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Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable medium-lift launch vehicle designed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation. It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing satellites into sun-synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV in 1993, commercially available only from Russia. PSLV can launch small size satellites into Geostationary Transfer Orbit; some notable payloads launched by PSLV include India's first lunar probe Chandrayaan-1, India's first interplanetary mission, Mars Orbiter Mission and India's first space observatory, Astrosat. PSLV has gained credence as a leading provider of rideshare services for small satellites, due its numerous multi-satellite deployment campaigns with auxiliary payloads ride sharing along an Indian primary payload; as of December 2019, PSLV has launched 319 foreign satellites from 33 countries. Most notable among these was the launch of PSLV C37 on 15 February 2017 deploying 104 satellites in sun-synchronous orbit, tripling the previous record held by Russia for the highest number of satellites sent to space on a single launch.

Payloads can be integrated in tandem configuration employing a Dual Launch Adapter. Smaller payloads are placed on equipment deck and customized payload adapters. Studies to develop a vehicle capable of delivering 600 kg payload to 550 km Sun-synchronous orbit from SHAR began in 1978. Among 35 proposed configurations, four were picked and by November 1980, a vehicle configuration with two strap-ons on a core booster with 80 tonne solid propellant loading each, a liquid stage with 30 tonne propellant load and an upper stage called Perigee-Apogee System was being considered. By 1981, confidence grew in remote sensing spacecraft development with launch of Bhaskara-1 and the PSLV project objectives were upgraded to have vehicle deliver 1000 kg payload in 900 km SSO; as technology transfer of Viking rocket engine firmed up, a new lighter configuration shifting away from relying on three large solid boosters was proposed by team led by APJ Abdul Kalam and selected. Funding was approved in July 1982 for finalized design employing a single large S125 solid core as first stage with six 9 tonne strap-ons derived from SLV-3 first stage, liquid fueled second stage and two solid upper stages S7 and S2.

This configuration needed further improvement to meet the orbital injection accuracy requirements of IRS satellites and hence solid terminal stage was replaced with a pressure fed liquid fueled stage powered by twin engines derived from roll control engines of first stage. Apart from increasing precision, liquid upper stage absorbed any deviation in performance of solid third stage. Final configuration of PSLV D1 to fly in 1993 was + L37.5 + S7 + L2. The inertial navigation systems are developed by ISRO Inertial Systems Unit at Thiruvananthapuram; the liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV as well as the Reaction control systems are developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre at Mahendragiri near Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. The solid propellant motors are processed at Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh which carries out launch operations; the PSLV was first launched on 20 September 1993. The first and second stages performed as expected, but an attitude control problem led to the collision of the second and third stages at separation, the payload failed to reach orbit.

After this initial setback, the PSLV completed its second mission in 1994. The fourth launch of PSLV suffered a partial failure in 1997, leaving its payload in a lower than planned orbit. By Nov 2014 the PSLV had launched 34 times with no further failures. PSLV continues to support Indian and foreign satellite launches for low Earth orbit satellites, it has undergone several improvements with each subsequent version those involving thrust, efficiency as well as weight. In November 2013, it was used to launch the Mars Orbiter Mission, India's first interplanetary probe. ISRO is planning to privatise the operations of PSLV and will work through a joint venture with private industries; the integration and launch will be managed an industrial consortium through Antrix Corporation. In June 2018, the Union Cabinet approved ₹6,131 crore for 30 operational flights of the PSLV scheduled to take place between 2019 and 2024; the PSLV has four stages using liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage, one of the largest solid rocket boosters in the world, carries 138 t tonnes of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-bound propellant and develops a maximum thrust of about 4,800 kilonewtons.

