Road racing is a form of motorsport racing held on a paved road surfaces. The races can be held either on a closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. Road races were held entirely on public roads however, public safety concerns led to most races being held on purpose built racing circuits. Road racing's origins were centered in Western Europe and Great Britain as motor vehicles became more common in the early 20th century. After the Second World War, automobile road races were organized into a series called the Formula One world championship sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile while, motorcycle road races were organized into the Grand Prix motorcycle racing series now called MotoGP and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme; the success and popularity of road racing has seen the sport spread across the globe with Grand Prix road races having been held on six continents. Other variations of road racing include.
The first organized automobile race was held on July 1894 from Paris to Rouen, France. The first held in the United States was a 54-mile competition from Chicago to Evanston and return, held on November 27, 1895. By 1905, the Gordon Bennett Cup, organized by the Automobile Club de France, was considered the most important race in the world. In 1904, the Association Internationale des Automobiles Clubs Reconnus was formed by several European automobile clubs. In 1904 the FIM created the international cup for motorcycles; the first international motorcycle road race took place in 1905 at France. After disagreeing with Bennett Cup organizers over regulations limiting the number of entrants, the French automobile manufacturers responded in 1906 by organizing the first French Grand Prix race held at Le Mans; the first 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race was held in 1923. The great majority of road races were run over a lengthy circuit of closed public roads, not purpose-built racing circuits; this was true of the Le Mans circuit of the 1906 French Grand Prix, as well as the Targa Florio, the 75 miles German Kaiserpreis circuit in the Taunus mountains, the 48 miles French circuit at Dieppe, used for the 1907 Grand Prix and, the Isle of Man TT motorcycle road circuit first used in 1907.
The exceptions were the steeply banked egg-shaped near oval circuit of Brooklands in England, completed in 1906, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the oval, banked speedways constructed in Europe at Monza in 1922 and at Montlhéray in 1924. Road racing on public roads was banned in Great Britain in 1925 when a spectator was injured at the Kop Hill Climb event; the Royal Automobile Club and the Auto-Cycle Union stopped issuing permits for races on public roads, a policy that has not changed to this day. Donington Park was the first permanent park circuit in the United Kingdom and held its first motorcycle race in 1931; as automobile and motorcycle technology improved, racers began to achieve higher speeds that caused an increasing number of accidents on roads not designed for motorized vehicles. Public safety concerns caused the number of road racing events on public roads in Europe to decrease over the years; the Mille Miglia was a notable exception, allowed to continue until 1957. After the First World War and motorcycle road racing competitions in Europe and in North America went in different directions.
Automobile racing in the United States was oval track racing on tracks such as the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and the Milwaukee Mile track while, pre-war American motorcycle racers raced on dirt tracks using available horse racing circuits. American racing branched out into stock car racing and drag racing. Road racing traditions in Europe, South America, Great Britain and the British Commonwealth nations grew around races held on paved, public roads such as the Circuit de la Sarthe circuit near the town of Le Mans, the Spa-Francorchamps Circuit in Belgium and the Mount Panorama Circuit in Australia. Certain European race circuits were situated in mountainous regions where the topography meant that the roads featured numerous curves and elevation changes, allowing the creation of sinuous and undulating race courses such as the Nurburgring in the Eifel mountains of Germany and the Circuit de Charade in the Chaîne des Puys in the Massif Central of France; these circuits presented such a challenge that they were both respected by racers.
The 20.8 km long Nurburgring with more than 300 metres of elevation change from its lowest to highest points, was nicknamed "The Green Hell" by Jackie Stewart, due to its challenging nature. The sinuous track layout of the Charade circuit caused some drivers like Jochen Rindt in the 1969 French Grand Prix to complain of motion sickness, wore open face helmets just in case. In 1949 the FIM introduced the Grand Prix motorcycle racing world championship with the 1949 Isle of Man TT being the inaugural event. With the exception of the Monza circuit, all the Grand Prix races were held on street circuits; the Association Internationale des Automobiles Clubs Reconnus was renamed the Fédération Internationale de l’Automobile in 1946 and, plans were developed for a road racing world championship. In 1950, the FIA created the Formula One world championship, a competition of seven rounds that included the Indianapolis 500. A Formula I manufacturers' championship was begun in 1955. Auto racing was temporarily banned in several countries after the 1955 Le Mans disaster.
