click links in text for more info

Polisario Front

The Polisario Front, Frente Polisario, FRELISARIO or POLISARIO, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro, is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in the Western Sahara. It is an observer member of the Socialist International; the United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people and maintains that the Sahrawis have a right to self-determination. The Polisario Front is outlawed in the parts of Western Sahara under Moroccan control, it is illegal to raise its party flag there. In 1971 a group of young Moroccan students in the universities of Morocco began organizing what came to be known as The Embryonic Movement for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Rio de Oro. After attempting in vain to gain backing from several Arab governments, including both Algeria and Morocco, but only drawing faint notices of support from Libya and Mauritania, the movement relocated to Spanish-controlled Spanish Sahara to start an armed rebellion.

The Polisario Front was formally constituted on 10 May 1973 at Ain Bentili by several Sahrawi university students, survivors of the 1968 massacres at Zouerate and some Sahrawi men who had served in the Spanish Army. They called themselves the Constituent Congress of the Polisario Front, its first Secretary General was El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed. On 20 May, the new organization attacked El-Khanga, where there was a Spanish post manned by a team of Tropas Nomadas, overrun and rifles seized. Polisario gradually gained control over large swaths of desert countryside, its power grew from early 1975 when the Tropas Nomadas began deserting to the Polisario, bringing weapons and training with them. At this point, Polisario's manpower included 800 men and women, but they were suspected of being backed by a much larger network of supporters. A UN visiting mission, headed by Simeon Aké, conducted in June 1975 concluded that Sahrawi support for independence amounted to an "overwhelming consensus" and that the Polisario Front was the most powerful political force in the country.

With Algeria's help, Polisario set up headquarters in Tindouf. After Moroccan pressures through the Green March of 6 November and the Royal Moroccan Army's previous invasion of eastern Saguia el-Hamra of 31 October, Spain entered negotiations that led to the signing of the Madrid Accords between Spain and Mauritania. Upon Spain's withdrawal, in application of the Madrid Accords in 1976, Morocco took over Saguia El Hamra while Mauritania took control of Río de Oro; the Polisario Front proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic on 27 February 1976, waged a guerrilla war against both Morocco and Mauritania. The World Court at The Hague had issued its verdict on the former Spanish colony just weeks before, which each party interpreted as confirming its rights to the disputed territory; the Polisario kept up the guerrilla war while they had to help guard the columns of Sahrawi refugees fleeing, but after the air bombings by the Royal Moroccan Air Force on improvised Sahrawi refugee camps in Umm Dreiga, Guelta Zemmur and Amgala, the Front had to relocate the refugees to Tindouf.

For the next two years the movement grew tremendously as Sahrawi refugees continued flocking to the camps and Algeria and Libya supplied arms and funding. Within months, its army had expanded to several thousand armed fighters, camels were replaced by modern jeeps, 19th-century muskets were replaced by assault rifles; the reorganized army was able to inflict severe damage through guerrilla-style hit-and-run attacks against opposing forces in Western Sahara and in Morocco and Mauritania proper. A comprehensive peace treaty was signed on 5 August 1979, in which the new Mauritanian government recognized Sahrawi rights to Western Sahara and relinquished its own claims. Mauritania withdrew all its forces and would proceed to formally recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, causing a massive rupture in relations with Morocco. King Hassan II of Morocco claimed the area of Western Sahara evacuated by Mauritania, unilaterally annexed by Morocco in August 1979. From the mid-1980s Morocco managed to keep Polisario troops off by building a huge berm or sand wall, staffed by an army, enclosing within it the economically useful parts of Western Sahara This stalemated the war, with no side able to achieve decisive gains, but artillery strikes and sniping attacks by the Polisario continued, Morocco was economically and politically strained by the war.

Today Polisario controls the part of the Western Sahara on the east of the Moroccan Wall, comprising about a third of the territory, but this area is economically useless mined, uninhabited. A ceasefire between the Polisario Front and Morocco, monitored by MINURSO, has been in effect since 6 September 1991, on the promise of a referendum on independence the following year. However, the referendum stalled over disagreements on voter rights. Numerous attempts to restart the process (most the launching of the 2003 Baker Pl

James Libby Tryon

James Libby Tryon was a peace advocate and the director of admissions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was a member of the Massachusetts Peace Society which merged with other local chapters to become the American Peace Society in 1928. James Libby Tryon was born on November 21, 1864, in Boston, Massachusetts to Joseph A. Tryon and Ellen Bigelow Cummings, he attended Harvard University and graduated with degrees in law and divinity: A. B. Harvard, 1894. D. Episcopal Theological School, Massachusetts, 1897. L. B. Boston University, 1909, Ph. D. 1910. He was a reporter for the Portland Press, 1884, he was appointed deacon, 1896. 1897-1907. He served as a member of the International Peace Congress held in Munich in 1907, in London, 1908, in Geneva, 1912, in The Hague, 1913, he lectured on international arbitration at the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, Massachusetts from 1908 to 1911. He undertook a lecture tour of Canadian clubs and churches to promote the peace centennial during the spring of 1911.

He served as a member of the Massachusetts Prison Association, the American Society of International Law, the American Society for the Judicial Settlement of International Disputes, the American Political Science Association and the American Academy of Political and Social Science. He was the Director of Admissions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1930 to 1936. Tryon died on December 21, 1958 in Medford, Massachusetts at Lawrence Memorial Hospital of Medford; the Inter-parliamentary Union and its work A World Treaty of Arbitration A permanent court of international justice.


