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Point-and-shoot camera

A point-and-shoot camera known as a compact camera and sometimes abbreviated to P&S, is a still camera designed for simple operation. Most use focus free lenses or autofocus for focusing, automatic systems for setting the exposure options, have flash units built in. Point-and-shoots are by far the best selling type of separate camera, as distinct from camera phones, they are popular for vernacular photography by people who do not consider themselves photographers but want easy-to-use cameras for snapshots of vacations, parties and other events. Point-and-shoot camera sales declined after about 2010. To overcome market shrinkage, compact camera manufacturers began making higher end versions and with a stylish metal body. Most superzoom compact cameras have between 30x and 60x optical zoom, although some have further zoom and weigh less than 300 grams, much less than bridge cameras and DSLRs. Most of these compact cameras use small 1/2.3" image sensors, but since 2008, a few non-interchangeable lens compact cameras use a larger sensor such as 1" and APS-C, such as the Fujifilm X100 series, or full frame format such as the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-RX1 series.

They prioritize intelligent Auto, but some high end point-and-shoot cameras have PASM on the mode dial, raw image format, hot shoe. None have lens mounts. Point-and-shoot cameras are distinguished from single-lens reflex cameras in several respects: point-and-shoot film cameras, many digital ones, use a viewfinder; the image that the photographer sees is not the same image that passes through the primary lens of the camera. Rather, the image in the viewfinder passes through a separate lens. SLRs, on the other hand, have only one lens, a mirror diverts the image from the lens into the viewfinder. With this mechanism, pictures cannot be previewed on the LCD screens of most digital SLRs; some manufacturers have found a way around this limitation by splitting the image into two just before reaching the viewfinder eyepiece. One image goes into the viewfinder and the other goes into a low resolution image sensor to allow light metering or previewing on the LCD, or both. Digital cameras share one advantage of the SLR design, as the camera's display image comes through the lens, not a separate viewfinder.

Mirrorless Interchangeable Lens Cameras lack a mirror but in many ways can be used the same as DSLRs. Many smaller digital point-and-shoots of the 2010s use only the screen. With SLR cameras, it is important that the image in the viewfinder be the same image recorded by the film or sensor, so that the effect of the add-on lenses and filters can be seen by the photographer. Point-and-shoot cameras don't have such add-on devices, hence no need. Small cameras, including digital ones, encourage the occurrence of photographic orbs — unexpected circular artifacts that occur in flash photography — where the short distance between the lens and the built-in flash decreases the angle of light reflection to the lens; the resulting retroreflection makes dust particles visible. The lowest-end point-and-shoot film cameras can be reloaded; these cameras have focus-free lenses, with fixed apertures. They may not have a light meter. Most have a wheel or lever for advancing the film and cocking the shutter, a crank for returning the film to the canister for unloading.

Because of the fixed apertures, models with flash have no way of controlling the exposure from the flash. Therefore, flash pictures have to be taken within a narrow range of distance from the subject. Advanced models have variable apertures, they all have light meters. They use electric motors to rewind the film, they are much more versatile than the low-end models. They are likely to have zoom lenses, more advanced auto-focus systems, exposure systems with manual controls, larger apertures and sharper lenses, they may have special lamps or pre-flash systems designed to reduce red eye in flash pictures of people. Compact superzoom cameras or travel zoom cameras have zoom up to 30x, still shorter zoom than current bridge cameras, but more compact than bulky DSLR-shape bridge cameras, both use 1/2.3" sensor. According to the NPD Group, up to end of November 2011 point-and-shoot cameras took 44 percent of photos, down from 52 percent in 2010, while camera-equipped smartphones took 27 percent of photos in 2011, up from 17 percent.

Unit total sales of all types of point-and-shoot cameras declined by 17 percent year on year, but increased by 16 percent for cameras having optical zoom greater than 10x. At the end of 2012, more than one brand offered point-and-shoot cameras with 24x optical superzoom as compensation of sales decline and in years longer zooms became commonplace. Point-and-shoot camera sales dropped by about 40 percent in 2013 for inexpensive cameras. Fujifilm and Olympus stopped development of low-end point-and-shoot cameras and focused on mid and high-end cameras at higher prices. Shipment dropped to 12 million units in 2016, only one-tenth of the peak reached in 2008, the year after Apple introduced its iPhone. Most film-based point-and-shoots made. In the 1980s, 35mm was seen as a "professional" format due to the relative difficulty of loading and rewinding the film versus cartridge based formats such as 110 or disc film; the key innovations that made 35mm point-and-shoot cameras possible were automatic film loading and automatic advance and rewind.

