Plymouth is a port city situated on the south coast of Devon, England 37 miles south-west of Exeter and 190 miles west-south-west of London. Enclosing the city are the mouths of the river Plym and river Tamar, which are incorporated into Plymouth Sound to form a boundary with Cornwall. Plymouth's early history extends to the Bronze Age; this settlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village of Sutton founded in the ninth century, now called Plymouth. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth for the New World and established Plymouth Colony, the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War, the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, exporting local minerals; the neighbouring town of Devonport became a strategic Royal Naval dockyard town.
In 1914 three neighbouring independent towns, viz. the county borough of Plymouth, the county borough of Devonport, the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged to form a single County Borough. The combined town took the name of Plymouth; the city's naval importance led to its being targeted by the German military and destroyed by bombing during World War II, an act known as the Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of Plympton and Plymstock along with other outlying suburbs in 1967; the city is home to 263,100 people, making it the 30th-most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom and the second-largest city in the South West, after Bristol. It is represented nationally by three MPs. Plymouth's economy remains influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring including ferry links to Brittany and Spain, but has tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s, it has the largest operational naval base in Western Europe, HMNB Devonport, is home to the University of Plymouth.
Upper Palaeolithic deposits, including bones of Homo sapiens, have been found in local caves, artefacts dating from the Bronze Age to the Middle Iron Age have been found at Mount Batten, showing that it was one of few principle trading ports of pre Roman Britannia dominating continental trade with Armorica. An unidentified settlement named TAMARI OSTIA is listed in Ptolemy's Geographia and is presumed to be located in the area of the modern city. An ancient promontory fort was located at Rame Head at the mouth of Plymouth Sound with ancient hillforts located at Lyneham Warren to the east, Boringdon Camp and Maristow Camp to the north; the settlement of Plympton, further up the River Plym than the current Plymouth, was an early trading port. As the river silted up in the early 11th century and merchants were forced to settle downriver at the current day Barbican near the river mouth. At the time this village was called meaning south town in Old English; the name Plym Mouth, meaning "mouth of the River Plym" was first mentioned in a Pipe Roll of 1211.
The name Plymouth first replaced Sutton in a charter of King Henry VI in 1440. See Plympton for the derivation of the name Plym. During the Hundred Years' War a French attack burned a manor house and took some prisoners, but failed to get into the town. In 1403 the town was burned by Breton raiders. On 12 November 1439, the English Parliament made Plymouth the first town incorporated. In the late fifteenth century, Plymouth Castle, a "castle quadrate", was constructed close to the area now known as The Barbican; the castle served to protect Sutton Pool, where the fleet was based in Plymouth prior to the establishment of Plymouth Dockyard. In 1512 an Act of Parliament was passed for further fortifying Plymouth. A series of fortifications were built, including defensive walls at the entrance to Sutton Pool. Defences on St Nicholas Island date from this time, a string of six artillery blockhouses were built, including one on Fishers Nose at the south-eastern corner of the Hoe; this location was further strengthened by the building of a fort in 1596.
During the 16th century, locally produced wool was the major export commodity. Plymouth was the home port for successful maritime traders, among them Sir John Hawkins, who led England's first foray into the Atlantic slave trade, as well as Sir Francis Drake, Mayor of Plymouth in 1581–2. Crews for the first English failed settlement attempt at Roanoke Colony in North America departed in 1587 under Sir Walter Raleigh's and Drake's leadership. In 1588, according to legend, Drake insisted on completing his game of bowls on the Hoe before engaging the Spanish Armada. In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers set sail for the New World from Plymouth, establishing Plymouth Colony – the second English colony in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War Plymouth sided with the Parliamentarians and was besieged for four years by the Royalists; the last major attack by the Royalists was by Sir Richard Grenville leading thousands of soldiers towards Plymouth, but they were defeated by
Waking at Dawn is the debut commercial mixtape by Canadian recording artist Roy Woods. It was released on July 2016, by OVO Sound and Warner Bros.. Records; the album serves as a follow-up to his debut EP Exis. It was preceded by two singles. On March 11, 2016, Roy Woods announced the mixtape's title via Twitter; the release date and cover art was revealed on June 29, 2016. The mixtape's lead single and second single, "Gwan Big Up Urself" and "How I Feel" was released on June 4, 2016. Waking at Dawn was met with positive reviews; the album received a 74 out of 100 by HotNewHipHop. Writing for Exclaim!, Themistoklis Alexis praised the album's "flashes of maturity" but criticized Woods' "failure to emote on phonics." Credits were adapted from Tidal. Credits adapted from Tidal. Waking at Dawn at Discogs
Halictus hotoni, the emerald furrow bee, is a species of sweat bee in the family Halictidae native to southern Africa and introduced to Australia. It was described by Joseph Vachal in 1903, it is treated by some as Seladonia hotoni. It is metallic green and similar in size to the Australian native bee, Lipotriches flavoviridis, 6 to 8 mm long; the emerald furrow bee has spread to Australia. It was identified as Halictus smaragdulus, but an assessment of mitochondrial DNA and comparison of morphology identified the bees found in Australia as Halictus hotoni; because introduced bees may compete with native animals, disrupt plant pollination and transmit parasites and pathogens, scientists are concerned about the arrival of emerald furrow bees in Australia. It was discovered by chance in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, in late 2004. Although a recent introduction – which hadn’t been observed in past surveys, it was well established. Bioclimatic models suggest, it is not known. Little is known about the impacts of emerald furrow bees in Australia and funding for research has been negligible.
However, experts claim that the emerald furrow bee could have serious impacts due to its long seasonal activity, apparent preference for introduced plants and high relative abundance, being the second most common bee trapped in some places. Potential environmental impacts include: Competing with native fauna for food resources and nest sites. At least 14 species of bee – 13 of which are native, are threatened by the emerald furrow bee. Transmitting parasites and pathogens to native plants and animals. Increasing the spread of invasive plants by pollinating them; the emerald furrow bee has been noted to prefer introduced plants including Galenia pubescens, a declared noxious weed in some parts of NSW. Potential economic and social impacts include costs associated with increased weed spread and the spread of parasites and pathogens to commercial bee hives. There are no response plans for emerald furrow bees in Australia. Experts warn that by the time the impacts of emerald furrow bees become obvious it could be too late for eradication or containment.
Scientists advise that it would be'prudent to prevent further introductions' and are calling for national risk assessments, pathway analyses and contingency plans to reduce the risks of further incursions