The 2.8 m diameter motor case has an empty mass of 30,200 kilograms. Pitch and yaw control during first stage flight is provided by the Secondary Injection Thrust Vector Control System, which injects an aqueous solution of strontium perchlorate into the S139 exhaust divergent from a ring of 24 injection ports to produce asymmetric thrust; the solution is stored in two cylindrical aluminium tanks strapped to the core solid rocket motor and pressurised with nitrogen. Underneath these two SITVC tanks, Roll Control Thruster modules with small bi-propellant liquid engine are attached. On the PSLV-G and PSLV-XL, first stage thrust is augmented by six strap-on solid boosters. Four boosters are ground-lit and the remaining two ignite 25 seconds after launch; the solid boosters carry 9 t or 12 t propellant and produce

Adamoli-Cattani fighter

The Adamoli-Cattani fighter was a prototype fighter aircraft designed as a private venture by two Italian aircraft builders in 1918. The Adamoli-Cattani was intended to be the smallest practical biplane around the most powerful engine available to them, a 149 kW le Rhône M; the result was a reasonably conventional design, other than that the wings featured hinged leading edges in place of conventional ailerons. The Farina Coach Building factory in Turin began construction of the prototype. Upon completion, ground testing revealed that the engine as installed could only deliver some 80% of its rated power, thus leaving the aircraft underpowered. Limited tests continued until the end of World War I, when the Armistice made further development superfluous. Data from The Complete Book of FightersGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.10 m Wingspan: 8.60 m Empty weight: 470 kg Gross weight: 675 kg Powerplant: 1 × le Rhône M 9-cyl. Air-cooled rotary piston engine, 150 kW - actual power 119 kW Performance Maximum speed: 186 km/h Endurance: 2.25Armament Guns: 2 x.303-in machine guns Comparable aircraft: Nieuport-Delage Ni-D 29

Lauterbach (RĂ¼gen)

Lauterbach is a village in the borough of Putbus on the German Baltic Sea island of Rügen. The village lies southeast of Putbus on the Bay of Greifswald. Lauterbach has a harbour and a connexion, via a branch line, to both the standard gauge railway network and the Rügen Light Railway; the first known modern settlement in the area was in 1819 when a paper mill was built between the Goor woods and Neuendorf. Prince Wilhelm Malte of Putbus had established the first seaside resort on Rügen in 1816 on the beach at Neuendorf further to the south; this resort only consisted of tents and bathing machines. In 1817/1818 a permanent bathing house was built in the Goor. In order to enable boats to land, it was decided in 1834 to build a landing stage; the site chosen for this, was the calmer bay of the present-day Lauterbach, not Neuendorf. Between 1833 and 1836 the first settlement appeared here as a result; the first records of this date to 1840. At that time the settlement had 7 houses. Thanks to the construction of the jetty, boats from Sweden and Oderkähne and steamships from Stettin and Stralsund docked.

Bathing services soon reduced, but boat-building and trade remained prominent for many years. The name of the village comes from the wife of the Prince of Putbus, whose maiden name was von Lauterbach. In 1890 the railway line from Bergen to Lauterbach was completed; the station building is a listed building. In 1901, construction of the harbour started and it was completed the following year. There are various small businesses in Lauterbach running restaurants and accommodation; the harbour is important for the local economy, being used as a marina. Passenger boats call at the harbour. An important tourist destination is the island of Vilm, not far from Lauterbach. Boatbuilding and fishing are still carried on. Georg Jung, Meerumschlungen und kreidegrün, Rügen von A-Z, Ellert & Richter Verlag Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-8319-0381-8, page 82 André Farin, Lauterbach. Rügens ältestes Seebad. Hafenort. Bootsbautradition. Mit Kindheitserinnerungen der geb. Wiechmann. - 2nd ed. - Lauterbach 2012, ISBN 978-3-00-036509-6 Literature about Lauterbach in the State Bibliography of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern


Michaeliskloster is a monastery building in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It was a home to the Brethren of the Common Life, hosted major printing and bookbinding of the late Middle Ages. In April 1942, after British bombing raid burned the monastery, it was in ruins; the eastern section was restored in the 1950s and the United Methodist congregation transferred to it. The historic exterior back of the west wing was retrofitted in 1994 with reproduced form bricks and other special-sized bricks which were adapted to the character and physical properties of the original bricks. In the present day, the University of Rostock Library houses its special collections in Michaeliskloster. Nilüfer Krüger: Die Rostocker Brüder vom Gemeinsamen Leben zu Sankt Michael. Hommage zur baulichen Vollendung des ehemaligen Michaelisklosters im Herbst 1999. Universitätsbibliothek Rostock, Rostock 1999. Nilüfer Krüger: 525 Jahre Buchdruck in Rostock. Die Druckerei der Brüder vom Gemeinsamen Leben. Universitätsbibliothek Rostock, Rostock 2001.