Advanced Photo System film w

Verney Junction railway station

Verney Junction was an isolated railway station at a four-way railway junction in Buckinghamshire, open from 1868 to 1968. The first line to open on the site was the Buckinghamshire Railway, which opened a line from Bletchley to Banbury in 1850; this formed an east-west link from Oxford to Bletchley and Cambridge passing through Verney Junction and this, known as the Varsity line, became the busiest line through the site, leaving the line to Banbury as a quiet branch. The station opened in 1868 concurrently with the opening of the Aylesbury and Buckingham Railway towards Aylesbury and London. Soon after the Buckinghamshire Railway became absorbed into the London and North Western Railway; the lines south to Aylesbury closed to passengers in 1936 and the line to Buckingham in 1964, but the station remained open until the Oxford-Cambridge line closed to passengers in 1968. The track was singled and mothballed, but a disused track has remained through the station site; as part of East West Rail, the line between Oxford and Bletchley is to be reopened by 2025, but because of its isolated location Verney Junction will not be reopened.

While never busy, Verney Junction was a local interchange point for a century from which excursions as far as Ramsgate could be booked. Situated 50 miles from Baker Street, the station is one of London's disused Underground stations and, although it never carried heavy traffic, the Aylesbury line was important in the expansion of the Metropolitan Railway into what became Metro-land. Verney Junction opened in 1868 as northern terminus of the Aylesbury and Buckingham Railway's single track from Aylesbury; the station was at a junction with the Buckinghamshire Railway's Bletchley to Oxford line, leased and operated by the LNWR before it acquired the route altogether in 1878. The station was built 1.75 miles east of Steeple Claydon, constructed to a rudimentary design at the cost of the A&BR, whose progress the LNWR viewed with disfavour. Plans to extend the railway north to Buckingham never materialised and Verney Junction remained remote with a few cottages for tenants of Claydon House estate.

Claydon's occupant, Sir Harry Verney, was on the board of the A&BR, chaired by the Duke of Buckingham, he invested in the scheme. There being no settlement from which the station could take its name, it was named in honour of Sir Harry, to have another nearby station – Calvert – named after him; the A&BR began advertising services to and from Banbury and Bletchley but the LNWR attempted to isolate the A&BR by encouraging passengers to take its longer route to Aylesbury via Bletchley and Cheddington. The A&BR turned to the Great Western Railway, with whom it managed Aylesbury, to agree to services over the GWR's Wycombe Railway; the GWR worked the A&BR for more than 20 years, turning down the chance to acquire it in 1874, although for the first six years the route was operated by the A&BR's own staff, except for footplate crews who were GWR employees. Traffic was "almost non-existent" due to Verney Junction's rural locality, but the Metropolitan Railway under the influence of Sir Edward Watkin saw an opportunity for growth and absorbed the A&BR on 1 July 1891.

The A&BR would be the line that the London Extension of Watkin's Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway would meet at Quainton Road. In anticipation of the connection, the A&BR was doubled by 1897 and the Metropolitan extended its line from Chalfont Road to Aylesbury in 1892. Not long after the Metropolitan reached its northern outpost, Verney Junction was elevated to main line status with the opening of the MS&LR's London Extension. Around the same time, the Metropolitan inaugurated a service of through trains between Baker Street and Verney Junction, although this could hardly be said to be merited on the basis of traffic. From 2 April 1906, all Metropolitan services north of Harrow South Junction to Verney Junction came under the control of the Metropolitan & Great Central Joint Committee, set up by an Act of Parliament to manage the companies' joint lines; the Metropolitan opened another intermediate station on the A&BR at Waddesdon in 1897, adding to the three existing stations at Grandborough Road, Quainton Road and Winslow Road which had opened in 1868.

