after months of delays due to issues with production; the delay placed Sony a year behind Microsoft's Xbox 360, approaching unit sales of 10 million by the time the PS3 launched. PlayStation Europe CEO Jim Ryan said Sony wanted to avoid repeating the same mistake with PS3's successor. In designing the system, Sony worked with software developer Bungie, who offered their input on the controller and how to make it better for shooting games. In 2012, Sony began shipping development kits to game developers, consisting of a modified PC running the AMD Accelerated Processing Unit chipset; these development kits were known as "Orbis". In early 2013, Sony announced that an event known as PlayStation Meeting 2013 would be held in New York City, U. S. on February 20, 2013, to cover the "future of PlayStation". Sony announced the PlayStation 4 at the event.
It revealed details about the console's hardware and discussed some of the new features it will introduce. Sony showed off real-time footage of games in development, as well as some technical demonstrations; the design of the console was unveiled in June at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2013, the initial recommended retail prices of $399, €399, £349 given. The company revealed release dates for North America, Central America, South America and Australia, as well as final pieces of information, at a Gamescom press event in Cologne, Germany, on August 20, 2013; the console was released on November 15, 2013, in the United States and Canada, followed by further releases on November 29, 2013. By the end of 2013, the PS4 was launched in more European and South American countries The PS4 released in Japan at ¥39,980 on February 22, 2014. Sony finalized a deal with the Chinese government in May 2014 to sell its products in mainland China, the PS4 will be the first product to be released. Kazuo Hirai, chief executive officer of Sony, said in May: "The Chinese market, just given the size of it, is potentially a large market for video game products...
I think that we will be able to replicate the kind of success we have had with PS4 in other parts of the world in China."In September 2015, Sony reduced the price of the PS4 in Japan to ¥34,980, with similar price drops in other Southeast Asian markets. The first official sub £300 PS4 bundle was the £299.99 "Uncharted Nathan Drake Collection 500GB", released in the UK on October 9, 2015. On October 9, 2015, the first official price cut of the PS4 in North America was announced: a reduction of $50 to $349.99 and by $20 to $429.99. An official price cut in Europe followed in late October 2015, reduced to €349.99/£299.99. On June 10, 2016, Sony confirmed that a hardware revision of the PlayStation 4, rumored to be codenamed "Neo", was under development; the new revision is a higher-end model, meant to support gameplay in 4K. The new model will be sold alongside the existing model, all existing software will be compatible between the two models. Layden stated that Sony has no plans to "bifurcate the market", only that gamers playing on the Neo will "have the same experience, but one will be delivered at a higher resol
The PlayStation Portable is a handheld game console, developed by Sony Computer Entertainment and competed with the Nintendo DS as part of the seventh generation of video-game consoles. Development of the handheld console was announced during E3 2003 and it was unveiled on May 11, 2004, at a Sony press conference before the next E3; the system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004. The PSP was the most powerful portable console, it was the first real competitor of Nintendo's handheld consoles after many challengers, such as SNK's Neo Geo Pocket and Nokia's N-Gage, had failed. Its advanced graphics made the PSP a popular mobile-entertainment device, which can connect to the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 games consoles, computers running Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh software, other PSPs and the Internet; the PSP is the only handheld console to use an optical disc format – Universal Media Disc – as its primary storage medium. It was received positively by most video-game critics and sold 76 million units by 2012.
Several models of the console were released. The PSP line was succeeded by the PlayStation Vita, released in December 2011 in Japan and worldwide in February 2012; the Vita has backward compatibility with many PSP games that were released on the PlayStation Network through the PlayStation Store, which became the main method of purchasing PSP games after Sony shut down access to the PlayStation Store from PSPs on March 31, 2016. Hardware shipments ended worldwide in 2014. Production of UMDs ended when the last Japanese factory making them closed in late 2016. Sony Computer Entertainment first announced development of the PlayStation Portable at a press conference preceding E3 2003. Although samples were not presented, Sony released extensive technical details. CEO Jose Villeta called the device the "Walkman of the 21st century". Several gaming websites were impressed with the handheld's computing capabilities and looked forward to its potential as a gaming platform. In the 1990s, Nintendo had dominated the handheld market since launching its Game Boy in 1989, experiencing close competition only from Bandai's WonderSwan in Japan and Sega's Game Gear.
In January 1999, Sony had released the successful PocketStation in Japan as its first foray into the handheld gaming market. The SNK Neo Geo Pocket and Nokia's N-Gage failed to cut into Nintendo's share. According to an IDC analyst in 2004, the PSP was the "first legitimate competitor to Nintendo's dominance in the handheld market"; the first concept images of the PSP appeared in November 2003 at a Sony corporate strategy meeting and showed it having flat buttons and no analog joystick. Although some reviewers expressed concern about the lack of an analog stick, these fears were allayed when the PSP was unveiled at the Sony press conference during E3 2004. Sony released a list of 99 developer companies. Several game demos such as Konami's Metal Gear Acid and SCE Studio Liverpool's Wipeout Pure were shown at the conference. On October 17, 2004, Sony announced that the PSP base model would be launched in Japan on December 12 that year for ¥19,800 while the Value System would launch for ¥24,800.
The launch was a success. Color variations were sold in bundle packs that cost around $200. Sony announced on February 3, 2005, that the PSP would go on sale in North America on March 24 in one configuration for an MSRP of US$249/CA$299; some commentators expressed concern over the high price, US$20 higher than that of the Japanese model and more than $100 higher than the Nintendo DS. Despite these concerns, the PSP's North American launch was a success. Sony said 500,000 units were sold in the first two days, though it was reported that this figure was below expectations; the PSP was intended to have a simultaneous PAL region and North American launch, but on March 15, 2005, Sony announced that the PAL region launch would be delayed because of high demand for the console in Japan and North America. The next month it announced that the PSP would be launched in the PAL region on September 1, 2005, for €249/£179. Sony defended the high price by saying North American consumers had to pay local sales taxes and that the Value Added Tax was higher in the UK than the US.
Despite the high price, the console's PAL region launch was a success, selling more than 185,000 units in the UK. All stock of the PSP in the UK sold out within three hours of launch, more than doubling the previous first-day sales record of 87,000 units set by the Nintendo DS; the system enjoyed great success in other areas of the PAL region. The PlayStation Portable uses the common "bar" form factor; the original model measures 6.7 by 2.9 by 0.9 inches and weighs 9.9 ounces. The front of the console is dominated by the system's 4.3-inch LCD screen, capable of 480 × 272 pixel video playback with 24-bit color, outperforming the Nintendo DS. On the unit's front are four PlayStation face buttons; the system has two shoulder buttons, a USB 2.0 mini-B port on the top of the console, a WLAN switch and power cable input on the bottom. The back of the PSP features a read-only Universal Media Disc drive for access to movies a