The tragedy highlighted the need for improved safety standards for both drivers and
The IndyCar Series known as the NTT IndyCar Series under sponsorship, is the premier level of open-wheel racing in North America. Its parent company began in 1996 as the Indy Racing League, created by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony George as a competitor to CART. In 2008, the IndyCar Series merged with the Champ Car World Series; the series is self-sanctioned by IndyCar. The series' premier event is the Indianapolis 500. Due to the legal settlement with CART, the Indy Racing League was unable to utilize the name IndyCar until the beginning of the 2003 season. For 1996–1997, the series was referred to as the Indy Racing League, with no genre designation. For 1998–1999, the series garnered its first title sponsor, was advertised as the Pep Boys Indy Racing League; the contract was not renewed after the second year. In 2000, the series sold its naming rights to Internet search engine Northern Light for five seasons, the series was named the Indy Racing Northern Light Series. After only two seasons, the sponsorship agreement ended when Northern Light reevaluated its business plan and ended all sponsorships.
The league reverted with no title sponsor. The IndyCar Series name was adopted beginning in 2003, as the series was now entitled to use it. In 2006, IndyCar forged an alliance with Simmons-Abramson Marketing, promising to be "actively engaged in the league's marketing, public relations, sponsorship and branding efforts—from its IndyCar Series to the venerable Indianapolis 500". Simmons co-authored the new IndyCar theme song, "I Am Indy". For the 2008 season, DirecTV served as a presenting sponsor, although this deal only lasted one year due to objections by the series' new cable broadcaster Versus, as it was owned by competitor Comcast. Izod was announced as the series title sponsor beginning on November 5, 2009. Exact financial terms were not disclosed but the deal was reported to be worth at least $10 million per year for 5 years, but ran only 4 of the announced 5 seasons, as Izod ended its sponsorship after the 2013 season. In 2014, Verizon Communications became title sponsor of the series through 2018.
Verizon declined to renew the deal. In January 2019, it was announced that Japanese communications company NTT would become title sponsor and official technology partner of the IndyCar Series, its U. S. subsidiary NTT Data has been a sponsor of Chip Ganassi Racing since 2013. Since the series inception, IndyCar Series events have been broadcast in the United States on several networks, including ABC, CBS, ESPN, Fox Sports Networks, TNN. Beginning in 2009, Versus began a 10-year deal to broadcast 13 IndyCar races per season, whereas the remaining races, including the Indianapolis 500, would remain on ABC through 2018; as of the 2018 season, ABC aired 5 races per-season, with NBCSN or other NBCUniversal networks airing the remainder of the schedule. On March 21, 2018, it was announced that NBC Sports would become the sole U. S. rightsholder under a new three-year contract. NBCSN will continue as the primary broadcast outlet for most races, overflow content will be available through its subscription service NBC Sports Gold.
Eight races per-season will be televised by NBC—including the Indianapolis 500, marking the first time in 54 years that the race will not be televised by ABC. In the United Kingdom, since the launch of BT Sport in August 2013 races are shown on one of the BT branded channels or ESPN. Previous to August 2013, the IndyCar Series races were broadcasts on the Sky Sports family of networks, with the viewing figures of the IndyCar races in the UK outnumbering those of NASCAR races; the IndyCar Series had highlights of all the races on the channel Five British terrestrial channel and Five USA, but has since been discontinued since the 2009 season. In Portugal, all of the IndyCar Series are broadcast on Sport TV. In February 2013, Sportsnet announced that it would become the official Canadian broadcaster of the IndyCar Series beginning in the 2013 season in a five-year deal with the series; the new contract will include broadcasts on the Sportsnet regional networks, Sportsnet One, City, along with mobile coverage and French rights sub-licensed to TVA Sports.
Additionally, Sportsnet would originate coverage from the Firestone Grand Prix of St. Petersburg, Indianapolis 500, Honda Indy Toronto with Bill Adam, Todd Lewis, Rob Faulds. Canadian driver Paul Tracy joined Sportsnet as an analyst. Rede Bandeirantes and DAZN serve as the Brazilian broadcast partners in that country since 1986 and 2019, respectively. Grupo Bandeirantes sports channel BandSports show live races and race highlights. ESPN has been the international broadcast partner of IndyCar Series in Latin America. Eurosport has been the international broadcast partner of IndyCar in most of Europe. In the late 2000s, the official website streamed online all races and practice sessions unrestricted; that service is now limited in the United States to television subscribers of the respective television network broadcasters. The IndyCar Series is not an open formula motor sport archetype. A spec-series, the league mandates chassis and engine manufacturers which teams must use each season; the league mandates horsepower level, aerodynamic configuration, maximum engine speed to which all entrants must adhere.