A new Pullman service was introduced in 1910 as part of a drive to attract first-class paying passengers from the Great Central. The Metropolitan was vested in the London Passenger Transport Board on 1 July 1933 and freight and passenger workings to Verney Junction continued in trains repainted with the London Transport lettering. However, little over three years the LPTB decided to discontinue their services beyond Aylesbury and in consequence two Metropolitan outposts were closed — the Brill Tramway ended on 30 November 1935 and passenger services ceased between Quainton Road and Verney Junction on 6 July 1936 when the line was singled. Freight services continued until 8 September 1947; the track to Winslow Road was used for stock storage until 1961. Although the two World Wars brought an increase in freight traffic from Verney Junction to London, with considerable volumes of freight passing through the station's transfer sidin

Modern Review (London)

Modern Review was a 1990s London-based magazine reviewing popular arts and culture, founded by writers Julie Burchill and Cosmo Landesman married, Toby Young, who became the editor. All three were members of the Groucho Club; the magazine was principally financed by Peter York. The Review said its goal was to cover "low culture for high-brows." It aimed to give equal cultural weight to Bart Simpson. The magazine's circulation started at around 5,000 copies. Amongst its contributors were writers Nick Hornby, Will Self, James Wood and Camille Paglia. At one point and Burchill conducted a long-running slanging-match by fax, reproduced in full in the pages of the magazine."Out of all proportion to its meagre resources, it soon comprehensively redrew the cultural map, forever wiping the high-cultural smirk from the face of Britain's critics." The magazine changed the coverage of cultural events and literature in England, opening up appreciation of a broader range of material. Circulation rose to a peak of 30,000 with.

"Underlying the magazine's demise was one aspect of what Young sees as its success:'Within a few years, all the broadsheets were duplicating what the Modern Review was doing. With the Sunday Times, quite conscious; the culture section was modelled on the Modern Review. And they poached our writers.'" By 1995, with the magazine hit by financial difficulties, circulation subsided to 10,000 copies. Soon after this, the founders fell out and the magazine ceased publication. Burchill had an affair with writer Charlotte Raven. By 1997 Burchill had acquired financial support and started publication of Modern Review again, with Raven editing; this second version, much glossier and more mainstream, survived for only five issues. John Harris, "'I supplied talent and drugs'," Review: BBC4 2005 documentary, When Toby Met Julie, The Observer, 28 June 2005

St Edmund's Church, Southwold

St Edmund's Church, Southwold is a Grade I listed parish church in the Church of England in Southwold, Suffolk. The parish church of Southwold is dedicated to St Edmund, is considered to be one of Suffolk's finest, it lies under one continuous roof, was built over about 60 years from the 1430s to the 1490s. The earlier church dated from the time when Southwold was a small fishing hamlet adjacent to the larger Reydon. By the 15th century Southwold was an important town in its own right, the church was rebuilt to match its power and wealth; the church is renowned for its East Anglian flushwork that of the tower. Knapped and unknapped flints are arranged in patterns and designs and create the stone work; the curving letters over the west window are most famous: SCT. EDMUND ORA P. NOBIS; each letter is crowned, set in knapped flints. Roofed in lead, from 1948 to 2015 the church had a copper clad roof with an recognisable flèche, above a clerestory of eighteen windows; the flèche was purely for display, has never contained a bell.

The tower has no parapet and is a fine piece of architecture, with its large bell openings. The roof of the nave is so high that it makes the tower seem shorter than it is. All of the church's medieval glass was destroyed by William Dowsing in 1644. In World War II the church was narrowly missed by a German bomb that destroyed houses in the nearby Hollyhock Square; the bomb did not do much damage to the building itself but blew out most of the windows - another reason why the church has little stained glass. The church was tidied quickly for the funerals, a short while of the people killed by the bomb. In the interior, the rood screen is considered by many to be the finest in the county, it stretches all the way across the church, is made up of three separate screens: a rood screen across the chancel arch and parclose screens across the north and south chancel aisles. A 15th century clock jack stands at the west end, he has an axe and bell which he uses to strike the time, has a twin at Blythburgh.

