Pumlumon Cwmbiga is a summit of the Pumlumon mountain range in Ceredigion, Wales. It is 620 metres feet above sea level and is a deleted Nuttall, only just missing out on the criteria; the nearby summit of Carnfachbugeilyn is higher at 622 metres
A woodland or wood is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher density areas of trees with a closed canopy that provides extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forests. Extensive efforts by conservationist groups have been made to preserve woodlands from urbanization and agriculture: the woodlands of Northwest Indiana being an example, having been preserved as part of the Indiana Dunes. Woodland is used in British woodland management to mean tree-covered areas which arose and which are managed, while forest is used in the British Isles to describe plantations more extensive, or hunting Forests, which are a land use with a legal definition and may not be wooded at all; the term ancient woodland is used in British nature conservation to refer to any wooded land that has existed since 1600, for thousands of years, since the last Ice Age.
Woodlot is a related American term which refers to a stand of trees used for firewood. While woodlots technically have closed canopies, they are so small that light penetration from the edge makes them ecologically closer to woodland than forest. In Australia, a woodland is defined as an area with sparse cover of trees, an open woodland has sparse cover. Woodlands are subdivided into tall woodlands, or low woodlands, if their trees are over 30 m or under 10 m high respectively; this contrasts with forests. Sudden oak death, an oak disease, results from Phytophthora ramorum, a pathogen that thrives in moist, humid conditions; this causal agent attacks the cambium of oaks, allowing beetle and fungi infestation. It has killed millions of tanoaks. SOD does not affect white oaks and drier areas like foothill woodlands, but affects forests and more moist conditions like live oak woodlands and forests, which have been impacted. Afrotropic ecozone Angolan Miombo woodlands Angolan Mopane woodlands Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Eastern Miombo woodlands Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Zambezian and Mopane woodlands Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Neotropic ecozone Cerrado woodlands and savannas Afrotropic Ecozone Al Hajar Al Gharbi montane woodlands Palearctic ecozone Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Afrotropic ecozone Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands Drakensberg montane grasslands and forests East African montane moorlands Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Palearctic ecozone Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Australasia ecozone Coolgardie woodlands Cumberland Plain Woodland Mount Lofty woodlands Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee Naracoorte woodlands Southwest Australia woodlands Nearctic ecozone California chaparral and woodlands Palearctic ecozone Baccanico an area with a high density of all sorts of berry trees.
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Mediterranean woodlands and forests Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Afrotropic ecozone East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Madagascar succulent woodlands Somali montane xeric woodlands Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Palearctic ecozone Baluchistan xeric woodlands Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Central Asian riparian woodlands North Saharan steppe and woodlands Paropamisus xeric woodlands South Saharan steppe and woodlands Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Media related to Woodlands at Wikimedia Commons The UK Woodland Trust Woodland Bond
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust, demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole; the term refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain; the massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology. The word is taken from French, where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range. One of the most notable European examples of a massif is the Massif Central of the Auvergne region of France; the Face on Mars is an example of an extraterrestrial massif. Massifs may form underwater, as with the Atlantis Massif. Adrar des Ifoghas – Mali Aïr Massif – Niger Bongo Massif – Central African Republic Marojejy Massif – Madagascar Mulanje Massif – Malawi Waterberg Biosphere – South Africa Virunga Massif – border shared by Uganda, Rwanda and DR Congo Kilimanjaro Massif – border of Kenya and Tanzania Oban Massif – Nigeria Borg Massif Craddock Massif Cumpston Massif Vinson Massif Otway Massif Annapurna – Nepal Chu Pong Massif – Vietnam Dhaulagiri – Nepal Gasherbrum – Pakistan Hazaran – Iran Kholeno – Iran Kangchenjunga – Nepal Knuckles Massif – Sri Lanka Kondyor Massif – Russia Kugitangtau Ridge – Turkmenistan Logar ultrabasite massif – Logar Province, Afghanistan Mount Ararat – Turkey Mount Everest massif – border of Nepal and Tibet Mount Kinabalu – Malaysia Mount Tomuraushi – Japan Nanga Parbat – Pakistan Nun Kun – India Panchchuli – India Shillong – Meghalaya, India Alpilles – France Aravis Range – France Ardennes Massif – France/Belgium/Luxembourg Areskutan – Sweden Armorican Massif – Brittany, France Bauges Massif – France Beaufortain Massif – France Ben Nevis massif – Scotland, United Kingdom Bohemian Massif – Czech Republic Bornes Massif – France Calanques Massif Ceahlău Massif – Romania Cerces Massif Chablais Massif – France Chartreuse Massif – France Cornubian Massif – United Kingdom Dévoluy Massif – France Massif des Écrins – France Gotthard Massif – Switzerland Jungfrau Massif – Switzerland Jura Mountains – France Lauzière massif L'Esterel Massif Long Mynd – England, United Kingdom Lubéron – France Massif Central – France Massiccio del Matese - Italy Mangerton Mountain – Ireland Mercantour – France Montgris – Spain Montserrat – Spain Mont Blanc massif – Italy/France/Switzerland Massiccio del Pollino - Italy Rila - Rhodope Massif – Bulgaria/Greece Sila Massif – Italy Snowdon Massif – Wales, United Kingdom Taillefer Massif – France Troodos – Cyprus Untersberg – Germany/Austria Queyras Massif – France Vanoise Massif – France Vercors Plateau – France Vitosha Massif – Bulgaria Vosges Mountains – France Adirondack Massif – New York, USA Mount Cayley massif – British Columbia, Canada Laurentian Massif – Quebec, Canada Le Massif – Canada Denali – Alaska, USA Level Mountain – Canada Mount Edziza – Canada Mount Juneau – Alaska, USA Mount Le Conte – Tennessee, USA Mount Logan – Yukon, Canada Mount Meager massif – Canada Mount Septimus – Canada Mount Shuksan – Washington, USA Teton Range – Wyoming, USA Big Ben – Heard Island Ahipara Gumfields – New Zealand Massif de la Hotte – Haiti Valle Nuevo Massif – Dominican Republic Brasilia Massif – Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay.