The league mandates direct control over all drivers, with an designated race boss in race con
The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, United States, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend in late May, it is contested as part of the IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel open-cockpit formula colloquially known as "Indy Car Racing". The name of the race is shortened to Indy 500, the track itself is nicknamed "the Brickyard", as the racing surfacing was paved in brick in the fall of 1909; the event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world including the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, infield patrons raise the race-day attendance to 300,000; the inaugural race was won by Ray Harroun.
The event celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, the 100th running was held in 2016. Will Power is the current champion; the most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser Sr. and Rick Mears, each of whom have won the race four times. The active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three. Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six; the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 17 total wins and 17 poles. The event is steeped in tradition, in pre-race ceremonies, post-race celebrations, race procedure; the most noteworthy and most popular traditions are the 33-car field, the annual singing of "Back Home Again in Indiana," and the victory lane bottle of milk. The Indianapolis 500 is held annually at a 2.5-mile oval circuit. Technically, the track is a unique rounded-rectangle, with four distinct turns of identical dimensions, connected by four straightaways. Drivers race 200 laps, counter-clockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles.
Since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend; the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend is considered one of the most important days on the motorsports calendar, as it is the day of the Indianapolis 500, Coca-Cola 600, the Monaco Grand Prix. Practice and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race, while other preliminary testing is held as early as April. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a starting grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece; the event is contested by "Indy cars", a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, purpose-built race cars. As of 2018, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport. Dallara is at present the sole chassis supplier to the series. Firestone, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider.
The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar, one of the oldest and most important automobile races. It has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world; the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the world's largest sporting facility in terms of capacity. The total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Similar to NASCAR's Daytona 500, the Indianapolis 500 is held early in the IndyCar Series season; that is unique to most sports where major events are at the end of the respective season. The Indy 500 is the sixth event of the 17-race IndyCar schedule. From the 1970s to the 1990s, Indianapolis was the second or third race of the season, as late as the 1950s, it was sometimes the first championship event of the year. Due to the high prestige of the Indianapolis 500—rivaling or surpassing the season championship—it is not uncommon for some teams and drivers to concentrate on preparation for the 500 during the early part of the season, not focus on the championship battle until after Indy.
The traditional 33-car starting field at Indianapolis is larger than the fields at the other IndyCar races. The field at Indy consists of all of the full-time IndyCar Series entries, along with 10–15 part-time or "Indy-only" entries; the "Indy-only" entries popularly called "One-Offs", may be an extra car added to an existing full-time team, or a part-time team altogether that does not enter any of the other races. The "Indy-only" drivers may come from a wide range of pedigrees, but are experienced Indy car drivers that either lack a full-time ride, are former full-time drivers that have elected to drop down to part-time status, or occasional one-off drivers from other racing disciplines, it is not uncommon for some drivers, to quit full-time driving during the season, but race at Indy singly for numerous years afterwards before entering full retirement. Due to safety issues such as aquaplaning, the race is not held in wet conditions. In the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, the track is sufficiently dried.
If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race and declare the results official if more than half of the scheduled distance (i.e. 101 lap
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the third place a bronze medal. More silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones. In 1896, winners' medals were in fact silver; the custom of gold-silver-bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 games and has been copied for many other sporting events. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928 to 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In The Open Championship golf tournament, the Silver Medal is an award presented to the lowest scoring amateur player at the tournament. In many sports with an elimination tournament, including those with a third place playoff, silver is the only medal given to a team that loses, whereas gold and bronze are earned by teams winning their final matches. Notable athletes such as Jocelyne Larocque removed their runners-up/silver medals right after receiving them; some countries present civilian decorations known as Silver Medals. These include: Austria′s Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria Italy′s Silver Medal of Military Valor South Africa′s Silver Medal for Merit The Civil Air Patrol′s Silver Medal of Valor in the United States; the Zoological Society of London awards a Silver Medal "to a Fellow of the Society or any other person for contributions to the understanding and appreciation of zoology, including such activities as public education in natural history, wildlife conservation."
