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Podgorica

Podgorica is the capital and largest city of Montenegro. Between 1946 and 1992—in the period that Montenegro formed, as the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia —the city was known as Titograd in honour of Josip Broz Tito. Podgorica's favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and at the meeting-point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement; the city is close to seaside resorts on the Adriatic Sea. Podgorica Municipality covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory and is home to 29.9% of the country's population. It is the nation's administrative centre and its economic and educational focus; the name Podgorica means " below Gorica". Gorica, meaning "little hill", is the name of one of the cypress-covered hillocks that overlook the city centre; some three kilometres north-west of Podgorica lie the ruins of the Roman-era town of Doclea, from which the Roman Emperor Diocletian hailed. In centuries, Romans "corrected" the name to Dioclea, guessing wrongly that an i had been lost in vulgar speech.

Duklja is the South Slavic version of that word. At its foundation, the town was called Birziminium. In the Middle Ages, it was known as Ribnica; the name Podgorica was used from 1326. From 1946 to 1992, the city was named Titograd in honour of Josip Broz Tito, the former President of Yugoslavia. Podgorica is at the crossroads of several important routes, near the rivers Zeta, Morača, Ribnica and Mareza in the valley of Lake Skadar and near the Adriatic Sea, in fertile lowlands with favourable climate; the earliest human settlements were in prehistory: the oldest physical remains are from the late Stone Age. In the Iron Age, the area between the Zeta and Bjelopavlići valleys was occupied by two Illyrian tribes, the Labeates and the Docleatae; the population of the town of Doclea was 8,000 -- 10,000. The high population density was made possible by the geographical position, favourable climate and economic conditions and by the defensive positions that were of great importance at that time. From the 5th century AD, with the arrival of the first Slavic and Avar tribes and the beginning of the break-up of the Roman Empire, the area bore witness to many noteworthy events.

With time, the fortifications ceased new towns were built. It was first mentioned as part of the Serbian kingdom; the importance of Ribnica was its position as crossroads in communications with the west. The name Podgorica was first mentioned in 1326 in a court document of the Kotor archives; the city was economically strong: trade routes between the Republic of Ragusa and Serbia, well developed at that time, were maintained via the road that led to Podgorica through Trebinje and Nikšić. As a busy crossroad, Podgorica was a vibrant regional centre of communication; this boosted economic power, military strength and strategic importance. The Ottoman Empire captured Podgorica in 1474. Podgorica became a kaza of the Sanjak of Scutari in 1479 The Ottomans built a large fortress in Podgorica, the existing settlement, with its developed merchant connections, became the main Ottoman defensive and attacking bastion in the region. At the beginning of 1474 the Ottoman sultan intended to rebuild Podgorica and Baleč and settle them with 5,000 Muslim families, in order to stop cooperation between the Principality of Zeta and Albania Veneta.

Podgorica fell again, but this time to the Ottomans in 1484, the character of the town changed extensively. The Ottomans fortified the city, building towers and defensive ramparts that give Podgorica the appearance of an Ottoman military city. Most of today's Montenegro and Podgorica felt under the rule of the Albanian Bushati Family of Shkodra between 1760-1831, which ruled independently from the Imperial authority of the Ottoman Sultan. In 1864, Podgorica became. On October 7, 1874, in a violent reaction over the murder of a local named Juso Mučin Krnić, Ottoman forces killed at least 15 people in Podgorica; the massacre was reported outside of Montenegro and contributed to the buildup to the Montenegrin-Ottoman War. The end of the Montenegrin-Ottoman War in 1878 resulted in the Congress of Berlin recognizing vast territories, including that of Podgorica, as part of the newly-recognized Kingdom of Montenegro. At that time there were about 1,500 houses in Podgorica, with more than 8,000 people living there - of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Muslim faiths flourishing together.

After the Berlin Congress in 1878, when Podgorica was annexed to the Principality of Montenegro, marking the end of four centuries of Ottoman rule, the beginning of a new era for Podgorica and Montenegro. The first forms of capital concentration were seen in 1902, when roads were built to all neighbouring towns, tobacco became Podgorica's first significant commercial product. In 1904, a savings bank named Zetska formed the first significant financial institution, it would soon grow into Podgorička Bank. World War I marked the end o

Leiomano

The leiomano is a shark-toothed club used by various Polynesian cultures, but by the native Hawaiians. Leiomano is a word in the Hawaiian language and may have been derived from lei o manō, which means "a shark's lei."The weapon resembles a thick ping-pong paddle inset with shark teeth. The tiger shark is the preferred donor; these teeth are sewn into place. The tip of the handle may utilize a marlin bill as a dagger; the weapon functions as a bladed club similar to the obsidian-studded macuahuitl of the pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. A culturally unrelated weapon of similar form was discovered in pieces at Cahokia, Illinois, in 1948 by Gregory Perino. Damaged by a plow, the weapon was composed of eight chert imitation shark teeth, tipped with five actual shark teeth. In both cases, the teeth were related to the great white