Nilüfer Krüger: Von der Klosterdruckerei zur wissenschaftlichen Bibliothek. Das Michaeliskloster der Brüder vom Gemeinsamen Leben in Rostock. Universitätsbibliothek Rostock, Rostock 2004. Georg Christian Friedrich Lisch: Buchdruckerei der Brüder vom gemeinsamen Leben zu St. Michael in Rostock. In: Jahrbücher des Vereins für Mecklenburgische Geschichte und Altertumskunde. Bd. 4, 1839, ISSN 0259-7772, P. 1–62, Digitalisat. Carl Meltz: Die Drucke der Michaelisbrüder zu Rostock 1476 bis 1530. In: Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Rostock. Reihe 5: Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Reihe. Sonderheft, 1955/56, ZDB-ID 242538-5, P. 229–262. Media related to Michaeliskloster at Wikimedia Commons


KIKO is a radio station licensed to serve Apache Junction, United States. The station is owned by Inc.. KIKO was licensed to Miami and operated as a full-service station under Willard Shoecraft, who owned the station from its sign-on in 1958 until 1986, again from 1988 until his death in 2000; the station remained in the Shoecraft family until it was sold to its current owner in 2008. It was assigned the KIKO call letters by the Federal Communications Commission. In 2011, KIKO was issued a U. S. Federal Communications Commission construction permit to move to a new transmitter site, change the city of license to Apache Junction and decrease night power to 930 watts, it will use a short low-efficiency fiberglass whip antenna. It commenced operations from this site in December 2014, simulcasting sister station KIKO-FM in Claypool until December 2015, when it temporarily went silent and came back with a brokered Spanish Christian format called "Voz y Visión Radio" on December 21, 2015 and added FM translator K247CF 97.3, which experiences considerable interference from co-owned KIKO-FM, broadcasting on the same frequency.

KIKO's license for its new facilities were granted on January 12, 2016. Voz y Visión Radio ended broadcasts over KIKO in late 2017, was replaced by a temporary simulcast of KIKO-FM. In February, 2018, the station changed formats to Classic Country calling itself "The Bull" and simulcasting on translator K246CH at 102.9 FM. On May 7, 2018, the 102.9 translator was shut down, KIKO programming moved back to K247CF 97.3. In 2019, K247CF switched program sources to co-owned KBSZ "Funny 1260". In December 2007, 1TV. Com reached an agreement to acquire KIKO and KIKO-FM from Shoecraft Broadcasting for a reported $1.025 million. Broadcasting & Cable reported that the deal called for a $50,000 escrow deposit plus $725,000 cash at closing an additional $250,000 upon the FCC's issuance of a construction permit allowing to upgrade the facilities of KIKO-FM to Class C3. The FCC granted this voluntary transfer of license on February 19, 2008. Query the FCC's AM station database for KIKO Radio-Locator Information on KIKO Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KIKO

New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission

The New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission is an agency of the New York City government that licenses and regulates the medallion taxis and for-hire vehicle industries, including app-based companies. The TLC's regulatory landscape includes medallion taxicabs, green or Boro taxicabs, black cars, community-based livery cars, commuter vans, paratransit vehicles, some luxury limousines. New York State-issued TLC license plates are marked "T&LC"; the TLC Chair and Commissioner, Bill Heinzen, presides over the agency's board of nine commissioners during scheduled public Commission meetings. Eight of the commissioners are unsalaried and appointed by the Mayor, with the advice and consent of the City Council. Five of the commissioners – one seat for each borough—are recommended for appointment by a majority vote of the councilmembers within each borough. Commissioners serve a seven-year term; the agency's regulations are compiled in title 35 of the New York City Rules. The TLC chair, salaried heads the agency, which has a staff of about 600 employees.