Kilikiti is one of several forms of the game of cricket. Originating in Samoa, it spread throughout Polynesia and can now be found around the world in areas with strong Polynesian populations; the game is the national sport of Samoa, is played in many other Pacific countries, including amongst the Pacific Islander diaspora in New Zealand. The ball is made of a hard rubber wrapped in pandanus. Players are not protected by any padding or masks, will wear only a lava-lava; the sennit-wrapped wooden bat is modeled on the three-sided Samoan war club called the "lapalapa," which are based on the stalk of coconut fronds. Bats can be over a meter long; the rules of kilikiti are flexible. Indeed, the majority of reports written on the game say that the rules can only be known by those playing. There is a batting team, a fielding team, a pitch; the bowl alternates between one at each end of the pitch. There is no limit to team size, teams are made up of whoever turns up regardless of gender or age. Tourist accounts mention that strangers are welcomed.

Players are all-rounders. A kilikiti game is a multi-day community event full of singing and feasting. Entire villages will compete and everyone will be involved, whether as player, cook, or spectator; the New Zealand Kilikiti Association is working to standardize the rules of kilikiti. In 1999 the NZKA started a national tournament, called the Supercific Kilikiti Tournament, in 2001 it introduced the international World Cup Kilikiti Tournament. Games have been cut to a television-friendly 70 minutes; the NZKA has added the scoring of 4s and 6s. Cricket in Oceania Trobriand cricket New Zealand Kilikiti Association Simon, Liza. "South Seas Cricket: The staid British sport gets a Polynesian makeover". Hana Hou. Archived from the original on 2005-03-26. Retrieved 2005-09-05. Leilua, Iulia. "Supercific Kilikiti Tournament". Archived from the original on 2006-05-17. Retrieved 2005-09-05. "Independent Samoa: Its Culture and Atmosphere". H2g2. BBC. Retrieved 2005-09-05. "Cricket – Pacific Style". Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.

Retrieved 2015-05-03


Sutatausa is a municipality and town of Colombia in the Ubaté Province, part of the department of Cundinamarca. The municipality is located on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense at a distance of 88 kilometres from the capital Bogotá and borders Ubaté in the north, Tausa in the south, Cucunubá in the east and Carmen de Carupa and Tausa in the west; the name Sutatausa comes from Chibcha and means "small tribute". The area of Sutatause before the Spanish conquest was inhabited by the Muisca, organised in their loose Muisca Confederation. Sutatausa was ruled by the zipa based in Bacatá. Modern Sutatausa was founded on June 24, 1537 by Hernán Pérez de Quesada, brother of conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, who on the same day founded Tenza. Main economical activities of Sutatausa are dairy farming and small-scale mining. Tourism is an important factor of income

Pabbi Tehsil

Pabbi is a tehsil located in Nowshera District, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The tehsil is named after the Pabbi town, located on the GT Road. Pabbi become tehsil in 2008, when NWFP caretaker chief minister Shamsul Mulk declared it a tehsil of Nowshera district; the head quarter of Pabbi tehsil is Pabbi town, located on Grand Trunk road. Pabbi tehsil covers the jurisdiction from Taro Jabba to Azakhel Cherat. Pabbi is 20 kilometers from the capital of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province. Pabbi is a birthplace of Gul Hassan Khan was a former lieutenant-general and the last Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army. Pabbi is hub of precast concrete industries located at main GT road in Chowki Mumraiz. There are 43 precast concrete industries are functional in Pabbi which supply different items to the entire Khyber Paktunkhwa and to some parts of the Punjab. Pabbi is a part of Pakistan National Assembly seat NA-5 while for KP Provincial Assembly it is part of PK-12 Nowshera-I; the population of Pabbi Tehsil, according to the 2017 census, is 437,301 while according to the 1998 census, it was 246,120.

The main towns of Pabbi Tehsil are Pabbi and Jelozai. The main villages in Pabbi are below. Pabbi teshil is home to many excellent educational institutes. Pabbi has a campus of Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan in Pabbi town while it has a campus of University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar in Jelozai town, it is home to 3 degree colleges: Government College Akbarpura, Government Degree College Pabbi and Government Girls Degree College Pabbi. Nowshera Tehsil Jehangira Tehsil Nowshera District

Jennie Formby

Jennifer "Jennie" Formby is a British trade unionist and politician. She is the current General Secretary of the Labour Party, having succeeded Iain McNicol in April 2018, she was political director and south-east England regional secretary for Unite the Union. Born Jennifer Sandle in London, her father served in the Royal Navy in Korea and Lebanon, she grew up with an older brother and sister in Malta and Salisbury. She went to Bath High School for Girls St Helen and St Katharine boarding school in Abingdon, paid for by the Royal Navy from the age of 14. Formby chose not to go to university. Formby became a trade unionist when she began her working life in Salisbury at the bookmakers William Hill in the late 1970s, became a branch secretary in Unite's predecessor, the Transport and General Workers' Union, she worked for BOC in Southampton, where she became a union shop steward. Formby became a Transport and General Workers' Union regional officer in 1988, she represented a Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust nurse in a ground-breaking employment tribunal case in 2004, where the black nurse suffered racial discrimination by being banned from caring for a white baby.

Formby became the union's national officer for the food and tobacco sector in 2004. In 2013, she was appointed Unite's political director. In March 2016, Formby moved to the post of regional secretary in south-east England. Since late 2011, Formby has been a member of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party, on which she was considered to represent the thinking of Unite general secretary Len McCluskey. In February 2018, Formby announced she was a candidate to become General Secretary of the Labour Party, shortly after the incumbent, Iain McNicol, resigned, her main rival, Jon Lansman, the chair of Momentum, dropped out of contention on 11 March, making Formby the frontrunner. On 20 March 2018, she was appointed to the role, effective from April 2018. Formby and Len McCluskey had a child in 1991, she married Freddie Formby in 2000 and the couple had two children together and adopted a third. In March 2019, Formby announced that she was to undergo treatment for breast cancer