Fight Master: Bellator MMA

Fight Master: Bellator MMA was a mixed martial arts based reality television series. It centered on the promotion Bellator Fighting Championships and aired on Spike TV; the series debuted on June 19, 2013. The series was announced by Bellator and Spike TV at a press conference on February 5, 2013; the coaches and trainers for the series, which will feature 32 welterweight fighters, will be Randy Couture, Frank Shamrock, Greg Jackson, Joe Warren. The 32 fighters will be competing for a spot in Bellator's welterweight tournament; the weekly series will culminate in a live season finale on Spike TV with the winner advancing into the fall welterweight tournament. It debuted on Spike TV on June 19, 2013; the first seven shows aired on Wednesday nights at 10pm. However, due to declining ratings, Spike opted to move the show's final three episodes to Thursday at 11pm to follow Total Nonstop Action Wrestling. Randy Couture, head coach of black team Frank Shamrock, head coach of green team Greg Jackson, head coach of red team Joe Warren, head coach of blue team Fighters eliminated during the entry roundChip Pollard, Christopher Curtis, Brendan Tierney, Darryl Cobb, Josh Quayhagen, Rob Mills, Tom Gallicchio, Brett Nakamura, Joe Williams, Steve Montgomery, Jacob Ortiz, Marcus Aurelio, Dom O'Grady, Artenas Young, Gareth Joseph, Frank Carrillo, Andy Uhrich Episode 1: "Fight to Choose" An introduction video explained the Fight Master concept where fighters are allowed to pick their own coaches.

The introduction of the four coaches, Randy Couture, Frank Shamrock, Greg Jackson and Joe Warren. The first five preliminary fights were shown:Tim Welch defeated Chip Pollard via KO in the first round. Welch chose Jackson as his coach. Eric Scallan defeated Christopher Curtis by unanimous decision after two rounds. Scallan chose Warren as his coach. Nick Barnes defeated Brendan Tierney via submission in the first round. Barnes chose Shamrock as his coach. AJ Matthews defeated Darryl Cobb by unanimous decision after three rounds. Matthews chose Couture as his coach. Chris Lozano defeated Josh Quayhagen by unanimous decision after two rounds. Lozano chose Shamrock as his coach. Episode 2: "Which Camp Do You Choose?" The elimination round continued with six more fights:Mike Dubois defeated Rob Mills via submission in the first round. Dubois chose Shamrock as his coach. Eric Bradley defeated Tom Gallicchio by unanimous decision after two rounds. Bradley chose Jackson as his coach. Evan Cutts defeated Brett Nakamura via submission in first round.

Cutts chose Joe Warren as his coach. Cole Williams defeated Joe Williams by unanimous decision after three rounds. Williams chose Couture as his coach. Jason Norwood defeated Jacob Ortiz by unanimous decision after two rounds. Norwood chose Warren as his coach. Cristiano Souza defeated Steve Montgomery by KO in the first round. Souza chose Couture as his coach. Episode 3: "Last Shot for Spot" The elimination round continued with the final five fights:Ismael Gonzalez defeated Marcus Aurelio via TKO in the first round. Gonzalez chose Warren as his coach. Andy Uhrich defeated Dom O'Grady by unanimous decision after two rounds. Due to a cut over his eye, Uhrich was disqualified from the competition. Bryan Travers defeated Artenas Young by unanimous decision after three rounds. Travers chose Jackson as his coach. Mike Bronzoulis defeated Gareth Joseph by unanimous decision after two rounds. Bronzoulis chose Couture as his coach; the final fight was scheduled to be Frank Carrillo against Joe Riggs. However, Carrillo was unable to fight.

With the approval of the athletic commission, Mills was allowed to re-enter the tournament. Joe Riggs defeated Rob Mills by submission in the first round. Riggs chose Jackson as his coach. Episode 4: "Training Day" The 15 advancing fighters move into the house and start training with the coaches. Due to being one fighter short, Shamrock is allowed to bring back a fighter; the coaches rank the fighters in order of 1 through 16 and the fighters are randomly chosen in order to pick their fights Two elimination fights were held. Cole Williams defeated Mike Dubois by submission in the first round. Chris Lozano defeated Bryan Travers by split decision after three rounds. Episode 5: "Strikers and Wrestlers" Two more elimination fights were held. Norwood chose Bronzoulis to be his opponent. Mike Bronzoulis defeated Jason Norwood by KO in the third round. Gonzalez chose Joe Williams to be his opponent. Joe Williams defeated Ismael Gonzalez by submission in the second round. Episode 6: "Old School, New School" Two more elimination fights were held.

Welch chose Barnes to be his opponent. Nick Barnes defeated Tim Welch by submission in the first round. Top seed Riggs chose Scallan to be his opponent. Joe Riggs defeated Eric Scallan by unanimous decision after two rounds. Episode 7: "Who is the Underdog Now?" The final two elimination fights were held. Souza chose Cutts to be his opponent. Evan Cutts defeated Cristiano Souza by submission in the second round. Matthews chose Bradley to be his opponent. Eric Bradley defeated A. J. Matthews by unanimous decision after two rounds. Episode 8: "Friend or Foe?" The coaches rank the remaining fighters. Cole Williams chose Barnes to be his opponent. Cole Willams defeated Nick Barnes by TKO in the first round. Bellator fighter Muhammed "King Mo" Lawal shows up to watch the next match. Lozano chose Bronz