The agency's divisions and bureaus include Uniformed Services, Legal, Public Affairs, Safety & Emissions, among others. The Uniformed Services Bureau has more than 200 inspectors; as the regulator, the TLC establishes the larger public transportation policy that governs taxi and for-hire transportation services in New York City. The agency's responsibilities include protecting public safety and consumer rights and regulating licenses and enforcing the fare rate in taxis, limiting taxi lease rates, overseeing the sale of taxi medallions; the TLC licenses about 170,000 unique professional drivers in New York City. It is common for TLC-licensed drivers to work for several companies, as well as in different industry segments; the agency licenses more than 100,000 vehicles, as well as over 1,000 for-hire vehicle bases, according to its 2016 annual report. The Uniformed Services Bureau includes the Vision Zero squad, which focuses on safety-related enforcement like moving violations, which include failing to yield to pedestrians and cell phone usage while driving.

Mayor Bill de Blasio's Vision Zero Action Plan is the City's initiative to end traffic fatalities, the TLC is one of the agencies involved, along with the NYC Department of Transportation and the NYPD. The TLC is testing new vehicle safety technologies in licensed vehicles as part of a safety pilot, which began in 2015, according to the agency's website. Technologies include electronic data recorders, speed governors, driver-alert systems; the pilot looks at how safety technologies affect driving behaviors, collision rates, the experience of drivers and passengers, the expenses of drivers. The city's goal is to have the Medallion Taxicab fleet reach 50% wheelchair-accessibility by 2020; the number of wheelchair-accessible taxis in New York City has tripled from 238 in 2013 to 850 taxicabs on the road in 2016. 300 new wheelchair-accessible medallion taxicabs went into service in the first six months of 2016, according to TLC data. Since September 2015, taxicab medallion owners may purchase the Taxi of Tomorrow, a TLC-approved wheelchair-accessible vehicle, or a hybrid vehicle.

The first Taxi of Tomorrow began providing service in October 2013. Its features include a large cabin, passenger charging stations and reading lights, independent passenger climate control, yellow seatbelt straps, handles to assist stepping in and out, a clear panoramic roof, sliding doors to prevent injuries from dooring; the NV200 taxicab is the first taxi vehicle to be equipped with Hearing Loop technology. TLC inspectors may seize vehicles suspected of operating as an illegal cab, DNAinfo reported in 2014 that the city Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings' Taxi and Limousine Tribunal dismissed 1442 of the 7187 accusations over 1.5 years. The TLC said in a statement that "while the vast majority of cases—more than 80%—are prosecuted as written, the fact that there are a certain number of cases that are dismissed means that the system works for everyone." Owners can't retrieve their impounded cars unless they plead guilty and pay a fine, or until their hearing before a city administrative judge.

In 2005, the TLC refused to allow alternative-fuel vehicles to be used as cabs, despite the New York City Council's vote to approve them. Cab operator Gene Freidman, who had purchased several hybrid vehicles after the council's ruling, sued the TLC in New York's Supreme Court; the City Council, "angered" by the TLC's defiance of its decision, passed a bill in June 2005 compelling the TLC to approve at least one alternative-fuel vehicle to be used as a taxicab. The TLC approved six hybrid models to be used as cabs. In April 2015, the TLC posted a notice in the City Record proposing the "Licensing of For-Hire Vehicle Dispatch Applications", requiring mobile app operators to apply for approval of certain changes to any app used to arrange vehicle rides for hire considered to be targeted at Uber, causing a controversy. In August 2018, the TLC stopped issuing new vehicle licenses for one year, in an attempt to "study the effects of ride-hail services in the city." Mayor John Lindsay created the TLC in 1971 to regulate the taxi and for-hire vehicle industries.

Before the creation of the agency, the NYPD's "Hack Bureau" regulated the taxicab industry, starting in 1925. The TLC has acted as a technical consultant for major TV shows and films that involved taxicab use, such as “Friends,” “Conspiracy Theory,” and the “Bone Collector.” The TLC has a Driver Safety Honor Roll, which recognizes the safest Taxi and For-Hire Vehicle drivers in New York City. Drivers on the Honor Roll have had no cr