The Royal Academy of Engineering awards a Silver Medal "for an outstanding and demonstrated personal contribution to UK engineering, which results in successful market exploitation, by an engineer with less than 22 years in full-time employment or equivalent." Runner-up Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
1932 Summer Olympics
The 1932 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, United States. The Games were held during the worldwide Great Depression and some nations were unable to pay for the trip to Los Angeles. U. S. President Herbert Hoover failed to put in an appearance at the Games; the organizing committee did not record the finances of the Games in their report, although contemporary newspapers claimed that the Games had made a profit of US$1,000,000. The selection of the host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics was made at the 23rd IOC Session in Rome, Italy, in 1923. Remarkably, the selection process consisted of a single bid, from Los Angeles, as there were no bids from any other city, Los Angeles was selected by default to host the 1932 Games. An Olympic Village was built in Baldwin Hills, occupied by the male athletes. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the victory podium was used for the first time.
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum was known in 1932 as Olympic Stadium. Tenth Street, a major thoroughfare in Los Angeles, was renamed Olympic Boulevard in honor of the Games of the Tenth Olympiad. Babe Didrikson won two gold medals in the hurdles event, she competed in a jump-off for a silver in the high jump. Her technique in the jump-off was ruled leaving Didrikson with second place. Paavo Nurmi was suspended from competition by the IAAF for alleged violation of amateur rules. Finns charged that the Swedish officials had used devious tricks in their campaign against Nurmi's amateur status, ceased all athletic relations with Sweden. A year earlier, controversies on the track and in the press had led Finland to withdraw from the Finland-Sweden athletics international. After Nurmi's suspension, Finland did not agree to return to the event until 1939. In field hockey, only three nations took part; the host nation still won a bronze medal. Poland's Stanisława Walasiewicz won the gold medal in the women's 100 m.
After her death in 1980, it was discovered that she was intersex and would have been ineligible to participate. Eddie Tolan won both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events. Romeo Neri won three gold medals in gymnastics. Helene Madison won three gold medals in swimming, while the Japanese upset the men's events and took all but one title. Takeichi Nishi was the gold medalist with his horse Uranus in the equestrian show jumping individual event. Nishi's gold medal is Japan's only gold medal in the equestrian event to this day. Nishi would die in 1945 as an officer stationed in the defense of the island of Iwo Jima, as such is an important character in Clint Eastwood's film, Letters from Iwo Jima. Kusuo Kitamura won the gold medal in the men's 1500 meter freestyle swimming race, he was and continues to be the youngest male swimmer to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games. Dunc Gray won Australia's first cycling gold medal; the Dunc Gray Velodrome, built for the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, was named after him.
Due to an official's error, the 3,000 m steeplechase went for one extra lap. 117 events in 20 disciplines, comprising 14 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1932. In one of two Equestrian jumping events no medals were awarded; the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. American football Lacrosse The Art competitions at the 1932 Summer Olympics awarded medals for works inspired by sport-related themes in five categories: architecture, music and sculpture. Fifteen sports venues were used for there 1932 Summer Olympics. In order to control cost in the wake of the Great Depression, existing venues were used, they included two golf courses, two city parks, three public highways, a city road. The Swimming Stadium was the only new venue constructed for these games; the Rose Bowl, constructed in 1921, was made into a temporary velodrome for track cycling events under the auspices of the Union Cycliste Internationale. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, constructed in 1923, was used as the Olympic Stadium.
The Olympic Auditorium was constructed in 1924 in preparation for Los Angeles being awarded the Games. Long Beach Marine Stadium was created in 1925 when Alamitos Bay was dredged further dredged seven years in time for the 1932 Games. Elysian Park, the oldest city park in Los Angeles, was founded in 1886, has been part of the Los Angeles Police Department training academy since 1925; the Riviera Country Club opened in 1926 as the Los Angeles Athletic Club Golf Course and was renamed Riviera by the time of the 1932 Games. The swimming stadium, constructed adjacent to the Coliseum in 1932, was intended to be a temporary structure. Riverside Drive, Los Angeles Avenue, Vineyard Avenue, the Pacific Coast Highway were common driving routes in California at the time of the 1932 Games; the Coliseum was the first home for the Dodgers Major League Baseball team when it moved from Brooklyn, New York in the 1958 season. The following year, it hosted the World Series. Once Dodger Stadium was completed in 1962, the Dodgers moved there.