Neblina massif – Venezuela–Brazil border Colombian Massif – Colombia North Patagonian Massif – Argentina Deseado Massif – Argentina Atlantis Massif – part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean Tamu Massif — the largest volcano on Earth
Ben Lomond, 974 metres, is a mountain in the Scottish Highlands. Situated on the eastern shore of Loch Lomond, it is the most southerly of the Munros. Ben Lomond lies within the Ben Lomond National Memorial Park and the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park, property of the National Trust for Scotland, its accessibility from Glasgow and elsewhere in central Scotland, together with the relative ease of ascent from Rowardennan, makes it one of the most popular of all the Munros. On a clear day, it is visible across Strathclyde. Ben Lomond summit can be seen from Ben Nevis, the highest peak in Britain, over 40 miles away; the West Highland Way runs by the loch. Ben Lomond's popularity in Scotland has resulted in several namesakes in the former British colonies of Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica and Tobago, the United States – see this list; the mountain is mentioned directly in the popular folk song The Bonnie Banks o' Loch Lomond. The name Ben Lomond is agreed to mean "beacon mountain" or "beacon hill".
Lomond is of Brittonic origin and derived from the element lumon meaning "a beacon". This element, persevered in Scots as lum meaning "chimney", is found in other hill-names such as the Lomond Hills in Fife and Pumlumon in Wales. Like these hills, Ben Lomond is to have been perceived as a central point the meeting-point of several territorial boundaries, where a signal beacon may have been lit. Ben Lomond has a craggy summit which appears conical when viewed from the nearby Arrochar Alps range; the mountain comprises two parallel south-southeasterly ridges: the Sròn Aonaich ridge to the east and the Ptarmigan ridge to the west. North of the summit these ridges come together and lead to a 456 metres col with Cruin a' Bheinn, a Graham; the summit is grassy and rocky and is marked by a triangulation pillar Ben Lomond's geology is dominated by granite, mica schist, diorite and quartzite. Ben Lomond lies on the Scottish watershed, the drainage divide which separates river systems that flow to the east from those that flow to the west.
The usual route up Ben Lomond is via the'tourist path', a wide and easy path, paved in steeper sections. This track was created owing to the mountain's status as one of the most popular in Scotland and climbs the gentle Sròn Aonaich ridge, before ascending a steeper section to the rocky summit ridge. An alternative route follows the Ptarmigan ridge to the summit along a rockier path; the Ptarmigan path is the second most popular route, followed by a third route which approaches from Gleann Dubh. Despite the comparative ease of the tourist route, Ben Lomond can present a significant challenge to inexperienced walkers in poor weather conditions. A dedicated Lomond Mountain Rescue Team has existed since 1967 to assist walkers and climbers on Ben Lomond and other surrounding peaks; the higher regions of the mountain support an alpine tundra ecozone, hosting bird species including peregrine falcon, rock ptarmigan, red grouse and golden eagles. A study by the British Trust for Ornithology found that Ben Lomond may host the most southerly breeding ptarmigan population in Scotland, following the decline of populations on Goatfell and the Arran mountains as a result of climate change.