The Southwold jack is named "Southwold Jack", is one of the symbols of the Adnams brewery. The font has been badly mutilated but is still impressive with its large ornate cover; the roof in the chancel is painted and its height gives the church a open feeling. Present-day church community life is diverse and makes good use of St Edmund's Hall to the rear of the church; the roofs were restored in 1857 in 1866-1867 by Richard Phipson. The chancel was restored in 1885. Following bomb damage to the lead roof during the Second World War, it was replaced with copper in 1948; this covering degraded over time due to the church's seaside environment, it was decided in 2013 to reroof the entire church, including replacing the flèche, in lead. The work began at the start of 2015, with completion in that year; the flagpole atop the tower was surmounted by a golden weathervane in the form of a sailing longshore fishing vessel, but the pole has since been replaced and the weathervane removed. Southwold tower contains a ring of eight bells hung for change ringing.

The tower held five bells in 1553. Over the years these bells have been recast and others added to create the current eight; the current fourth and fifth are probable recasts of the originals, having been cast in 1668 by John Darbie of Ipswich. The third is by William Dobson of Downham Market. In 1828 one bell was recast and a further two added; the bell, recast is the present tenor by William Dobson. The sixth and seventh were added and are to originate from All Saints, South Elmham. Both are medieval bells, the sixth being cast around 1538 by William Barker and the seventh by Brasyers of Norwich around 1513; the two trebles are by Moore, Holmes & Mackenzie of Redenhall, Norfolk. However, a peal of Oxford Treble Bob Major was rung on 26 July 1858, indicating that the tower possessed a ring of eight prior to 1881; the tenor weighs 10¾ cwt or about 546 kg, the treble about half of that. The bells hang in a timber frame installed in 1897 by George Son of Eye, Suffolk. In 1990 the bells were rehung on new fittings and the frame strengthened by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry.

There is a large amount of space surrounding the frame, allowing ease of maintenance. The clock uses the seventh bell to strike the hours. There are no bells in the tower other than the ringing peal; the bells are rung from a ringing chamber some 52 steps up the tower. The chamber has many mementos of past campanological achievements; the tower is affiliated to the Suffolk Guild of Ringers. The bells are rung for Sunday services and other special occasions; the church has a three manual pipe organ built by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd in 1887 and rebuilt by the Thaxted firm Arnold, Williamson & Hyatt in 1966; the specification, drawn up by Sir Frederick Ouseley, a Professor of Music at Oxford University, may be found on the National Pipe Organ Register. The church is within the Sole Bay Team of Churches with the following churches: Holy Trinity Church, Blythburgh St Margaret of Antioch's Church, Reydon St Andrew's Church, Sotherton St Lawrence's Church, South Cove St Mary's Church, Uggeshall St Andrew's Church, Walberswick St Peter & St Paul's Church, Wangford

The Bobby Broom Trio

The Bobby Broom Trio is an American jazz trio based in Chicago, founded by guitarist Bobby Broom in 2009 with bassist Dennis Carroll and drummer Kobie Watkins. Drummer Makaya McCraven was an alternate for live performances and joined the group as its regular drummer in 2014; the group's albums include Bobby Broom Plays for Monk, Upper Westside Story, My Shining Hour. It has appeared at clubs in Chicago and around North America; the album My Shining Hour peaked at No. 3 on the JazzWeek charts and was put into the consideration round for a 2015 Grammy Award

2002 Japan Football League

The 2002 Japan Football League was the fourth season of the Japan Football League, the third tier of the Japanese football league system. It was contested by 18 teams, Honda FC won the championship. After the season, Alouette Kumamoto and Profesor Miyazaki were automatically relegated to Kyūshū regional league. Due to contraction of the league, the winners and runners-up of the Regional League promotion series, Ain Food and SP Kyoto, were set to compete in the promotion and relegation series with 16th and 15th placed teams – Jatco SC and Shizuoka Sangyo University respectively. Leg 1 Series tied 2–2. Jatco F. C. won the series 4–2 in penalty shootout and stayed in JFL. Leg 2 Series tied 0–0. Sagawa Printing won the series 5–3 in penalty shootout and earned promotion to JFL. Shizuoka Sangyo University were relegated to Tōkai regional league