The Los Angeles Rams National Football League team used the Coliseum as its host stadium from 1946 to 1980 when it moved to Anaheim, located southeast of Los Angeles. It hosted wha
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. An industrialized city in the Golden Horseshoe at the west end of Lake Ontario, Hamilton has a population of 536,917, a metropolitan population of 747,545; the city is located about 60 km southwest of Toronto, with which the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area is formed. On January 1, 2001, the current boundaries of Hamilton was created through the amalgamation of the original city with other municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth. Residents of the city are known as Hamiltonians. Since 1981, the metropolitan area has been listed as the ninth largest in Canada and the third largest in Ontario. Hamilton is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, the Bruce Trail, McMaster University, Redeemer University College and Mohawk College. McMaster University is ranked 4th in Canada and 77th in the world by Times Higher Education Rankings 2018–19 and has a well-known medical school. In pre-colonial times, the Neutral First Nation used much of the land but were driven out by the Five Nations who were allied with the British against the Huron and their French allies.
A member of the Iroquois Confederacy provided the route and name for Mohawk Road, which included King Street in the lower city. Following the United States gaining independence after their American Revolutionary War, in 1784, about 10,000 United Empire Loyalists settled in Upper Canada, chiefly in Niagara, around the Bay of Quinte, along the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario and Montreal; the Crown granted them land in these areas in order to develop Upper Canada and to compensate them for losses in the United States. With former First Nations lands available for purchase, these new settlers were soon followed by many more Americans, attracted by the availability of inexpensive, arable land. At the same time, large numbers of Iroquois, allied with Britain arrived from the United States and were settled on reserves west of Lake Ontario as compensation for lands they lost in what was now the United States. During the War of 1812, British regulars and Canadian militia defeated invading American troops at the Battle of Stoney Creek, fought in what is now a park in eastern Hamilton.
The town of Hamilton was conceived by George Hamilton, when he purchased farm holdings of James Durand, the local Member of the British Legislative Assembly, shortly after the War of 1812. Nathaniel Hughson, a property owner to the north, cooperated with George Hamilton to prepare a proposal for a courthouse and jail on Hamilton's property. Hamilton offered the land to the crown for the future site. Durand was empowered by Hughson and Hamilton to sell property holdings which became the site of the town; as he had been instructed, Durand circulated the offers at York during a session of the Legislative Assembly, which established a new Gore District, of which the Hamilton townsite was a member. This town was not the most important centre of the Gore District. An early indication of Hamilton's sudden prosperity was marked by the fact that in 1816 it was chosen over Ancaster, Ontario that year to be the administrative center for the new Gore District. Another dramatic economic turnabout for Hamilton occurred in 1832 when a canal was cut through the outer sand bar that enabled Hamilton to become a major port.
A permanent jail was not constructed until 1832, when a cut-stone design was completed on Prince's Square, one of the two squares created in 1816. Subsequently, the first police board and the town limits were defined by statute on February 13, 1833. Official city status was achieved on June 9, 1846, by an act of Parliament, 9 Victoria Chapter 73. By 1845, the population was 6,475. In 1846, there were useful roads to many communities as well as stage coaches and steamboats to Toronto and Niagara. Eleven cargo schooners were owned in Hamilton. Eleven churches were in operation. A reading room provided access to newspapers from other cities and from England and the U. S. In addition to stores of all types, four banks, tradesmen of various types, sixty-five taverns, industry in the community included three breweries, ten importers of dry goods and groceries, five importers of hardware, two tanneries, three coachmakers, a marble and a stone works; as the city grew, several prominent buildings were constructed in the late 19th century, including the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1855, West Flamboro Methodist Church in 1879, a public library in 1890, the Right House department store in 1893.
The first commercial telephone service in Canada, the first telephone exchange in the British Empire, the second telephone exchange in all of North America were each established in the city between 1877–78. The city had several interurban electric street railways and two inclines, all powered by the Cataract Power Co. Though suffering through the Hamilton Street Railway strike of 1906, with industrial businesses expanding, Hamilton's population doubled between 1900 and 1914. Two steel manufacturing companies and Dofasco, were formed in 1910 and 1912, respectively. Procter & Gamble and the Beech-Nut Packing Company opened manufacturing plants in 1914 and 1922 their first outside the US. Population and economic growth continued until the 1960s. In 1929 the city's first high-rise building, the Pigott Building, was constructed.