In addition to natural wildlife, the mountain area supports sheep farming. The National Trust for Scotland is tasked with maintaining a land management programme which sustains a balance of natural habitat conservation and the availability of land for grazing. Since 1995, the area around Ben Lomond, including the mountain summit, has been designated as a war memorial, called the Ben Lomond National Memorial Park; the park is dedicated to those who gave their lives in the First and Second World Wars and was created out of the former Rowardennan Estate with the support of the National Heritage Memorial Fund. The Memorial Park was opened on Armistice Day in 1997 by the Rt Hon Donald Dewar Secretary of State for Scotland and who became the first First Minister of Scotland. At the opening ceremony he unveiled a granite sculpture by Doug Cocker, a Scottish artist who had won a competition organised by the Scottish Sculpture Trust to design a permanent monument for the park. At the time of its creation, management of the Memorial Park was entrusted to the NTS, Forestry Commission and the now defunct Scottish Office.
In 2002, the Scottish Parliament created the Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park, the first national park in Scotland. The national park includes the whole of Ben Lomond National Memorial Park. Media related to Ben Lomond at Wikimedia Commons Computer-generated virtual panorama from Ben Lomond North South Index
The Cambrian Mountains are a series of mountain ranges in Wales. The term "Cambrian Mountains" was applied in a general sense to most of upland Wales. Since the 1950s, its application has become localised to the geographically homogeneous Mid Wales uplands, known in Welsh as Elenydd, which extend from Pumlumon to Radnor Forest in the east and Mynydd Mallaen to the south; this barren and sparsely populated'wilderness' is referred to as the Desert of Wales. The area includes the sources of the River Severn and River Wye, was unsuccessfully proposed as a national park in the 1960s and 1970s; the highest point of the range is Plynlimon, at 2,467 feet. The wider, more historic, use of the term includes Snowdonia in North Wales, the Brecon Beacons and Black Mountains in South Wales, they range in height up to 3,559 feet in Snowdonia. While Snowdonia contains a mix of volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age, the mountains of South Wales are Devonian age Old Red Sandstone and Carboniferous Limestone and aged sandstones.
The ranges of mid-Wales on the other hand are predominantly formed from Ordovician and Silurian sandstones and mudstones which in many areas outcrop only infrequently so resulting in more rounded grassy hills. The Cambrian Mountains are less popular with hillwalkers and scramblers than the ranges to their north and south. Since all of Wales' ranges face the predominant westerly air stream coming in from the Atlantic Ocean, they enjoy high levels of rainfall and are the source of numerous rivers, among which the rivers Severn and Wye, which rise on the eastern slopes of Pumlumon, are the largest; the Cambrian Mountains host the Elan Valley Reservoirs and Llyn Brianne reservoir, which provide water for the English West Midlands and for South Wales respectively. They include the Clywedog Nant y Moch Reservoir. Cefn Croes, the site of a controversial wind farm project, is in the Cambrian Mountains, just south of the A44 road between Aberystwyth and Llangurig; the area was proposed as a national park in 1965 by the National Parks Commission, a precursor body of the Countryside Commission.
However, the proposal was opposed by local authorities in the area. Formal consultations on the proposal began in 1970, in 1971 the Countryside Commission proposed a revised boundary for the designation; the proposed area, of 467 square miles, covered the area of Pumlumon and Elenydd, within an area bounded by the settlements of Machynlleth, Rhayader, Newbridge-on-Wye, Llanwrtyd Wells, Pumsaint and Devil's Bridge. Despite continuing local opposition, the Countryside Commission published the order designating the area on 15 August 1972, submitted it to the Secretary of State for Wales, Peter Thomas, for confirmation. Objections to the proposed designation were made by all five county councils, 5 of the 7 district councils, 5 parish councils, the National Farmers Union, the Country Landowners Association, Plaid Cymru, the Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales and others. Support for the designation was expressed by the Ramblers Association, Youth Hostels Association, Cyclists' Touring Club.
In July 1973, the Secretary of State announced the decision not to proceed with the designation because of "massive evidence of objections", rejected a call to hold a public inquiry. This was the first time; this list confines itself to the more geographically restricted area referred to above. Pen Pumlumon Fawr 2,467 ft Pen Pumlumon Arwystli 2,431 ft Pen Pumlumon Llygad-bychan 2,385 ft Y Garn 2,244 ft Pumlumon Fach 2,179 ft Great Rhos 2,165 ft Black Mixen 2,130 ft Drygarn Fawr 2,116 ft Gorllwyn 2,011 ft Bache Hill 2,000 ft Pen y Garn 2,004 ft Y Gamriw 1,982 ft Llan Ddu Fawr 1,948 ft Pegwn Mawr 1,923 ft Clipyn Du 1,909 ft Y Glog 1,883 ft Cefn Croes 1,879 ft Elenydd Desert of Wales The Cambrian Way high level long-distance footpath Exercise Cambrian Patrol The Cambrian Mountains Society The Cambrian Mountains Initiative Cambrian Mountains tourism guide Cambrian Mountains walking guide